Tuesday, November 29, 2022

What’s The Function Of The Prostate

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Urinary Tract Infections In Men: Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

What are PSA numbers, and how accurate an indicator are they

Nonbacteria microbes may cause a different type of chronic prostatitis, known as chronic pelvic pain syndrome, which may also develop as a result of chemicals in the urine, a urinary tract infection, or pelvic nerve damage.

Affecting 10 to 15 percent of the U.S. male population, chronic pelvic pain syndrome is the most common type of prostatitis, but also the least understood.

Symptoms vary depending on the type of prostatitis, but can include urination problems, pain , fever, and body aches, among other things.

Some people develop asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in which the prostate is inflamed but doesnt produce any symptoms or require treatment.

Bacterial prostatitis is most often treated with antibiotics. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome may require drugs, surgery, and lifestyle changes.

Over time, prostatitis may cause sexual dysfunction, abscesses in the prostate, inflammation of nearby reproductive organs, and infection of the bloodstream.

Prostate Cancer: Risk Factors Symptoms And Treatment

Aside from prostatitis and BPH, another common prostate issue is prostate cancer.

Excluding skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer among American men, according to the American Cancer Society. About 1 in 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime.

The risk of developing prostate cancer is higher for men who are over age 65, are African-American, or have a family history of the disease.

Most often, prostate cancer develops slowly, but some men develop an aggressive form of the disease.

Early prostate cancer generally doesn’t cause any symptoms. Symptoms generally develop as the disease progresses and include:

  • Urination issues
  • Bone pain
  • Numbness of the legs and feet
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control

Closing The Urethra During Ejaculation

During ejaculation, the prostate contracts and squirts prostatic fluid into the urethra. Here, it mixes with sperm cells and fluid from the seminal vesicles to create semen, which the body then expels.

When the prostate contracts during ejaculation, it closes off the opening between the bladder and urethra, pushing semen through at speed. This is why, in normal anatomic situations, it is impossible to urinate and ejaculate simultaneously.

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Clinical Relevance Prostatic Carcinoma

Prostatic carcinoma represents the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men, especially in countries with high sociodemographic index. The malignant cells commonly originate from the peripheral zone, although carcinomas may arise from the central and transition zones too. It is still debatable that the latter tumors may present with lower malignant potential.

However the proximity of the peripheral zone to the neurovascular bundle that surrounds the prostate may facilitate spread along perineural and lymphatic pathways, thus increasing the metastatic potential of these tumors. Malignant cells may invade adjacent structures and/ or lymphatic and blood vessel routes to give distant metastases. Prostate carcinoma also commonly spreads via the Batson venous plexus to the vertebral bodies and cause skeletal metastases.

A DRE may reveal a hard, irregular prostate gland. In most cases the serum PSA values will be increased. However, due to the peripherally-advancing tumor, symptoms may be minimal, as obstruction occurs usually at late stages. One should also keep in mind that the high incidence of prostate carcinoma is found in elderly men, who may already have symptoms due to BPH.

Fig 4 Prostate cancer has the potential to invade nearby structures.

What Causes Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Understanding Enlarged Prostate Glands

The cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia is not well understood however, it occurs mainly in older men. Benign prostatic hyperplasia does not develop in men whose testicles were removed before puberty. For this reason, some researchers believe factors related to aging and the testicles may cause benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Throughout their lives, men produce testosterone, a male hormone, and small amounts of estrogen, a female hormone. As men age, the amount of active testosterone in their blood decreases, which leaves a higher proportion of estrogen. Scientific studies have suggested that benign prostatic hyperplasia may occur because the higher proportion of estrogen within the prostate increases the activity of substances that promote prostate cell growth.

Another theory focuses on dihydrotestosterone , a male hormone that plays a role in prostate development and growth. Some research has indicated that even with a drop in blood testosterone levels, older men continue to produce and accumulate high levels of DHT in the prostate. This accumulation of DHT may encourage prostate cells to continue to grow. Scientists have noted that men who do not produce DHT do not develop benign prostatic hyperplasia.

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Learn The Function And Location Of The Prostate

The prostate is a gland found only in men. Understanding the location and function of the prostate is key to explaining symptoms of prostate cancer and other non-cancerous conditions that can effect the prostate function. The prostate is located just beneath the bladder, between the penis and rectum, The urethra tube runs out of the bladder, through the center of the prostate, then to the penis, providing the path for urination. In aid of reproduction, prostate muscles help to expel sperm from the body while secreting seminal fluids that protect and nourish the sperm. Incontinence or sexual dysfunction can sometimes be caused by prostate cancer and even treatment for prostate cancer.

The prostate cells produce an enzyme named Prostate Specific Antigen or PSA, found in a man’s blood. PSA is produced exclusively by prostate cells. Elevated levels of the PSA enzyme can be helpful in diagnosing issues with the prostate, like cancer or infection. These elevated levels of PSA can be detected with a simple blood test. For more information, visit our page on PSA.

