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Where Does Prostate Cancer Spread To

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Where Does Prostate Cancer Spread To?

Bone metastasis have a profound effect on the long-term outlook for prostate cancer. But its important to remember that the numbers are only statistics.

The good news is that life expectancy for advanced prostate cancer continues to increase. New treatments and therapies offer both longer life and better quality of life. Speak to your doctor about your treatment options and long-term outlook.

Everyones cancer experience is different. You may find support through sharing your treatment plan with friends and family. Or you can turn to local community groups or online forums like Male Care for advice and reassurance.

What Causes Bladder Cancer And Am I At Risk

Each year, about 83,730 new cases of bladder cancer will be diagnosed in the United States. It affects more men than women and the average age at diagnosis is 73.

Cigarette smoking is the biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. About half of all bladder cancers are caused by cigarette smoking. Other risk factors for developing bladder cancer include: family history, occupational exposure to chemicals , previous cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, or pelvic radiation, the medication pioglitazone, exposure to arsenic , aristolochic , bladder infections caused by schistosoma haematobium, not drinking enough fluids, a genetic condition called Lynch Syndrome, a mutation of the retinoblastoma gene or the PTEN gene. and neurogenic bladder and the overuse of indwelling catheters.

How Long Does It Take Prostate Cancer To Develop

It could take virtual ages for prostate cancer to develope? anywhere from five to ten years, and even more or it could take between a mere couple of months and two or three years. One of the worst things about prostate cancer is that there are yet many answers that are elusive concerning the malignancy, resulting in several more questions than there are answers to them. The thing is that the rate of prostate cancer growth and spread varies from man to man, so that one overall clear-cut rule does not exist to govern them all.

However prostate cancer is essentially a slow growing disease, one that could be incident and growing in a patients organ for year before its first symptoms and outward signs start to show. In men over the age of 70 with early-stage prostate cancer, the disease often progresses so slowly that they are likely to die of other causes before they even develop prostate cancer symptoms. This actually is why several oncologists believe that many patients in this age group can forgo surgery or other treatments as long as their condition is regularly monitored ? a treatment option known as watchful waiting.

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Why Does Prostate Cancer Happen

The causes of prostate cancer are largely unknown. But certain things can increase your risk of developing the condition.

The chances of developing prostate cancer increase as you get older. Most cases develop in men aged 50 or older.

For reasons not yet understood, prostate cancer is more common in men of African-Caribbean or African descent, and less common in Asian men.

Men whose father or brother were affected by prostate cancer are at slightly increased risk themselves.

Recent research also suggests that obesity increases the risk of prostate cancer.

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What Is Metastatic Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer

Sometimes cancer cells will escape the prostate and grow quickly, spreading to nearby tissue, or metastasizing. Nearby lymph nodes are often the first destination for a spreading cancer. If prostate cancer has spread to your lymph nodes when it is diagnosed, it means that there is higher chance that it has spread to other areas of the body as well.

If and when prostate cancer cells gain access to the bloodstream, they can be deposited in various sites throughout the body, most commonly in bones, and more rarely to other organs such as the liver, lung, or brain. Bone metastases are seen in 85% to 90% of metastatic cases.

No matter where a cancer turns up in the body, it is always identified by the tissue type in which it started. Prostate cancer can metastasize to other organs, but it is always prostate cancer, because it consists of mutated prostate cells.

Men diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer , will often not undergo local treatments of the primary prostate tumor, such as surgery or radiation. Instead, their therapeutic journey might start with hormone therapy, and from there follow a similar path as men who were diagnosed at an earlier stage and had subsequent disease progression.

Want more information about a prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment options? Download or order a print copy of the Prostate Cancer Patient Guide.

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How Important Is Early Diagnosis And What Happens When Prostate Cancer Spreads To The Bones

There are no two cases of prostate cancer that are the same. Some grow slowly while others progress rapidly. Without treatment, slow-growing cancer can spread only slightly over time, but aggressive prostate cancer can overwhelm the prostate, cause unpleasant symptoms, or even metastasize.

Metastatic growth occurs when cancer spreads from one part of the body to another when cancer cells separate from one tumor and travel to a nearby lymph node or blood vessel. From that point, it can attach to another part of the body such as a bone or organ and grow to form a second tumor. Prostate cancer most commonly spreads to the bones and lymph nodes.

The five-year survival rate for men with local prostate cancer that has not spread to other areas is nearly 100%. The five-year survival rate for men with metastatic prostate cancer is about 30%a steep decline that underscores the importance of detecting prostate cancer before it spreads to the bones and other areas of the body.

