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Fish Oil And Prostate Cancer Mayo Clinic

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Things You Can Change: Diet And Lifestyle

Omega-3 and Prostate Cancer: Examining the Pertinent Evidence

Men in western countries have much higher rates of prostate cancer than men in Asia. While no one can definitively explain this phenomenon, experts suspect differences in eastern and western diets are to blame. Poor eating habits and diets that heavily rely on fats and animal proteins can cause DNA damage and lead to cancer.

Even men who are already at greater risk due to age, race or genetics can reduce their chances of developing prostate cancer by adopting healthy diets and lifestyles.

Consumption Of Fish And Fish Oil And Prostate Cancer Risk

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Nutr Cancer.Anticancer Res.Carcinogenesis.Neoplasia.


Nutr Cancer.

PLoS One.N Engl J Med.



BMJ.N Engl J Med.N Engl J Med.


Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.

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Improvements To Conventional Treatments

Commonly used treatments such as radical prostatectomy, radiation, and hormone therapy are constantly being reviewed and refined to improve patient survival and quality of life . For example, identifying patient groups that are most likely to benefit from specific treatments is an active area of research. Recent clinical data suggest radical prostatectomy might be helpful even for men with advanced or high-risk disease . Surgery may be particularly effective in this patient group when used in conjunction with radiation therapy .

Researchers are also developing new evidence regarding the optimal order and combinations of various treatments. As described earlier, docetaxel may be more effective when used before resistance to testosterone-lowering therapy develops . Other research is addressing issues such as which hormone therapy should be used first and when it should be started .

New medications for treating prostate cancer are being studied. A newer second generation of hormone therapies is in development . Seviteronel, also known as VT-464, is an androgen synthesis inhibitor that is undergoing fast-track review by the FDA for approval in patients with metastatic castration-resistant disease .

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Two Of The Most Helpful Phytochemicals Are:

  • Antioxidants This type of phytochemical protects the body from damage. Cancer develops when DNA in cells is damaged. This causes abnormal cells to divide uncontrollably, which can infiltrate and destroy normal body tissue. Cell damage also can be caused by radiation, viruses and exposure to other chemicals. The body’s natural metabolism creates oxidants that can cause cell damage, as well. Antioxidants neutralize these damage processes while protecting and restoring cells. Some foods that contain a high level of antioxidants include dark chocolate, apples with the peel, avocados, artichokes, red cabbage, tea, coffee, nuts and grains.
  • Carotenoids These are fat-soluble compounds, which means they need to be accompanied by a fat source to be absorbed. Carotenoids are naturally present in many fruits, grains, oils and vegetables such as carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, spinach, apricots, green peppers and leafy greens. They are highly pigmented, so look for natural foods that are red, orange, yellow and green. Examples of carotenoids include beta carotene, lycopene, and lutein. They have been linked to reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, macular degeneration and cataracts.

Many plant-based foods are also high in provitamins called alpha and gamma carotene. When consumed, these vitamins can be converted to vitamin A. This nutrient is important to vision, growth, cell division, reproduction and immunity. Vitamin A also has antioxidant properties.

What Are The Best Supplements To Help Prevent Bph/prostate Cancer

Essential Nutrients

There are so many opinions out there on the web about which is the best supplement to help prevent BPH/prostate cancer. What are the key ingredients to look for? Thank you

@cfbauer, you might be interested in this related discussion: Fish Oil and Prostate Cancer: Helpful or harmful?..:

Also see these articles from Mayo Clinic: Prostate cancer prevention: Ways to reduce your risk Enlarged prostate: Does diet play a role?

Wouldnât it be great if prevention for health conditions came in a pill? The best way to reduce your risk of cancer and enlarged prostate, also called benign prostatic hyperplasia , remains healthy living, a good diet and activity.

@cfbauer, you might be interested in this related discussion: Fish Oil and Prostate Cancer: Helpful or harmful?..:

Wouldnât it be great if prevention for health conditions came in a pill? The best way to reduce your risk of cancer and enlarged prostate, also called benign prostatic hyperplasia , remains healthy living, a good diet and activity.

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Talk With Your Doctor About Medications

There also may be other drugs you can take to help reduce your risk of prostate cancer, says Dr. Ross. The ACS names 5-alpha reductase inhibitors as a class of medications that may help lower your prostate cancer risk. They work by blocking an enzyme in the body that creates dihydrotestosterone, which is the main hormone that causes prostate growth. That said, more research is needed to fully understand whether these drugs can significantly reduce prostate cancer risk in the long term, the ACS says.

Consider A Daily Baby Aspirin

Speaking of inflammation as a potential risk factor for prostate cancer, its possible that some anti-inflammatory medications could be protective, too, says Dr. Ross. This could include taking a baby aspirin a daybut theres a caveat. There are risks to this, so the American Medical Association hasnt recommended it, he adds. Those risks include the possibility of spontaneous bleedingso this definitely isnt a step you want to take without consulting your doctor first, he says.

