Psa Screening Blood Test
A Prostate-specific antigen is made by the cells of the prostate gland. PSA testing is a common method to test for prostate cancer. PSA is found in semen, with a small amount in the blood. Men without prostate cancer often have PSA levels under 4 nanograms per milliliter of blood. Elevated PSA level increases the likelihood of having prostate cancer .
The American Cancer Society reports that men with a total PSA level of between 4 and 10 have roughly a 1 in 4 chance of having prostate cancer. With a total PSA of over 10, the chance of having prostate cancer rises to over 50%. Following the PSA test, if the levels are high, a doctor may suggest a repeat screening test or a prostate biopsy.
In addition to prostate cancer, there are many other factors that can affect a mans PSA levels.
Reasons for a High PSA:
Reasons for a Low PSA:
Limitations And Risks Of Psa Testing
- False negative result: about 15 out of 100 men with a negative PSA test may have prostate cancer.
- False positive result: about 75 out of 100 men with a positive PSA test have a normal prostate biopsy .
- Therefore a false positive PSA test may lead to unnecessary investigations, such as a prostate biopsy, and there may be side-effects from this investigation, such as bleeding or infection.
- A positive result may also lead to unnecessary treatment. Many prostate cancers are slow growing and may not become evident during your lifetime. Side-effects of treatment are common and can be serious, such as urinary incontinence and sexual problems.
How Exactly Does Galleri Work
In its first-ever press release, GRAIL touted the early cancer-detection testwhich would later be named Gallerias a “simple blood test,” but the science behind that simple test is quite complex.
Ask a doctor and they’ll tell you the Galleri test detects circulating tumor-derived, cell-free DNA that could indicate the presence of cancer using a targeted methylation bisulfite sequencing assay and machine learning techniques.
That’s kind of a mouthfulin order to begin understanding what that means, it’s important to understand that cancer is a disease of the genome, or all the the genetic information of an organism, made up of DNA.
Nearly all of the cells in your body have the same DNA, according to the US National Library of Medicine. But unlike the DNA in healthy cells, the DNA in cancer cells carry cancer-specific signals tumors shed this DNA into the blood. Multi-cancer early detection testing looks at blood samples for DNA fragments and their cancer-specific signals to identify cancer and where that cancer signal originated in the body.
The results go directly to the healthcare provider who ordered the test for you. They’ll either read “Cancer Signal Not Detected” or “Cancer Signal Detected” with “Top Predicted Cancer Signal Orgin” which predicts where the cancer may be coming from. Your doctor can use these results to order further testing to make a formal diagnosis.
Recommended Reading: Tamsulosin And Ejaculation Problems
New Blood Test Can Confirm Prostate Cancer And What Stage It Is At
A new blood test developed by scientists and clinicians is able to detect the presence of prostate cancer and confirm how advanced it is.
A team at Nottingham Trent University and University Hospitals Leicester NHS Trust is involved in the work, which they say could reduce invasive biopsies by about 70% and help identify patients needing urgent treatment or closer monitoring. The test is also more accurate than current methods in detecting prostate cancer and is able to confirm the stage of the disease with 99% accuracy. Prostate cancer mainly affects men aged over 50 and is the most common cancer in men in the UK. More than 47,500 men are diagnosed every year, with more than 11,500 dying from the disease.
The team has found that prostate cancer can be identified by changes in the immune system in the blood, specifically the white cells which are responsible for protecting the body against infection and disease. Building on earlier work, they have devised a simple blood test and computational tools which combined can confirm the presence or absence or prostate cancer and also the stage low, intermediate or high-risk. Computational models are able to learn from previous patient data to make accurate predictions on new, previously unseen information.
What’s A Raised Psa Level
The amount of PSA in your blood is measured in nanograms of PSA per millilitre of blood .
If you’re aged 50 to 69, raised PSA is 3ng/ml or higher.
A raised PSA level in your blood may be a sign of prostate cancer, but it can also be a sign of another condition that’s not cancer, such as:
Also Check: Tamsulosin Ejaculation
What Is The Chance Of A Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer
Around 17,000 new cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed each year in Australia. It affects mostly men in older age groups and is rare in men under 50 years of age.
The chance of developing prostate cancer is significantly higher in men who have a close relative with prostate cancer the risks are higher if the relative was diagnosed before the age of 60.
If you have a family history of prostate cancer, talk to your doctor.
What Is A Normal Psa Test Result
There is no specific normal or abnormal level of PSA in the blood, and levels may vary over time in the same man. In the past, most doctors considered PSA levels of 4.0 ng/mL and lower as normal. Therefore, if a man had a PSA level above 4.0 ng/mL, doctors would often recommend a prostate biopsy to determine whether prostate cancer was present.