What Tests Will I Have If My Doctor Suspects Bladder Cancer Or Another Urinary Problem

Your doctor will want to analyze your urine to determine if an infection could be a cause of your symptoms. A microscopic examination of the urine, called cytology, will look for cancer cells.

A cystoscopy is the main procedure to identify and diagnose bladder cancer. In this procedure, a lighted telescope is inserted into your bladder from the urethra to view the inside of the bladder and, when done under anesthesia, take tissue samples , which are later examined under a microscope for signs of cancer. When this procedure is done in the doctors office, local anesthesia gel is placed into the urethra prior to the procedure to minimize the discomfort.

If the diagnosis of bladder cancer is made, then the next step is to remove the tumor for detailed staging and diagnosis.

Transurethral resection is a procedure done under general or spinal anesthesia in the operating room. A telescope is inserted into the bladder and the tumor is removed by scraping it from the bladder wall , using a special cystoscope . This procedure is diagnostic as well as therapeutic.

This often can be done as an outpatient procedure, with patients discharged from hospital the same day. After removal, the tumor is analyzed by a pathologist, who will determine the type of tumor, the tumor grade and the depth of invasion. The purpose of the procedure is to remove the tumor and obtain important staging information .

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What Kind Of Treatment Will I Need

There are many ways to treat prostate cancer. The main kinds of treatment are observation, active surveillance, surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemo. Sometimes more than one kind of treatment is used.

The treatment thats best for you will depend on:

  • Your age
  • Any other health problems you might have
  • The stage and grade of the cancer
  • Your feelings about the need to treat the cancer
  • The chance that treatment will cure the cancer or help in some way
  • Your feelings about the side effects that might come with treatment

What Screening Tests Are Used For Prostate Cancer

Can You Spread Prostate Cancer to Others?

There are two tests used for prostate cancer screening:

The American Cancer Society recommends that men make an informed decision on whether or not they should be screened after talking about the risks and benefits of screening with their healthcare provider. Screening is not recommended in men without symptoms of prostate cancer if they have a life expectancy of less than ten years. Men at average risk of developing prostate cancer should begin this conversation at age 50. African American men and men with one relative with prostate cancer should talk with their healthcare provider about screening beginning at age 45. Men at the highest risk, those with more than one first degree relative with prostate cancer at an early age should begin talking about screening at age 40. Repeat screening is based on baseline PSA results, but typically occurs every 1-2 years.

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Remission And The Chance Of Recurrence

A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having no evidence of disease or NED.

A remission can be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. Although there are treatments to help prevent a recurrence, such as hormonal therapy and radiation therapy, it is important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. There are tools your doctor can use, called nomograms, to estimate someones risk of recurrence. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.

In general, following surgery or radiation therapy, the PSA level in the blood usually drops. If the PSA level starts to rise again, it may be a sign that the cancer has come back. If the cancer returns after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer.

When this occurs, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence, including where the recurrence is located. The cancer may come back in the prostate , in the tissues or lymph nodes near the prostate , or in another part of the body, such as the bones, lungs, or liver . Sometimes the doctor cannot find a tumor even though the PSA level has increased. This is known as a PSA-only or biochemical recurrence.

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Types Of Imaging Studies

If your doctor suspects your cancer might be spreading, they will likely order more imaging tests. A common imaging workup may include a bone scan and a CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis. An MRI might be done as well. Some research centers are also using magnetic MRIs or PET scans to further refine the staging of prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer Doctor Discussion Guide

Get our printable guide for your next doctor√Ęs appointment to help you ask the right questions.

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What Happens When Prostate Cancer Is Left Untreated

Doru Paul, MD, is triple board-certified in medical oncology, hematology, and internal medicine. He is an associate professor of clinical medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College and attending physician in the Department of Hematology and Oncology at the New York Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center.

While most men undergo some form of treatment for their prostate cancer, some men today choose to not be treated for their prostate cancer. Instead, they may choose to have their doctors monitor their cancer.

Known as active surveillance, it is common when the cancer is expected to grow slowly based on biopsy results, confined to the prostate, not causing any symptoms, and/or small. In active surveillance, doctors will initiate cancer treatment only if cancer starts growing.

Others men may choose to not undergo cancer treatment because of a short life expectancy or other serious medical problems. They may feel that the risks or side effects of cancer treatment outweigh their potential benefits.

This option is certainly OK and reasonable in the right circumstancesrequiring a careful and thoughtful discussion with your doctor and family.

