How Might Tea Help Prevent Cancer
Among their many biological activities, the predominant polyphenols in green teaEGCG, EGC, ECG, and ECand the theaflavins and thearubigins in black teas have antioxidant activity . These chemicals, especially EGCG and ECG, have substantial free radical scavenging activity and may protect cells from DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species . Tea polyphenols have also been shown to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in laboratory and animal studies . In other laboratory and animal studies, tea catechins have been shown to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor cell invasiveness . In addition, tea polyphenols may protect against damage caused by ultraviolet B radiation , and they may modulateimmune system function . Furthermore, green teas have been shown to activate detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase, that may help protect against tumor development . Although many of the potential beneficial effects of tea have been attributed to the strong antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols, the precise mechanism by which tea might help prevent cancer has not been established .
Exercise And Lose Weight
Exercising and losing weight are some of the best things you can do to promote prostate health. Many studies show that moderate or vigorous exercise reduces risk of BPH and urinary tract symptoms and helps with prostatitis as well. Exercise also benefits your cardiovascular health and can help prevent other health and sexual problems such as erectile dysfunction.
If you are overweight, losing weight is one of the most important natural changes you can make in improving your prostate health, whether your concerns are cancer, BPH or prostatitis. A study published in the Journal of Urology found that overweight men, especially men with a high amount of abdominal fat, have an increased risk of BPH. If you are looking to shrink the prostate, losing weight can help you reduce your prostate size and help relieve annoying and frustrating urinary symptoms. On top of that, weight loss can reduce your risk for prostate cancer and help relieve prostatitis, too.
Green Tea Intake And Risk Of Pca
A total of 7 observational studies including 4 cohort studies and 3 casecontrol studies investigated the relevant risk of PCa with green tea intake. As shown in Fig. Fig.2,2, the overall pooled RR of the highest versus lowest category of green tea intake was 0.75 for all studies, 0.977 for cohort studies, and 0.453 for casecontrol studies. There was no statistical significance in the comparison of the highest versus lowest category. Because of the high heterogeneity , sensitivity analysis was performed. Most studies did not influence the result when excluded sequentially, except 1 casecontrol study conducted by Jian et al. After this study was excluded, the pooled RR for all studies changed to 0.92 with no heterogeneity and the RR for casecontrol studies became 0.623 . However, no statistical significance was found either.
Forest plot for the association of highest versus lowest category of green tea intake and PCa. The association was indicated as RR with the corresponding 95% CI. The RR estimate of each study is marked with a solid black square. The size of the square represents the weight that the corresponding study exerts in the meta-analysis. The CIs of pooled estimates are displayed as a horizontal line through the diamond. RR< 1 indicates decreased risk of PCa. CI=confidence interval, PCa=prostate cancer, RR=relative risk.
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Increase Your Vitamin D
Most people dont get enough vitamin D. It can help protect against prostate cancer and many other conditions. Vitamin D-rich foods include cod liver oil, wild salmon and dried shitake mushrooms. Since the sun is a better, more readily available source of vitamin D, many experts recommend getting 10 minutes of sun exposure every day. Doctors often recommend vitamin D supplements. However, you should talk to your doctor before taking any vitamin or supplement.
Green Tea And Cancer Prevention
Numerous animal and human cell studies suggest that green tea catechins may act as powerful inhibitors of cancer,17,18 particularly colon, rectal, and prostate cancers,19,20 as well as cancers of the lung, stomach, and kidney.21 Green tea catechins appear to be effective chemopreventive agents against a variety of carcinogens.
In addition to laboratory studies, population studies tracking the health of large groups of people who drink tea in abundance demonstrate the cancer-preventive benefits of green tea. Population studies have found reduced cancer rates in Asian countries where green tea is a dietary staple.22,23 In one Asian study, tea drinkers were about half as likely to develop stomach or esophageal cancer as men who drank little tea, even after adjusting for smoking and other health and dietary factors24 Japanese men, who commonly drink four to six cups of green tea daily, also have significantly lower rates of cancer incidence and mortality than Westerners.18,25
FACTS ABOUT TEA
It has long been noted that the lung cancer rate in Japan is one of the lowest in the world, despite that nations high rate of smoking. Data from a case-controlled study conducted in Okinawa, Japan, from 1988 to 1991 showed that the greater the intake of Okinawa tea , the smaller the risk of squamous cell lung cancer, particularly in women.26 These findings suggest that tea consumption has a protective effect against lung cancer in humans.
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Lycopene: Questions And Answers
Lycopene is a carotenoid . It mixes with or dissolves in fats. Lycopene protects plants from light-related stress and helps them use the energy of the sun to make nutrients. Lycopene is found in fruits and vegetables like tomatoes, apricots, guavas, and watermelons.