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Screening Diagnostic And Prognostic Tests

Many men with slightly or moderately high PSA levels do not have cancer detected in their biopsy or do not have an aggressive form that needs treatment . Several new tests are being developed to help men with moderate PSA level elevations decide whether to have a biopsy . A composite test called 4Kscore uses measurements of four different proteins in the blood along with clinical information about the patient to predict the likelihood that the cancer will spread within the next 1520 years . A meta-analysis of published data concluded that the diagnostic accuracy of this test is similar to that of the FDA-approved Prostate Health Index .

Genetic markers from cells in urine collected after a digital rectal exam may be useful predictors of cancer aggressiveness . In a trial with 1,077 participants, combined measurement of the gene markers TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 improved the ability to identify men at low risk for aggressive disease compared with PSA testing alone . Researchers examining genetic markers in urine samples from 905 participants with prostate cancer found two other markers that could help identify those with high-grade cancer . These genetic tests could someday play a role in avoiding unnecessary biopsies .

Prostate tissue obtained through biopsy or surgery can be analyzed with new tests that may provide information on how aggressively the cancer should be treated:

Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

Mayo Clinic Minute: Figuring out fish oil

With the widespread use of prostate cancer screening tests, over 60% of men with prostate cancer may not have any symptoms at the time of diagnosis. Instead, the only sign of the disease may be an elevated prostate-specific antigen level. For some men, the tumor can be felt during a digital rectal examination .

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Summary And Quick Facts For Prostate Cancer Treatment

  • Prostate cancer is common and can often be treated effectively in its early stages. For many men, immediate treatment may not be necessary.
  • This protocol will help you understand the different stages of prostate cancer and what treatments may be needed. Learn about dietary and lifestyle changes, and supplements that may complement a treatment approach.
  • Various preparations of lycopene and green tea supplements have been shown to benefit men with prostate cancer in clinical trials.

Roughly one in five men in the United States will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime . Although prostate cancer can be deadly if it spreads to other organs, it is quite treatable if detected early . Surgery, radiation, and medicines to block hormones are common treatment options . Researchers are continually working to make these treatments better and improve outcomes for men with prostate cancer .

Many medical innovations in prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment have emerged in recent years. Advanced imaging techniques such as multiparametric MRI have made diagnosis more accurate and treatment more precise . New blood tests provide patients and doctors with information to better select appropriate treatment strategies . Immunotherapy, which has been a huge advance for cancer care in general, is currently an active and promising area of prostate cancer research .

Causes And Risk Factors

The risk of prostate cancer, like many other forms of cancer, increases with age. Forty-year-old men have a 2.3% chance of being diagnosed with prostate cancer by age 60. For 70-year-old men, the 20-year risk of prostate cancer is 9.5% .

African-American men have a higher risk of prostate cancer than Caucasian men . In one study of almost three million servicemen, African Americans were nearly three times more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer . According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , about twice as many African Americans die from prostate cancer as Caucasians . In contrast, Asian Americans have a lower risk of prostate cancer .

Men with a family history of prostate cancer and those who have specific gene mutations have an increased risk of prostate cancer . For instance, mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes increase prostate cancer risk . The likelihood of developing prostate cancer before age 65 is more than eight-fold higher in men with mutations in the BRCA2 gene. The presence of BRCA2 gene mutations predict a lifetime prostate cancer risk of 3040% and is associated with more aggressive forms of cancer. While BRCA1 mutations have also been correlated with increased prostate cancer risk, the relationship is not as strong as with BRCA2 mutations .

Gonorrhea is associated with increased prostate cancer risk .

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The Link Between Omega 3 And Prostate Cancer

The study was conducted by researchers from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Ohio State University, who set out to look at the correlation between Omega 3 levels and the risk of prostate cancer.

Through a case-control study, comparing blood samples from 834 men diagnosed with prostate cancer with those from 1,393 men not diagnosed with the disease, the study found that there was an increased risk of prostate cancer among men with high blood concentrations of Omega 3 fats, resulting in the following:

  • 44% increased the risk of low-grade prostate cancer
  • 71% increased the risk of high-grade prostate cancer
  • 43% increased the risk of total prostate cancer

But dont panic!

It is also important to know that this is just one study, and there are several other studies that suggest fish oil is actually linked to a lower risk of prostate cancer.

Although the results of this study may have you throwing away your fish oil capsules, it should be noted that there are several inconsistencies.

Exercise And Lose Weight

Exercising and losing weight are some of the best things you can do to promote prostate health. Many studies show that moderate or vigorous exercise reduces risk of BPH and urinary tract symptoms and helps with prostatitis as well. Exercise also benefits your cardiovascular health and can help prevent other health and sexual problems such as erectile dysfunction.

If you are overweight, losing weight is one of the most important natural changes you can make in improving your prostate health, whether your concerns are cancer, BPH or prostatitis. A study published in the Journal of Urology found that overweight men, especially men with a high amount of abdominal fat, have an increased risk of BPH. If you are looking to shrink the prostate, losing weight can help you reduce your prostate size and help relieve annoying and frustrating urinary symptoms. On top of that, weight loss can reduce your risk for prostate cancer and help relieve prostatitis, too.