However, more recent studies have shown that some men with PSA levels below 4.0 ng/mL have prostate cancer and that many men with higher levels do not have prostate cancer . In addition, various factors can cause a mans PSA level to fluctuate. For example, a mans PSA level often rises if he has prostatitis or a urinary tract infection. Prostate biopsies and prostate surgery also increase PSA level. Conversely, some drugsincluding finasteride and dutasteride , which are used to treat BPHlower a mans PSA level. PSA level may also vary somewhat across testing laboratories.
Another complicating factor is that studies to establish the normal range of PSA levels have been conducted primarily in populations of White men. Although expert opinions vary, there is no clear consensus regarding the optimal PSA threshold for recommending a prostate biopsy for men of any racial or ethnic group.
In general, however, the higher a mans PSA level, the more likely it is that he has prostate cancer. Moreover, a continuous rise in a mans PSA level over time may also be a sign of prostate cancer.
You May Like: Viagra Bph
Should I Have A Prostate Cancer Screening Test
Routine testing for prostate cancer in all men without symptoms is not recommended in New Zealand at present. Being tested for prostate cancer is your choice. Learning about the pros and cons of prostate testing can help you decide if it is right for you.
To help you decide if a prostate check is right for you, the Ministry of Health has developed the Kupe website. It will help you understand the risks, benefits and implications of prostate testing, so you can have an informed conversation with your doctor.
If you are unsure about whether you need to get tested for prostate cancer, contact your GP for a discussion on the risks and benefits of testing.
Experts In Urology Care
If you are experiencing symptoms consistent with urinary issues, we urge you to complete our urologic cancer risk assessment form.
Not everyone should get a PSA test. Why? Because many men in this country are treated for low-risk prostate cancer that is discovered through the PSA test, even when it is unlikely that the disease will ever cause symptoms or lead to death. And treatment is associated with significant side effects, including impotence and incontinence . So a PSA test is recommended only for men who might be at greater risk for dying of prostate cancer for example, younger men with a family history of prostate cancer or African-American men.
To avoid the risks of over-treatment, Roswell Park follows the guidelines established by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network . The NCCN brings together world-renowned experts from 30 of the nations top cancer centers to write guidelines that specify the best ways of preventing, detecting and treating cancer. The guidelines are updated at least every year, on the basis of the latest research.
Michael Kuettel, MD, PhD, MBA, Chair of Roswell Park’s Department of Radiation Medicine, serves on the NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel.
The NCCN recommends that only men in these categories receive a PSA test for early detection of prostate cancer:
Don’t Miss: Side Effects Of Chemotherapy For Prostate Cancer
How Is Prostate Cancer Detected
Once an individual crosses the age of 50, it becomes mandatory for the individual to get screened for prostate cancer. This is the first step at detecting prostate cancer early. A screening for prostate cancer begins with a digital rectal examination.
The physician will enter a lubricated gloved finger into the rectum and examine the prostate to look for any abnormalities in the texture, shape or size of the prostate. If any abnormalities are detected then further investigations are carried out to look for any signs of prostate cancer.
The next step towards detecting prostate cancer is checking the levels of PSA or Prostate Specific Antigen. This can be done through a normal blood test and a PSA level is checked. In case if the levels are higher than the norm then it calls for further investigations as a high level of PSA may indicate cancer, inflammation, or enlargement of the prostate. These two tests are good enough for detecting prostate cancer in its early stages.
If during screening, any abnormalities are found then the following investigations are conducted to rule in or rule out prostate cancer.
Ultrasound: An ultrasound of the prostate can be conducted to evaluate the prostate in much greater detail. A probe is inserted through the rectum into the prostate and through sound waves a picture of the prostate gland is produced. Any abnormality in the prostate gland can be detected through this method.
Urine Test Accurately Flags Prostate Cancer
“Our ultimate goal was to determine whether the MyProstateScore test could be a practical, reliable test that could rule out the need for more costly or invasive testing in men referred for a prostate biopsy,” says Jeffrey Tosoian.
You are free to share this article under the Attribution 4.0 International license.
Researchers have found that a new urine test is extremely accurate at detecting aggressive prostate cancer with few false negatives.
The test could have possibly avoided one third of unnecessary prostate cancer biopsies while failing to detect only a small number of cancers, according to a validation study of more than 1,500 patients.
The MyProstateScore test measures levels of cancer-specific genes in a patients urine. Its based on previous research that discovered half of all prostate tumors harbor a certain genetic anomaly in which the genes TMPRSS2 and ERG relocate on a chromosome and fuse togethercreating an on-switch for prostate cancer development.