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How To Tell If Your Cancer Has Metastasized

Metastatic prostate cancer

Prostate cancer metastasis may be suspected if you have specific symptoms such as new lower back pain or elevated liver enzymes. These may be signs your cancer has spread to your spine or your liver, respectively. If your prostate-specific antigen levels continue to rise despite treatment, especially if they are rising particularly fast, this may be a sign that cancer is metastasizing somewhere in your body.

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Faqs About Prostate Cancer That Has Spread To The Bones

Learn what this diagnosis means for your health and your future, and what you can do to feel strong and well supported.

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The prostate is a gland the size of a golf ball that sits below the bladder and in front of the rectum. Its responsible for making the fluid that forms semen. Many men develop cancer of the prostate gland its the second most common cancer among men in the United States. There are several stages of prostate cancer the earliest, when the cancer is still limited to the prostate gland itself, is the easiest to treat.

When the cancer has spread, or metastasized, beyond the prostate gland, its considered advanced, according to the American Cancer Society . When it spreads, its common for cancer cells to reach the bones first. Nine out of 10 men with advanced prostate cancer also have it in their bones.

At this advanced stage, the cancer cant be cured, says Scott T. Tagawa, MD, a medical oncologist at Weill Cornell Medicine and New York-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City. But with treatment, many men can live a long time. There are men Ive been treating for advanced prostate cancer for 10 or 20 years.

Arm yourself with the facts about what happens when prostate cancer spreads to the bones and what you can do to help manage it.

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General Prostate Cancer Survival Rate

According to the American Cancer Society:

  • The relative 5-year survival rate is nearly 100%
  • The relative 10-year survival rate is 98%
  • The 15-year relative survival rate is 91%

Note: Relative survival rate means the percentage of patients who live amount of years after their initial diagnosis.

Keep in mind, however, that because the compiled list figures are of cancers diagnosed up to 15 years ago, you may have an even greater chance of survival than these indicate due to advances in prostate cancer treatment technology

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Where Does Metastatic Bladder Cancer Spread To

Bladder cancer spreads when cancerous cells reproduce and invade surrounding healthy tissues. This is known as metastasis. Usually, metastatic bladder cancer refers to cancer that has spread to distant organs, but metastasis can occur locally in the muscles and connective tissues that are directly adjacent to the bladder as well.

Advanced And Metastatic Prostate Cancer What Is It

How to Know If Cancer Has Spread | Prostate Cancer

02 October 2020

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Australian men, with about 17,000 men newly diagnosed each year. For most men the long-term outlook is very good – relative to the general population and considering other causes of death, 95% of men with prostate cancer will survive at least five years after diagnosis and 91% of men with prostate cancer will survive 10 years or more. Today there are around 220,000 Australian men alive after a diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Of concern to our mission, for men who develop advanced prostate cancer, the outlook is not as good. Prostate cancer kills more than 3,000 men in Australia every year, representing about 12% of all male deaths from cancer. So, what is advanced prostate cancer, how is it detected and how is it treated?

What is the prostate?

The prostate is a small gland located below the bladder and in front of the rectum in men. It surrounds the urethra, the passage that leads from the bladder, out through the penis through which urine and semen pass out of the body. The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system .

The prostate produces some of the fluid that makes up semen, which enriches and protects sperm. The prostate needs the male hormone testosterone to grow and develop. Testosterone is made by the testicles.

What is prostate cancer?

Diagnosing advanced and metastatic prostate cancer

Further tests to determine where the cancer has spread to and the size of the cancers include:

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The Right Kind Of Biopsy Is Safe The Wrong Kind Can Put You At Risk

For American men, prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer, with 200,000 new cases diagnosed last year. The only way to definitively confirm the presence of cancer is by biopsy of the prostate. While it is widely recommended for men who are suspected of having the disease, stories have turned up in the media suggesting that prostate biopsies carry the risk of spreading cancer cells, increasing the likelihood of recurrence. Could the very test that diagnoses prostate cancer cause its spread? I posed this question to J. Stephen Jones, MD, who is the chairman of the department of regional urology at the Cleveland Clinic Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute and author of The Complete Prostate Book.

WHO NEEDS A BIOPSY?

The possibility that a man might have prostate cancer is first identified through early detection tests such as the prostate-specific antigen blood test and a digital rectal exam . If either suggests the possibility of prostate cancer, a prostate biopsy is the next step, says Dr. Jones. In the US, this is most commonly done with an ultrasound probe placed in the rectum and a core needle biopsy. Guided by the probe, the doctor inserts a narrow needle through the rectal wall into the prostate gland. When the needle is pulled out, it removes a sample of tissue. Usually performed under general anesthesia, this process is typically repeated 10 to 12 times or more in order to obtain tissue from different parts of the prostate.

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