The main source of lycopene in the United States is tomato-based products. Lycopene is easier for the body to use when it is eaten in processed tomato products like tomato paste and tomato puree than in raw tomatoes.
Lycopene may be eaten in food or taken in dietary supplements.
For information on laboratory and animal studies done using lycopene, see the Laboratory/Animal/Preclinical Studies section of the health professional version of Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements.
Population studies and clinical trials have been done to find out if lycopene can prevent or treat prostate cancer. Clinical trials have shown mixed results some studies have shown a lower risk of prostate cancer or a decrease in prostate-specific antigen level, and others have not. There is not enough evidence to know whether lycopene can prevent or treat prostate cancer.
Population and combined studies
Clinical Trials With Green Tea
One recent phase II clinical trial explored the antineoplastic effects of green tea in patients with metastatic androgen-independent PCa . In this study, 48 patients were instructed to take 6 g of green tea/d orally in 6 divided doses. Patients were monitored monthly for response and toxicity. The study concludes that green tea carries limited antineoplastic activity among patients with androgen-independent PCa. It should be noted, however, that this study was conducted on patients with metastatic androgen-independent PCa and therefore, in principle, does not assess the chemopreventive effects of green tea. For an ideal study, a population with high risk for PCa development should be considered.
The targets by which green tea could afford prostate cancer chemopreventive effects are shown. EGCG, epigallocatechin-3-gallate MMP, matrix metalloproteinase VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.
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Is Green Tea Beneficial To Prostate Health
– November 04, 2020
There have been several news reports about the health benefits of green tea. Some tout it can help with weight loss and increase metabolism others suggest the beverage lowers cholesterol or improves heart health. But can green tea prevent or slow the progression of prostate cancer? Moffitt Cancer Center researchers are hoping to provide an answer to that question.
Funded by the National Cancer Institute, Dr. Nagi Kumar, senior member of the Cancer Epidemiology Program and Department of Genitourinary Oncology, in collaboration with Dr. Julio Pow-Sang, chair of the Department of Genitourinary Oncology and a team of interdisciplinary faculty have launched a phase 2 clinical trial investigating whether substances found in green tea can slow or halt progression of prostate cancer in men with low-grade disease who are under active surveillance.
Studies over the past decade have shown that not all men diagnosed with prostate cancer, especially those men diagnosed with low grade disease, require treatment, including prostatectomy – surgery to remove the prostate. Active surveillance has evolved as a recommended management strategy for men with low grade prostate cancer, providing the benefit of an individualized approach of carefully monitoring disease progression, said Pow-Sang.
For more information about the clinical trial, please call 813-745-6885.
Egcg Targets The Androgen Receptor And Decreases Psa
Another important target of androgen signaling, relative to prostate carcinogenesis is 5 -reductase that is responsible for the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone . There are two isozymes of 5-reductase , that are encoded by separate genes and have different biochemical and pharmacological properties. In addition, this enzyme is expressed at different levels in prostate tissue vs. non-prostate tissue . Both testosterone and DHT are ligands for the androgen receptor, however, DHT has a 45 fold higher affinity when compared to testosterone. In a cell free biochemical based assay ECG and EGCG were found to inhibit the type I human isozyme with an IC50 of 12 M and 15 M, respectively, however, these effects were not observed in a whole cell based assay . Structure activity relationship studies of the green tea catechins have suggested that the gallyl or galloyl group may interact with a specific site on 5-reductase .
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Purpose Of This Summary
This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the use of nutrition and dietary supplements for reducing the risk of developing prostate cancer or for treating prostate cancer. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care.
Component In Green Tea May Help Reduce Prostate Cancer In Men At High Risk
- H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute
- Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer in men and is predicted to result in an estimated 220,000 cases in the United States in 2015. A team of researchers recently published results of a randomized trial that assessed the safety and effectiveness of the active components in green tea to prevent prostate cancer development in men who have premalignant lesions.
Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer in men and is predicted to result in an estimated 220,000 cases in the United States in 2015. In recent years, an emphasis has been placed on chemoprevention — the use of agents to prevent the development or progression of prostate cancer. A team of researchers led by Nagi B. Kumar, Ph.D., R.D., F.A.D.A. at Moffitt Cancer Center recently published results of a randomized trial that assessed the safety and effectiveness of the active components in green tea to prevent prostate cancer development in men who have premalignant lesions.
Twenty percent of green tea is consumed in Asian countries where prostate cancer death rates are among the lowest in the world and the risk of prostate cancer appears to be increased among Asian men who abandon their original dietary habits upon migrating to the U.S.
