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How Does Prostate Cancer Treatment Affect The Reproductive System

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General Information About Prostate Cancer

Prostate Pathology (Male Reproductive System) | Med Bees

Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the prostate.

The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It lies just below the bladder and in front of the rectum . It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra . The prostate gland makes fluid that is part of the semen. Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs.

Prostate cancer is found mainly in older men. In the U.S., about 1 out of 5 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer.

Signs of prostate cancer include a weak flow of urine or frequent urination.

These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by prostate cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:

  • Weak or interrupted flow of urine.
  • Sudden urge to urinate.
  • Frequent urination .
  • Trouble starting the flow of urine.
  • Trouble emptying the bladder completely.
  • Pain or burning while urinating.
  • Blood in the urine or semen.
  • A pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesn’t go away.
  • Shortness of breath, feeling very tired, fast heartbeat, dizziness, or pale skin caused by anemia.

Tests that examine the prostate and blood are used to detect and diagnose prostate cancer.

The following tests and procedures may be used:

Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options.

The prognosis and treatment options depend on the following:

Treatment options also may depend on the following:

How Will I Know That My Hormone Therapy Is Working

Doctors cannot predict how long hormone therapy will be effective in suppressing the growth of any individual mans prostate cancer. Therefore, men who take hormone therapy for more than a few months are regularly tested to determine the level of PSA in their blood. An increase in PSA level may indicate that a mans cancer has started growing again. A PSA level that continues to increase while hormone therapy is successfully keeping androgen levels extremely low is an indicator that a mans prostate cancer has become resistant to the hormone therapy that is currently being used.

External Beam Radiation Therapy

In this type of therapy, a machine outside the body is used to focus the beams of radiation on the prostate gland. It is used to treat early stages of cancer and helps to relieve you from symptoms such as pain.

Before the procedure, you will undergo simulation, which is a planning session. During this session, the radiation team takes measurements to find the correct angles for aiming the beams and the proper dosage.There are various types of EBRT namely:

  • Intensity-modulated radiation therapy
  • Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy
  • Stereotactic body radiation therapy
  • Proton beam radiation therapy

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Infertility As A Harbinger Of Future Cancers

From puberty onward, spermatogenesis requires rapid and organized cell division that is exquisitely sensitive to a variety of genetic, hormonal and environmental insults . These same insults may place individuals at higher risk for the development of cancer. Because germ cell renewal and meiosis rapidly accelerates at a very young age, declines in spermatogenesis or abnormal sperm quality may be the first marker of insult, long before cancer is detected. This section provides a brief survey of potential etiologies of the link between poor sperm quality and subsequent prostate cancer. To date, some of these etiologies remain hypothetical but provide a foundation for future research.

Which Men Are At Risk For Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. It is thought that virtually all men with circulating androgens will develop microscopic prostate cancer if they live long enough. In fact, when prostatic tissue is scrutinized under a microscope after surgery , cancer is found in 50% of men older than age 70. And itâs found in virtually all men over age 90.

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Prostate Cancer: Symptoms Causes Diagnosis And Treatment

The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It ispart of a mans reproductive system. Prostate cancer arises from the prostate gland. It iswidespread, affecting one out of every nine men.The prostate gland is an integral part of the male reproductive system. This gland makes fluidthat mixes with semen during ejaculation. This fluid helps protect sperm and provide a mediumfor sperm to travel.This urine tube carries urine and semen through the penis and out of the body.

About one in nine men will get a prostate cancer diagnosis during their lifetime.Men over the age of fifty are prone to the disease. The chances of developing prostate cancerincrease as we age. Sixty per cent of prostate tumours occur in men over the age of sixty-five.Other additional risk factors include Ethnicity , Family historyof prostate cancer, Obesity and Smoking.Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas . These cancers start in thecells of glands that make fluid. Rarely, some other types of cancer develop in the prostate. Theseinclude:

Digital rectal examination: Your doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into therectum and feels the prostate gland hard, uneven areas indicate cancer.

Prostate-specific antigen test: The prostate gland makes a protein called a protein-specific antigen . Elevated PSA levels may indicate cancer.

Biopsy: A TRUS guided biopsy to sample prostate tissue for cancer cells is the only wayto diagnose prostate cancer.

Tips For Maintaining A Healthy Sex Life

If loss of sexual function occurs after prostate cancer treatment, several options can help a person find pleasure in sex again or return to normal sexual function.

Researchers and counselors offer advice to those who wish to pursue an active sex life during and after prostate cancer.

Here are some of their tips.

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Treatment Options For Prostate Cancer

For men with slow-growing prostate cancer that may have been detected during screening but is not aggressive in behavior, we offer active surveillance. During active surveillance, your doctors regularly monitor your tumors characteristics for any signs that it is changing.

For patients who are interested in or who are advised to undergo surgery, our surgeons are among the worlds most experienced in performing prostate operations, and were continually working to improve the safety and effectiveness of radical prostatectomy. We offer robotic as well as laparoscopic and open surgery. Our surgeons are also highly experienced in performing a procedure called salvage radical prostatectomy, which is sometimes done for men who experience prostate cancer recurrence after radiation therapy.