The prostate cells produce an enzyme named Prostate Specific Antigen or PSA, found in a man’s blood. PSA is produced exclusively by prostate cells. Elevated levels of the PSA enzyme can be helpful in diagnosing issues with the prostate, like cancer or infection. These elevated levels of PSA can be detected with a simple blood test. For more information, visit our page on PSA.

Prostate Cancer And Sexual Health

A prostate cancer diagnosis can leave you feeling anxious, frustrated, and depressed.

It may also leave you wondering about your ability to have sex. You may also be questioning how prostate cancer treatment can affect your sex life.

Prostate cancer rarely causes problems with sex, but the treatments for prostate cancer often affect penile function and reproduction.

Prostate surgery and radiation are the two most common treatments for prostate cancer. Both of these can affect the nerves in your penis and could cause sexual problems like erectile dysfunction .

Cryotherapy and ultrasound therapy can also cause ED. Your doctor may recommend hormone therapy or radiation therapy, as well. This therapy can lower your sex drive.

Radical prostatectomy is the most effective nerve-sparing surgery for prostate cancer. It can substantially limit the duration of post-surgical ED but requires a surgeon to be highly skilled and trained in the process.

In this type of procedure, the surgeon takes care not to damage the erectile nerves that surround the prostate as it is removed.

However, if cancer has infiltrated these nerves, it may not be possible to save them.

Preventing injury to these nerves dramatically improves the chances of a man recovering erectile function within two years of the surgery.

In addition to ED, you may also find that your orgasms are different after undergoing treatment for prostate cancer.

They may not feel as strong, and you will not see as much ejaculate.

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How Is It Made

The prostate has a variety of areas. The peripheral zone and the prostates central zone are two significant areas, and they are filled with secretory cells.

Studies show that each region has a role in creating a specific set of enzymes. They all produce the same fluid, but it has slightly more proteolytic enzymes in the central zone.

The secretory cells responsible for the production of prostate fluid are arranged in groups by type. They create prostatic fluid components and store them in tiny granules.

The granules contain PSA, acid phosphatase, and many other substances, and they are gradually released to the acini whenever needed.

What Does The Prostate Gland Do And Why Is It Important

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The prostate is responsible for producing prostatic fluid, which is full of enzymes, proteins, and minerals that are vital for the proper functioning of sperm.

During climax, smooth muscle fibers of the stroma contract, forcing the prostatic fluid through the ejaculatory ducts and into the urethra.

In the urethra, the prostatic fluid mixes with fluid from the seminal vesicle, sperm from the testes, and secretions from the bulbourethral gland, a pea-sized gland below the prostate.

In all, prostatic fluid makes up 20 to 30 percent of semen .

Aside from producing prostatic fluid, the prostate is responsible for closing up the urethra during ejaculation so that semen doesn’t enter the bladder. During urination, the muscles of the central zone close the prostate’s seminal ducts so that urine cannot enter the prostate.

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Prostate Cancer Diagnoses And Treatment

All cancer is complex, but prostate cancer testing and treatment is particularly complicated.

In some men with prostate cancer, the cancer will grow very slowly, and wont significantly affect them during their lifetime. Other mens prostate cancer can grow and spread very quickly. At the moment, there is no test that can tell what type of prostate cancer a man has when he is diagnosed.

Because some treatments for prostate cancer can cause side effects which might impact on quality of life, its important for men to discuss with their doctor all their options for testing and treatment, and to discuss these with their partners and families. These might include watchful waiting, which means waiting to see what the cancer does over time, radiation, surgery or taking medications.

You can read more about what kinds of questions to ask your doctors about prostate cancer testing and treatment on the Cancer Council website.

Prostate Volume And Bph Prevalence: Comparison To Industrial Populations

Compared to TRUS from multiple industrial populations including 1,240 Caucasian German men , 3,924 Caucasian Dutch men , 472 Caucasian Scottish men , and 631 Caucasian U.S. men , the Tsimane have significantly smaller prostate volumes controlling for age and height, and a shallower rate of change with age controlling for height .

The overall age standardized prevalence of BPH among men age 40 80 was 28.4% compared to 60.8% of U.S. men of the same age . For Tsimane men aged 60 80, an age standardized 31.7% presented with BPH, compared with 76.0% of U.S. men aged 60 80 . Only 0.56% of this sample achieved prostate volumes greater than 40 cc compared to approximately 20% of U.S. males .

Tsimane Prevalence of BPH by Age and U.S. Prevalence of Histologic BPH from Berry et al.

Tsimane .

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How Is The Prostate Involved In Reproduction

The prostatic fluid accounts for 20 to 30 percent of the volume of seminal fluid .

As mentioned before, this fluid contains enzymes, proteins, and minerals that protect and nourish sperm and are necessary for the proper functioning of sperm cells.

What’s more, research, such as one paper published in July 2015 in the journal PloS One, has suggested the alkalinity of the fluid helps ensure the viability of sperm in reproduction.