The Moffitt researchers observed a significant increase in the levels of EGCG in the blood plasma of men on Polyphenon E, and the capsules at this dose were tolerated in this group of men.
Characteristics Of Included Studies
Using database search strategy, a total of 1474 records were retrieved from Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Sciencedirect Online. After reviewing the titles and abstracts, 1447 articles were excluded and 27 articles were further assessed by reviewing the full-text. Finally, 10 articles about the relationship between green tea and PCa risk were included, consisting of 4 cohort studies, 3 casecontrol studies, and 3 RCTs.Figure Figure11 shows the search process. The observational studies which investigated the association between green tea intake and PCa risk included 1435 cases among 96,332 individuals and the 3 RCTs studied the relationship between EGCG and PCa incidence included 87 volunteers in EGCG arms of 179 individuals. Most of the included studies were performed in Asia including 1 from Singapore, 4 from Japan, and 1 from China. The rest studies were from other regions including 2 from Europe, 1 from North America, and 1 from Africa.Tables Tables11 and and22 described details of the included studies.
Flowchart of literate searches.
Prostate Cancer Nutrition And Dietary Supplements Patient Version
On This Page
In the United States, about 1 out of every 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer. It is the most second-most common cancer in men in the United States. CAM use among men with prostate cancer is common. Studies of why men with prostate cancer decide to use CAM show that their choice is based on medical history, beliefs about the safety and side effects of CAM compared to standard treatments, and a need to feel in control of their treatment.
Different types of research have been done to study the use of CAM in prostate cancer. These study types include the following:
CAM treatments have been studied to see if their use lowers the risk of prostate cancer, kills prostate cancer cells, or lowers the risk that cancer will come back after treatment. Most of these studies used prostate-specific antigen levels to find out whether the treatment worked. This is a weaker measure of how well the treatment works than direct measures, such as fewer new cases of prostate cancer, or smaller tumor size or lower rate of recurrence after treatment for prostate cancer.
This PDQ summary has sections about the use of specific foods and dietary supplements to prevent or treat prostate cancer:
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Egcg Induces Apoptosis And Cell Cycle Arrest
EGCG is the most abundant and most studied catechin and has significant growth inhibitory properties in prostate cancer cells with an observed IC50 from 40 M to 80 M. This inhibition is dependent on the length of exposure as well as the cell line that was used . More importantly when a primary cell line such as normal epithelial cells are treated with EGCG there is no observable toxicity at doses that are used for cancer inhibition studies . A collection of reviews have commented on the possible mechanistic effects of EGCG in multiple cell lines and have primarily noted a similar collection of effects in regard to growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest .
The mitochondria is the central regulator of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and that is accompanied by the release of procaspases, cytochrome c, apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 , endonuclease G and apoptosis-inducing factor . In LNCap and DU145 prostate cancer cells EGCG was found to promote apoptosis as evidenced by DNA fragmentation at 40 g/ml and 80 g/ml . Confocal microscopy as well as flow cytometric analysis found a linear dose relationship of EGCG treatment in the androgen insensitive DU145 cells
Vitamin E: Questions And Answers
In This Section
- Vitamin E and selenium.
- Two placebos.
SELECT results published in 2011 showed that men taking vitamin E alone had a 17% increase in prostate cancer risk compared with men who did not take vitamin E.
Several factors may have affected study results, including the dose of vitamin E.
- In the Physicians Health Study II, men took either vitamin E supplements, vitamin C supplements, or both and were followed for about 8 years. The overall rates of prostate cancer were similar in the men who took vitamin E supplements and in those who did not. Vitamin E did not affect the number of new cases of cancer or the number of deaths from cancer.
- A 2011 study of men who took part in The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial found that, among those who were current smokers, higher blood levels of alpha-tocopherols and gamma-tocopherols were linked with lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer. In another study of men who were current smokers or who recently stopped smoking, higher blood levels of alpha-tocopherol were linked to a lower risk of prostate cancer.
In the Physicians Health Study II and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group, there was a higher number of strokes caused by a broken blood vessel in the brain in men who took vitamin E than in men who took a placebo.
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Vitamin D: Questions And Answers
In This Section
A persons vitamin D level is checked by measuring the amount of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the blood.
Vitamin D is made by the body when exposed to sunlight. Vitamin D may also be eaten in food or taken in dietary supplements.
For information on laboratory and animal studies done using vitamin D, see the Laboratory/Animal/Preclinical Studies section of the health professional version of Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements.
Population studies and clinical trials have been done to study the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer. The results of these studies have been mixed. Some studies have shown a link between Vitamin D levels and prostate cancer, and others have not. There is not enough evidence to know whether vitamin D can prevent prostate cancer.