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How To Tell Prostate Cancer

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Psa Screening Blood Test

How to Know If Cancer Has Spread | Prostate Cancer

A Prostate-specific antigen is made by the cells of the prostate gland. PSA testing is a common method; to test for prostate cancer. PSA is found in semen, with a small amount in the blood. Men without prostate cancer often have PSA levels under 4 nanograms per milliliter of blood. Elevated PSA level increases the likelihood of having prostate cancer .

The American Cancer Society reports that men with a total PSA level of between 4 and 10 have roughly a 1 in 4 chance of having prostate cancer. With a total PSA of over 10, the chance of having prostate cancer rises to over 50%. Following the PSA test, if the levels are high, a doctor may suggest a repeat screening test or a prostate biopsy.

In addition to prostate cancer, there are many other factors that can affect a mans PSA levels.

Reasons for a High PSA:

Reasons for a Low PSA:

Screenings Can Lead To High Costs

The cost for a PSA test is fairly lowabout $40.

If your result is abnormal, the costs start adding up. Your doctor will usually refer you to a urologist for a biopsy. Costs may include:

  • A consultation fee .
  • An ultrasound fee .
  • Additional professional fees .
  • Biopsy fees .

If the biopsy causes problems, there are more costs. You might also have hospital costs.

Prostate Cancer: Psa Tests And Diagnosis

Though most cases of prostate cancer have a good prognosis, the disease is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .

As with other cancers, early detection and treatment may be important for surviving prostate cancer, at least for advanced forms of the disease.

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What Is Prostate Cancer Recurrence

Prostate cancer recurrence is the return of cancer after treatment and a period when no cancer activity could be detected. Local therapies with radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy are the two main ways to eliminate localized prostate cancer.

Both options are definitive treatments because they can cure prostate cancer altogether. However, local treatments are ineffective if cancer has spread outside the prostate gland. Here, other types of treatment are needed to target cancer cells located in other parts of the body.

Cancer cells remain after curative treatments because of positive surgical margins or metastasis if the disease is more advanced than initially thought. Prostate cancer cells can start to grow again from these sites.

Treatment relapse increases the possibility of developing advanced incurable disease that needs complex treatment decisions to manage. However, current clinical methods for treating recurred prostate cancer can result in both over-treatment and under-treatment due to a lack of adequate biomarkers to predict response.;

Part 1 Of 2: Deciding If You Need A Prostate Screening

How to know if you are suffering from prostate cancer?
  • 1Determine the necessity of a screening based on your age. The American Cancer Society suggests a yearly prostate screening for all men age 50 and over. However, select circumstances may warrant screenings beginning at an earlier age. These include:XTrustworthy SourceAmerican Cancer SocietyNonprofit devoted to promoting cancer research, education, and supportGo to source
  • Age 40 for men with more than one first-degree relative who had prostate cancer before age 65.
  • Age 45 for men with a single first-degree relative who had prostate cancer before age 65.
  • Age 45 for African American men due to carrying a higher risk of prostate cancer.
  • 2Note any symptoms associated with your urinary system. Problems associated with your bladder, urethra, and penis can all potentially have ties to prostate problems.XExpert SourceRobert Dhir, MDBoard Certified Urologist & Urological SurgeonExpert Interview. 23 September 2020. Due to the proximity of the prostate to these systems it can grow and press against them causing dysfunction. With prostate issues you may experience the following:XResearch sourceBickley, Lynn S. Techniques of Examination. Chapter 15 The anus, rectum and prostate. Bates Pocket Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. sixth edition. P 262-264. © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health- Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Slow or weak urine streams
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Lower back pain
  • A biopsy may also be necessary to confirm or rule out cancer.
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    Recurrent Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Prostate cancer that returns after treatment is considered recurrent. When it returns to the area around the prostate, the disease is classified as a local recurrence. If the cancer is found in another part of the body, the recurrent cancer is considered metastatic. If the cancer metastasizes outside the prostate, it most likely develops in bones first. Metastatic prostate cancer most often spreads to the liver, bones and lungs.

    After initial treatment for prostate cancer, PSA levels are expected to drop dramatically. The first sign of recurrent prostate cancer may be a rise in the PSA level. Other symptoms of recurrent cancer may depend on whether and where the cancer has spread. Symptoms include:

    • Blood in the urine
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Jaundice

    Patients should discuss any symptoms with their doctor and ask about scheduling regular PSA tests after treatment.

    Favorite Apps Products And Gadgets

    With a simple tap, youll receive information about personalized prostate cancer treatment options to help manage your care. This free app includes questions to ask your doc, calendars to keep track of your appointments, and videos that highlight helpful resources. Downloading it is a great way to stay on top of your cancer!