Our radiation oncology team is one of the most experienced in the world and has an established track record of treating prostate cancer with various types of radiotherapy. Our physicians have broad experience using image-guided, intensity-modulated radiation therapy , stereotactic high-precision radiosurgery , stereotactic hypofractionated radiation therapy , and low-dose-rate permanent seed implants and high-dose-rate temporary seed implants .

How Is Hormone Therapy Used To Treat Hormone

Understanding Prostate Cancer

Hormone therapy may be used in several ways to treat hormone-sensitive prostate cancer, including:

Early-stage prostate cancer with an intermediate or high risk of recurrence. Men with early-stage prostate cancer that has an intermediate or high risk of recurrence often receive hormone therapy before, during, and/or after radiation therapy, or after prostatectomy . Factors that are used to determine the risk of prostate cancer recurrence include the grade of the tumor , the extent to which the tumor has spread into surrounding tissue, and whether tumor cells are found in nearby lymph nodes during surgery.

The use of hormone therapy before prostatectomy has not been shown to be of benefit and is not a standard treatment. More intensive androgen blockade prior to prostatectomy is being studied in clinical trials.

Relapsed/recurrent prostate cancer. Hormone therapy used alone is the standard treatment for men who have a prostate cancer recurrence as documented by CT, MRI, or bone scan after treatment with radiation therapy or prostatectomy.

Hormone therapy is sometimes recommended for men who have a “biochemical” recurrencea rise in prostate-specific antigen level following primary local treatment with surgery or radiationespecially if the PSA level doubles in fewer than 3 months.

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Prostate Cancer Nutrition And Dietary Supplements Health Professional Version

On This Page

This cancer information summary provides an overview of the use of various foods and dietary supplements for reducing the risk of developing prostate cancer or for treating prostate cancer. This summary includes the history of research, reviews of laboratory and animal studies, and results of clinical trials on the following foods or dietary supplements:

Each type of dietary supplement or food will have a dedicated section in the summary, and new topics will be added over time. Note: A separate PDQ summary on PC-SPES is also available.

Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer affecting men in the United States. On the basis of data from 2014 to 2016, it is estimated that 11.6% of U.S. men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetimes.

Many studies suggest that complementary and alternative medicine use is common among prostate cancer patients, and the use of vitamins, supplements, and specific foods is frequently reported by these patients. For example, the Prostate CAncer Therapy Selection study was a prospective study that investigated mens decision-making processes about treatment following a diagnosis of local-stage prostate cancer. As part of this study, patients completed surveys regarding CAM use, and more than half of the respondents reported using one or more CAM therapies, with mind-body modalities and biologically based treatments being the most commonly used.

What Are The Dangers Of Radiotherapy Prostate Cancer Treatment

Radiotherapy is considered effective for treatment of cancer with a success rate of above 90%. But is it safe for prostate cancer treatment? Does it cause any side effects? And if yes, are radiation therapy side effects reversible?

Well, radio frequency is pain-free and considered safe for prostate cancer treatment. To help you understand the safety of this procedure we shall look at both the short and long-term side effects resulting from this treatment.

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How Does Prostate Cancer Affect The Male Urinary System

As the name suggests, prostate cancer is a group of abnormal cells that grow and affect a mans prostate. The cancer may affect other parts of the body, including the urinary system. And the affected urinary system will cause a number of consequences.

Prostate is a vital organ of men. It has crucial function to create fluids that maintain and transport sperm. Therefore when it is no longer to work optimal, this can affect the reproductive system. But since prostate cancer is more likely to occur in elderly men , the issue of infertility is usually not the major concern.

How common is prostate cancer?

It is one of common cancers found in men, which is also the major health concern for men, though it is rare in men who younger than 50 years of age.

Worldwide, the statistics of this cancer varies. It is pretty rare in some countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia but it is more common in elderly men of African-American .

Like most things in cancer, early early detection of the disease will play a role for the prognosis and outcome of patients. At early stage, it is relatively easier to treat than when it is diagnosed at advanced stages.

The good news, most cases of this cancer in the U.S are now able to be diagnosed earlier before it becomes advanced.

The anatomy of prostate

Prostate, a walnut-sized gland organ is located between the penis and the bladder. Another important organ called rectum, is located in the back of prostate.

What Can Cause Fertility Problems

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When a couple makes a baby, this is called conceptionor reproduction. When a baby is conceived naturally, a lot of things must take place for it to happen. For example, we know a female is born with all the eggs she will ever have and theyre stored in her ovaries. Any change in how the ovaries work, or a change in a hormone that’s needed to release an egg from the ovary during monthly cycles , can cause conception not to happen. In other words, there can be a body system malfunction that can change a woman’s fertility and affect her ability to get pregnant and carry a child through a pregnancy. Certain health problems, including cancer, can affect these things.