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To Learn More About Cam

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health at the National Institutes of Health facilitates research and evaluation of complementary and alternative practices, and provides information about a variety of approaches to health professionals and the public.

  • NCCIH Clearinghouse

Selenium: Questions And Answers

  • Vitamin E and selenium.

Early results of SELECT reported in 2009 found no difference in the rate of prostate cancer among the 4 groups. In the selenium alone group, there was a slight increase in the rate of diabetes mellitus. Even though this change was not clearly shown to be due to the supplement, the men in the study were advised to stop taking the study supplements.

In 2014, further results of SELECT showed that selenium supplements in men with low selenium levels at the start of the trial had no effect on prostate cancer risk. However, selenium supplements in men who had high levels of selenium at the start of the trial increased the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

A study of 1,434 men in SELECT suggested that changes in certain genes which control the way selenium is used by the body may have an effect on the risk of prostate cancer.

Several factors may have affected study results, including the dose of vitamin E and the form of selenium used. The authors concluded that men should avoid selenium at doses that are higher than the recommended dietary intake.

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Do Eggs Raise Prostate Cancer Risk

24 October, 2011

Eating just three eggs a week increases chance of men getting prostate cancer, reported the Daily Mail.

The story went on to say: Experts in the US claimed that men who consume more than two-and-a-half eggs on a weekly basis were up to 81% more likely to be killed by the disease.

This research examined the association between eating red meat, poultry and eggs and the risk of developing lethal prostate . The study was in a large group of 27,607 healthy men, of whom 199 developed lethal prostate cancer over 14 years of follow-up. The researchers calculated that the men who ate the most eggs were at a significantly higher risk than those who ate fewer eggs. No significant association was found with any other food item.

This large cohort study has some strengths, such as its large size and the fact that information on the participants diet was continually updated over the course of the study. However it also has several limitations, and only a small number of lethal cancers actually occurred, which could suggest that this association is due to chance. Furthermore, these results are inconsistent with previous research, which found no significant association between eggs and prostate cancer. The findings will need to be confirmed in more robust studies before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

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Disclaimer And Safety Information

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This information is not intended to replace the attention or advice of a physician or other qualified health care professional. Anyone who wishes to embark on any dietary, drug, exercise, or other lifestyle change intended to prevent or treat a specific disease or condition should first consult with and seek clearance from a physician or other qualified health care professional. Pregnant women in particular should seek the advice of a physician before using any protocol listed on this website. The protocols described on this website are for adults only, unless otherwise specified. Product labels may contain important safety information and the most recent product information provided by the product manufacturers should be carefully reviewed prior to use to verify the dose, administration, and contraindications. National, state, and local laws may vary regarding the use and application of many of the therapies discussed. The reader assumes the risk of any injuries. The authors and publishers, their affiliates and assigns are not liable for any injury and/or damage to persons arising from this protocol and expressly disclaim responsibility for any adverse effects resulting from the use of the information contained herein.

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Testosterone Replacement Therapy And Prostate Cancer

Testosterone deficiency affects up to a quarter of men over 40. The signs and symptoms of this condition can be severe and the long-term effects can be debilitating. Men with low testosterone may experience reduced sexual function, depression, decreased muscle mass, increased fat mass, and weakened bones . Supplemental testosterone, or testosterone replacement therapy, may improve many of these symptoms .

Historically, medical professionals warned against testosterone replacement for men who have, or have had, prostate cancer due to concern that it might stimulate cancer growth. Current research, however, shows that restoring normal testosterone levels with supplemental testosterone does not increase prostate cancer risk and may be safe in some prostate cancer patients .

More general information about testosterone replacement is provided in the Male Hormone Restoration protocol.

Green Tea: Questions And Answers

In This Section
  • What is green tea?

    Tea comes from the Camellia sinensis plant. The way tea leaves are processed determines whether green tea, black tea, or oolong tea is made. Green tea is made by steaming and drying the leaves.

    The health benefits studied in green tea are thought to be from compounds called polyphenols. Polyphenols are a group of plant chemicals that include catechins . Catechins make up most of the polyphenols in green tea and vary based on the source of the tea leaves and how they are processed. This makes it hard to identify most of the chemical factors linked to the health benefits of green tea.

    Some studies have suggested that green tea may protect against heart and blood vessel disease.

  • How is green tea given or taken?

    People usually drink green tea or take it as a dietary supplement.

  • Have any laboratory or animal studies been done using green tea?

    For information on laboratory and animal studies done using green tea, see the Laboratory/Animal/Preclinical Studies section of the health professional version of Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements.

  • Overall, population studies suggest that green tea may help protect against prostate cancer in Asian populations. Prostate cancer deaths in Asia are among the lowest in the world.
  • Clinical trials

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