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    Part 2 Of 2: Checking Your Prostate

  • 1Robert Dhir, MDBoard Certified Urologist & Urological SurgeonExpert Interview. 23 September 2020. Though it may seem relatively simple to perform, prostate exams require proper technique and the ability to understand what you are feeling for.
  • Possible complications include bleeding due to nail punctures of cysts or other masses. This can lead to infection or other complications, which you cannot handle at home and would require a trip to your doctor regardless.
  • In addition, if your self exam is abnormal and you seek advice from your doctor, he will most likely repeat the exam to confirm the results anyway.
  • 2Assume the correct position. Performed at your doctors office, your doctor would position you either lying down on your side with your knees up or standing leaning forward with your hips flexed. This gives the doctor easier access to your rectum and prostate.XResearch sourceBickley, Lynn S. Techniques of Examination. Chapter 15 The anus, rectum and prostate. Bates Pocket Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. sixth edition. P 262-264. © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health- Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • 4Put on a sterile glove. You or your partner should put on a sterile latex glove to perform the DRE. Ensure that you wash your hands before touching the glove to put it on. You will only use your index finger for the exam, but you should still wear gloves.
  • Use gentle pressure.
  • Factors With Less Clear Effects On Prostate Cancer Risk

    How Can I Tell If My Prostate Cancer Is Curable?

    Diet

    The exact role of diet in prostate cancer isnt clear, but several factors are studied. Men who eat tons of dairy products appear to possess a rather higher chance of getting prostate cancer.

    Some studies have suggested that men who consume tons of calcium may have a better risk of developing prostate cancer. But most studies havent found such a link with the amount of calcium found within the average diet, and its important to notice that calcium is understood to possess other important health benefits.

    Obesity

    Being obese doesnt seem to extend the general risk of getting prostate cancer. Some studies have found that obese men have a lower risk of getting a low-grade sort of the disease, but a better risk of getting more aggressive prostate cancer. The reasons for this arent clear.

    Some studies have also found that obese men could also be at greater risk for having more advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma and of dying from prostate cancer, but not all studies have found this.

    Smoking

    Most studies havent found a link between smoking and getting prostate cancer. Some research has linked smoking to a possible small increased risk of dying from prostate cancer, but this finding must be confirmed by other studies.

    Chemical exposures

    There is some evidence that firefighters are often exposed to chemicals which will increase their risk of prostate cancer.

    Inflammation of the prostate

    Sexually transmitted infections

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    Can Prostate Cancer Be Prevented Or Avoided

    Some risk factors, such as family history and hormone levels, cant be prevented. However, your weight, physical activity, and diet may lower your risk for prostate cancer. Work toward a healthy lifestyle by eating the recommended daily amount of fruits and vegetables, exercising, and maintaining a healthy weight .

    First What Is Prostate Cancer

    Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate â a small walnut-shaped gland in men. This is the gland that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Thankfully some prostate cancers are slow growing, without causing serious harm. However, others are aggressive, so for both scenarios, identifying the cancer earlier is key.

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    What Is The Life Expectancy Of Someone With Prostate Cancer

    The life expectancy of someone with prostate cancer varies depending on the severity of a persons diagnosis, what stage they are at and how well they respond to treatment.

    The five-year survival rate for early-stage patients is 98%. For late stages, it falls to about 16%.

    It has been estimated that 85% of all men who die from prostate cancer have metastatic disease which means their mortality risk is linked primarily to the aggressiveness rather than location or grade of the tumour.

    Prostate cancer can spread throughout the body by bone, lymph nodes, lungs/liver, the brain via blood vessels; in addition, entire parts of some organs like testicles may be removed during surgery leaving nothing but scar tissue behind.

    How To Check Your Prostate

    How to tell if your husband is at risk for prostate cancer

    This article was co-authored by Robert Dhir, MD. Dr. Robert Dhir is a board certified Urologist, Urological Surgeon, and the Founder of HTX Urology in Houston, Texas. With over 10 years of experience, Dr. Dhirs expertise includes minimally-invasive treatments for enlarged prostate , kidney stone disease, surgical management of urological cancers, and mens health . His practice has been named a Center of Excellence for the UroLift procedure, and is a pioneer in non-surgical procedures for ED using his patented Wave Therapy. He earned his undergraduate and medical degrees from Georgetown University and was awarded honors in pre-medical studies, urology, orthopedics, and ophthalmology. Dr. Dhir served as chief resident during his urological surgical residency at University of Texas at Houston / MD Anderson Cancer Center in addition to completing his internship in general surgery. Dr. Dhir was voted Top Doctor in Urology for 2018 to 2019, one of the top three Best Rated Urologists in 2019 & 2020 for Houston Texas, and Texas Monthly has named him to the 2019 & 2020 Texas Super Doctors Rising Stars list.wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article has 11 testimonials from our readers, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 1,025,150 times.

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    Favorite Online Support Networks And Advocacy

    PHEN is an organization geared toward African-American men a group that has the nations highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. It offers support groups, survivor networks, and a monthly newsletter that features new treatments and clinical trials. Their annual Fathers Day Rally event takes place at churches nationwide.

    What Can Be Done

    If your prostate cancer has recurred, your doctor will likely order some imaging tests to better determine where in your body the cancer has returned. Bone scans, CT scans, and MRIs are the most common tests ordered to find where in the body prostate cancer has recurred.