Females can be diagnosed as infertile if:

  • The ovaries dont contain healthy eggs
  • Hormones that are needed to help with egg release are disrupted
  • A tumor or other problem might press on the ovaries or uterus and cause them not to work properly
  • Damage to other parts of the reproductive system prevents eggs from being released, fertilized, or implanted
  • A fertilized egg cannot grow inside the uterus
  • Something happens that won’t allow a fetus to be carried through the full pregnancy, causing a miscarriage

In many cases, cancer surgery or treatments can be more likely than cancer itself to interfere with some parts of the reproductive process and affect your ability to have children. Different types of surgeries and treatments can have different effects. The risk of infertility varies depending on:

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What Causes Prostate Cancer

Experts arent sure why some cells in the prostate gland become cancerous . Genetics appear to play a role. For example:

  • Youre two to three times more likely to get prostate cancer if your father, brother or son has the disease.
  • Inherited mutated breast cancer genes and other gene mutations contribute to a small number of prostate cancers.

What Causes Infertility

Many types of prostate cancer treatment cause infertility. The prostate produces the fluid that helps keep semen liquid. Once the prostate is removed a man no longer has the ability to make semen or ejaculate semen, so infertility is an unavoidable and permanent consequence of surgery.

Radiation may also damage the prostates ability to produce semen or damage the sperm cells in the testicles.

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Where To Get Help

  • helps people affected by cancer find the information, resources and support services they may need following a diagnosis of cancer.
  • Diagnosing prostate cancer, 2010, Cancer Council Victoria. More information here.
  • Mr PHIP , 2009, Lions Australian Prostate Cancer Website. More information here.
  • Active surveillance of early prostate cancer, National Cancer Research Institute, UK. More information here.
  • Parker, C, 2004 ‘Active surveillance: towards a new paradigm in the management of early prostate cancer’. Lancet Oncology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 101106. More information here.
  • Hormone therapy, Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia. More information here.
  • Thursfield V 2011, Cancer in Victoria, statistics and trends, Cancer Council Victoria.More information here.
  • National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines.More information here.
  • Dahabreh IJ, Chung M, Balk EM, et al. 2012, Active surveillance in men with localized prostate cancer: a systematic review, Ann Intern Med, vol. 156, p. 582. More information here.

What Are Male Sex Hormones

The Basics of Prostate Cancer (5 W’s)

Hormones are substances that are made by glands in the body. Hormones circulate in the bloodstream and control the actions of certain cells or organs.

Androgens are a class of hormones that control the development and maintenance of male characteristics. The most abundant androgens in men are testosterone and dihydrotestosterone .

Androgens are required for normal growth and function of the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system that helps make semen. Androgens are also necessary for prostate cancers to grow. Androgens promote the growth of both normal and cancerous prostate cells by binding to and activating the androgen receptor, a protein that is expressed in prostate cells . Once activated, the androgen receptor stimulates the expression of specific genes that cause prostate cells to grow .

Almost all testosterone is produced in the testicles a small amount is produced by the adrenal glands. Although prostate cells do not normally make testosterone, some prostate cancer cells acquire the ability to do so .

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Offspring Gender And Prostate Cancer Risk

summarizes the studies of association between offspring gender and prostate cancer. Investigators first reported on the association or lack of association between offspring gender and CaP in the 1980s with mixed results. Since that time, the deletion of Y-chromosome specific genes have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer and in addition to their required for male sex determination Y-chromosome specific genes are a known cause of impaired spermatogenesis . Harlap and colleagues hypothesized that that a Y chromosome locus might be common etiology for failure to father sons and CaP. The authors utilized the Jewish Perinatal Cohort Study of 38,934 men and found that an absence of male offspring conferred a 40% increased risk for CaP. Following a dose-response relationship, the fewer sons a man sired as a proportion of his total offspring, the higher his risk of cancer. Among all men who developed prostate cancer, mortality was highest among men who did not father sons, suggesting some degree of association with more aggressive cancers. In an effort to replicate the this data, Bermejo and colleagues reported on more than 3.1 million men of which 120,812 developed prostate. In this much larger study, the authors failed to find an association between offspring gender and prostate cancer risk. Others have reported similar negative findings

Changes In Penis Size

Some men notice that their penis is shorter after surgery . Some men notice other changes such as a curve in their penis or a narrower area. We don’t know for certain why these changes happen, but it could be because of low oxygen levels in the penis, caused by not having erections. Other treatments such as hormone therapy with radiotherapy may also cause changes to the size of your penis.

Encouraging blood flow to the penis after surgery may help prevent this. In particular, using a vacuum pump, either on its own or with PDE5 inhibitor tablets could help maintain your penis size and improve erections.

Keeping your penis active after surgery

Although you may not be ready or recovered enough for sex, you can still start treatment for erection problems in the weeks immediately after surgery. It could be taking a low-dose PDE5 tablet once a day or using a vacuum pump, or sometimes both together. The treatment along with masturbation encourages blood flow to the penis. This can help keep your penis healthy. You may hear this called penile rehabilitation. Think of it in the same way as having physiotherapy if you had injured your arm or leg. Starting treatment soon after surgery may help improve your chance of getting and keeping an erection. But it may not work for every man.

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