Other Names For Prostate Orgasm

Sexual life after prostate removal

The prostate is sometimes called the male g-spot, or the p-spot, a reference to the area inside the vagina, called the g-spot, that may lead to orgasm.

Some people use the phrase âprostate milkingâ instead of prostate massage.

âProstate massage,â âprostate orgasm,â and âprostate milkingâ are often used interchangeably. However, some use âprostate milkingâ to describe only orgasms from internal, rather than perineal, massage.

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Can You Live Without A Prostate

You can live without a prostate, though there are some side-effects.

The prostate is removed to prevent the spread of prostate cancer, while it might also be removed because it has enlarged through normal ageing and is putting pressure on the uretha .

A prostatectomy is the removal of all or part of a prostate, with the most common procedure being the transurethral resection of the prostate .

Laser prostatectomies are also performed which is the least invasive type of removal.

Personal And Family Medical History

Taking a personal and family medical history is one of the first things a health care provider may do to help diagnose benign prostatic hyperplasia. A health care provider may ask a man

  • what symptoms are present
  • when the symptoms began and how often they occur
  • whether he has a history of recurrent UTIs
  • what medications he takes, both prescription and over the counter
  • how much liquid he typically drinks each day
  • whether he consumes caffeine and alcohol
  • about his general medical history, including any significant illnesses or surgeries

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What Are The Symptoms Of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia may include

  • urinary frequencyurination eight or more times a day
  • urinary urgencythe inability to delay urination
  • trouble starting a urine stream
  • a weak or an interrupted urine stream
  • dribbling at the end of urination
  • nocturiafrequent urination during periods of sleep
  • urinary incontinencethe accidental loss of urine
  • pain after ejaculation or during urination
  • urine that has an unusual color or smell

Symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia most often come from

  • a blocked urethra
  • a bladder that is overworked from trying to pass urine through the blockage

The size of the prostate does not always determine the severity of the blockage or symptoms. Some men with greatly enlarged prostates have little blockage and few symptoms, while other men who have minimally enlarged prostates have greater blockage and more symptoms. Less than half of all men with benign prostatic hyperplasia have lower urinary tract symptoms.3

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Other important components of prostatic fluid include an enzyme called prostatic acid phosphatase, citric acid, zinc, spermine and prostatic inhibin .

During an orgasm, prostate muscles squeeze the glands stored fluid into the urethra, where it mixes with the sperm cells and other semen components.

This expulsive process also helps propel the semen out of the body during ejaculation.

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What Is Prostatic Fluid

Prostatic fluid naturally comes from the prostate gland. It is an integral part of sperm and makes up a large portion of sperm volume.

Its a fluid that contains several enzymes, and they are important for healthy ejaculation. It is an anti-clotting mechanism we have to make sperm more fluid. Moreover, it also works inside the vagina helping sperm cells go through the cervical mucus.

This prostatic fluid contains three main proteins. They are acid phosphatase, the prostate-specific antigen , and others. For example, prostatic growth factors, cytokines, and a myriad of minor substances.

Screening Over The Age Of 50 Is Also Important Without Symptoms

Between the ages of 50 and 60, prostate screening is recommended every two years, even if there are no disturbing symptoms. In case of malignant prostate lesions on a straight branch , it is advisable to start the screening at the age of 45 years. And if urination problems occur, an investigation is needed at any age.

Typical symptoms:

  • difficulty passing urine, possibly urinary retention,
  • intermittent urination,

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Understanding The Anatomy Of The Prostate

Despite its importance, the prostate gland in an adult man is only about the size and shape of a walnut and weighs less than 1 ounce .

It is located below the bladder, above the pelvic floor muscles, and in front of the rectum.

The prostate reaches its mature size during puberty and will keep its walnut size until the man is in his late forties or early fifties. After this age, it slowly begins to enlarge.

The prostate, which surrounds the urethra, is made up of glandular, stromal tissue, and smooth muscles fused within a capsule.

Though the prostate gland is often referenced as a singular entity, it is actually made up of a number of tubular or saclike glands that secrete fluids into the urethra through the ejaculatory ducts.

The prostate is divided into three histologically and anatomically separate glandular areas: The transition zone, the central zone, and the peripheral zone.

Transition Zone This surrounds the part of the urethra that passes through the prostate . This zone only represents about 5 percent of the gland, but is the primary origination of benign prostatic hyperplasia, or enlarged prostate. That is, the transition zone is the region of the prostate that grows as men age.

Central Zone Making up quarter of the prostate, this area surrounds the transition zone, as well as the ejaculatory ducts that stretch from the seminal vesicles which produces the majority of the fluid of semen to the prostatic region of the urethra.

If You Are A Trans Woman

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy, Prostatitis and Hematuria

If you are a trans woman and have had genital-gender affirming surgery as part of your transition, you still have a prostate. It is important to talk to your GP or nurse if you are worried about prostate cancer or have symptoms.

Prostate cancer UK have detailed information about trans women and prostate cancer.

The LGBT Foundation can also give you confidential advice and support. You can also talk to one of our cancer support specialists.

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