    Many treatment options are available for prostate cancer that has returned. The one that you and your physician choose depends on individual factors such as what treatment you have already received, where in the body your prostate cancer has returned, how your cancer has spread, your general health, and your age.

    If your prostate cancer is thought to have recurred in only a small area and has not spread to other areas of the body, then radiation therapy to that area may be an option.

    If your prostate cancer has most likely spread to multiple areas of the body, then hormonal therapy would likely be an option. Chemotherapy can also be used when the cancer has spread to multiple sites.

    • Geller J. Basis for Hormonal Management of Advanced Prostate Cancer. Cancer. 1993 Feb 1;71:1039-45.

    • Kupelian PA, Buchsbaum JC, Elshaikh M, et al. Factors Affecting Recurrence Rates After Prostatectomy or Radiotherapy in Localized Prostate Carcinoma Patients With Biopsy Gleason Score 8 or Above. Cancer. 2002 Dec 1;95:2302-7.

    • Vickers AJ, Bianco FJ Jr, Boorjian S, et al. Does a Delay Between Diagnosis and Radical Prostatectomy Increase the Risk of Disease Recurrence? Cancer. 2006 Feb 1;106:576-80.

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    There Are Risks To Getting Prostate Cancer Tests And Treatments

    If your PSA is not normal, you will probably have a biopsy. The doctor puts a needle through the wall of the rectum and into the prostate to take a few samples. Biopsies can be painful and cause bleeding. Men can get serious infections from biopsies, and they may need hospital care.

    Surgery or radiation are the usual treatments for prostate cancer. They can do more harm than good. Treatment can cause serious complications, such as heart attacks, blood clots in the legs or lungs, or even death. In addition, 40 men out of 1,000 will become impotent or incontinent from treatment.

    Signs Of Prostate Cancer

    How do you know if you have prostate cancer?

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men. Here are some symptoms to look out for:

    • feeling a need to urinate frequently or urgently and being unable to control it
    • needing to go more often than usual but not producing much urine upon release
    • having a weak or interrupted flow of urine when at rest
    • coughing up blood in your semen or ejaculate *

    If you have any of these symptoms consult a urologist without delay! The earlier you catch this disease, the better chance there is of fully recovering.

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    How Do You Know If You Have Prostate Cancer

    Theres no way of knowing if you have prostate cancer without visiting your doctor, as most men with early prostate cancer dont have any symptoms. And if you do have symptoms they can be caused by other things.

    And you cant check for prostate cancer yourself.

    You may want to speak to your GP if you’re;over 50;, even if you don’t have any symptoms. These are all things that can increase your;risk of prostate cancer. Your GP can give more information or tests if necessary.

    If youre not sure about what to say to your GP, print and fill out this;form;and show it to them. This will help you have the conversation.

    I thought I could be at risk after learning that African Caribbean men are more likely to get prostate cancer than white men.

    What Is The Controversy Surrounding Psa Screening

    In recent years, there has been some controversy surrounding the PSA test. In 2012, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force assigned the PSA test a D rating. This meant that the USPSTF concluded the harms that resulted from PSA testing, such as unnecessary biopsies and negative treatment side effects, outweighed the benefits of finding and managing the disease early. This recommendation did not include exceptions for men at increased risk of developing the disease, such as African American men, those with a family history of the disease, and those with BRCA gene mutations. The USPSTF recommendation is important as it guides primary care physicians in preventive care and can impact insurance coverage and reimbursement for screening. Prior to its D rating, the PSA test had an I rating, meaning the USPSTF concluded there was insufficient evidence to assess the pros and cons of testing.;

    In May 2018, the USPSTF updated their recommendation on PSA screening. In response to new research demonstrating the benefits of PSA screening , an increase in the number of men choosing active surveillance, and advocacy efforts, the USPSTF released a draft;recommendation in April 2017 that assigns the PSA test a C rating for men ages 55to 69 . This rating has now been certified official by the task force.

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    What Is Prostate Cancer

    Cancer can start any place in the body. Prostate cancer starts in the prostate gland. It starts when cells in the prostate grow out of control.

    Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body. Cancer cells in the prostate can sometimes travel to the bones or other organs and grow there. When cancer cells do this, its called metastasis. To doctors, the cancer cells in the new place look just like the ones from the prostate.

    Cancer is always named for the place where it starts. So when prostate cancer spreads to the bones , its still called prostate cancer. Its not called bone cancer unless it starts from cells in the bone.

    Ask your doctor to use this picture to show you where your cancer is.

    The prostate

    The prostate is a gland found only in men, so only men can get prostate cancer.

    The prostate is just below the bladder and in front of the rectum . The tube that carries pee goes through the prostate. The prostate makes some of the fluid that helps keep the sperm alive and healthy.

    There are a few types of prostate cancer. Some are very rare. Most prostate cancers are a type called adenocarcinoma. This cancer starts from gland cells. Your doctor can tell you more about the type you have.

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