One of the best current methods for detecting prostate cancer is a blood test for prostate-specific antigen, commonly known as the PSA test. Elevated PSA levels may indicate cancer, but the majority of men with an elevated PSA dont actually have prostate cancer.
The data show that this straightforward, secondary testing approach could reduce the use of more costly and invasive procedures following a PSA test, Tosoian says.
Read Also: Do Female Have Prostate
Other Tests To Detect Cancer
Can ultrasound detect cancer? It can detect changes that appear to be cancerous. If an ultrasound detects abnormalities that look like cancer changes in tissues, more tests will be needed to confirm the diagnosis. The following tests may be used to get a better look at things:
- CT Scan
- Surgical Intervention
What Other Screening Tests Are Used To Detect Prostate Cancer
Because a biopsy is an invasive procedure, your doctor may first use one or more of the following methods to screen for prostate cancer:
When your doctor takes a detailed medical history, they may ask you about your symptoms, underlying health conditions and whether you consume alcohol or tobacco in any form. Your doctor may also ask you whether any of your close family members such as a father, uncle or brother were diagnosed with prostate cancer at a young age . You may also be asked other questions such as whether you have experienced weight loss or a change in sex drive.
Digital rectal examination
A thorough physical examination will also allow your doctor to assess your general health by looking for any signs of disease.
Your doctor may order a digital rectal examination . During a DRE, your doctor will insert a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum and try to feel for any lumps, irregularities or hard areas on the prostate that could suggest cancer. This examination will also provide clues as to whether the cancer is in one or both sides of the prostate and whether it has spread to the nearby structures.
Prostate-specific antigen blood test
Your doctor may order blood tests to look for blood counts or inflammatory markers . One blood test may measure the levels of a type of protein called PSA, which is made by both normal and cancerous cells in the prostate.
Also Check: Chemo Drug For Prostate Cancer
What If My Test Results Are Abnormal
If the results of early detection tests like the PSA test or the digital rectal exam suggest that you might have prostate cancer, your doctor will conduct further testing. The PSA may be repeated, or you may be sent to a specialist for more tests such as a transrectal ultrasound and a prostate biopsy.
In a prostate biopsy, a tissue sample is taken from your prostate. Cancer can only be diagnosed with a tissue sample.
In addition to a PSA test, DRE , and a biopsy, research has yielded additional tests that can detect if cancer is present, and if so, how aggressive that cancer might be:
- The Prostate Health Index combines three blood tests that give a more accurate Phi Score, which gives accurate information based on a high PSA to better determine the probability of finding cancer during a biopsy.
Medical History And Physical Exam
If your doctor suspects you might have prostate cancer, he or she will ask you about any symptoms you are having, such as any urinary or sexual problems, and how long you have had them. You might also be asked about possible risk factors, including your family history.
Your doctor will also examine you. This might include a digital rectal exam , during which the doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum to feel for any bumps or hard areas on the prostate that might be cancer. If you do have cancer, the DRE can sometimes help tell if its only on one side of the prostate, if its on both sides, or if its likely to have spread beyond the prostate to nearby tissues. Your doctor may also examine other areas of your body.
After the exam, your doctor might then order some tests.
Read Also: Viagra And Enlarged Prostate
What Do The Numbers Mean
PSA levels are measured as a number of nanograms in each milliliter of fluid tested. This is written as ng/mL.
- PSA level 2.5 ng/mL or lower: This is a normal PSA level for men under age 60, but in some cases, prostate cancer may still be present.
- PSA level between 2.5 and 4 ng/mL: This is a normal PSA level for most men.
- PSA level between 4 and 10 ng/mL: This indicates that prostate cancer might be present. At this level, there is about a 25% chance that you have prostate cancer.
- PSA level 10 ng/mL or above: There is a 50 percent chance that prostate cancer is present. The higher the PSA rises above 10 ng/mL, the greater the chance that you have prostate cancer.
Your doctor may also monitor your PSA velocity, or doubling time, which means recording your baseline PSA the level at your very first PSA test and seeing how fast the PSA level increases over time. Rapid increases in PSA readings can suggest cancer. If your PSA is slightly high, you and your doctor may decide to keep an eye on your levels on a regular basis to look for any change in the PSA velocity.
Other Factors That Influence Psa Levels
The PSA blood test alone cannot diagnose prostate cancer. It is possible, although rare, to have prostate cancer without raised PSA levels in the blood. A higher-than-normal PSA level doesnt automatically indicate prostate cancer either. A high PSA level is due to cancer in around one in three cases.
PSA levels can be raised by other factors, including:
- , also known as benign prostatic enlargement .
For this reason, the PSA blood test isnt used in isolation when checking for prostate cancer.
Don’t Miss: Cranberry Juice Good For Prostate