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What Is The Definition Of Prostate Gland

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Closing The Urethra During Ejaculation

During ejaculation, the prostate contracts and squirts prostatic fluid into the urethra. Here, it mixes with sperm cells and fluid from the seminal vesicles to create semen, which the body then expels.

When the prostate contracts during ejaculation, it closes off the opening between the bladder and urethra, pushing semen through at speed. This is why, in normal anatomic situations, it is impossible to urinate and ejaculate simultaneously.

What Men And Women 35 And Older Must Know About Fertility Infertility And Getting Pregnant

The prostatic fluid mixes with sperm and fluid from the seminal vesicles  which makes up the majority of semen and contains various other components, including the fructose that provides the main energy source for sperm outside of the body  inside of the urethra.

Changes in the composition or secretion of the prostatic fluid affects the health and function of sperm, impacting male fertility. These changes may arise due to various health issues with the prostate.

Learn More About the Form and Function of the Prostate

What Natural Or Home Remedies Relieve Pain Symptoms And Treat Prostatitis

In addition to medical treatment, natural home remedies for prostatitis include:

  • Warm sitz baths
  • Avoid alcohol, caffeine, and spicy foods.
  • Prostate massage: In a few studies, prostate massage has been shown to decrease symptoms in some patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis.
  • Lifestyle changes: If you cycle or ride horses, it is recommended to suspend this activity until you improve.
  • Although there are many herbal preparations available, there is no current evidence that herbal remedies are definitely helpful with prostatitis.
  • Acupuncture has shown a decrease in symptoms for some people who suffer from prostatitis.

Examples Of Prostate Gland In A Sentence

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These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘prostate gland.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

Risks Of Radical Prostatectomy

Prostate Gland Definition

Radical prostatectomy has a low risk of serious complications. Death or serious disability caused by radical prostatectomy is extremely rare.

Important nerves travel through the prostate on the way to the penis. Skilled surgeons can usually protect most of these nerves during radical prostatectomy. Still, complications from inadvertent nerve damage do occur after radical prostatectomy. They include:

  • Urinary incontinence: More than 95% of men younger than age 50 are continent after radical prostatectomy. Around 85% of men aged 70 or older maintain continence after the operation.
  • Erectile dysfunction : Problems with erections are common after prostatectomy. Still, most men are able to have sex after prostatectomy while using medicines for ED , an external pump, or injectable medications. The younger the man, the higher the chance of maintaining potency after prostatectomy. A period of penile rehabilitation is often necessary.

Much of the skill involved in radical prostatectomy centers on sparing these nerves during the operation. A man undergoing radical prostatectomy by a surgeon at an advanced prostate cancer center has a better chance of maintaining sexual and urinary function.

Other complications of radical prostatectomy include:

  • Bleeding after the operation

What Tests Diagnose Prostatitis What Are Prostate

Prostatitis is usually diagnosed by analyzing a urine sample and undergoing an examination of your prostate gland by your health care practitioner. This examination involves a digital rectal examination to palpate the prostate gland and feel for abnormalities of the gland. Occasionally, the physician may also collect and test a sample of the prostatic fluid.

Sometimes a prostate massage is performed to compare samples of the prostatic fluid both before and after this intervention has been performed. To perform this procedure, the doctor will stroke/massage the prostate gland during the digital rectal examination. Because there is the concern that this procedure can release bacteria into the bloodstream, this test is contraindicated in cases of acute bacterial prostatitis.

Additional tests that may be obtained include a complete blood count , an electrolyte panel, blood cultures, a swab of urethral discharge if present, and sometimes a prostate-specific antigen level. The PSA test, which is used as a screening test for prostate cancer, may also be elevated with prostatitis.

Other tests that may also be obtained include urodynamic tests , ultrasound imaging, computed tomography imaging, cystoscopy, and a prostate biopsy.

If recurring episodes of urinary tract infections and prostatitis occur, see your doctor for a more detailed evaluation of your genitourinary system for anatomic abnormalities, which may make you more prone to infections.

    What Is The Prostate

    The prostate is a part of the male reproductive system, which includes the penis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and testicles. The prostate is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the urethra . It produces fluid that makes up a part of semen.

    As a man ages, the prostate tends to increase in size. This can cause the urethra to narrow and decrease urine flow. This is called benign prostatic hyperplasia, and it is not the same as prostate cancer. Men may also have other prostate changes that are not cancer.external icon

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    Where Is The Prostate And What Does It Look Like

    The prostate is situated between the bladder and penis, just in front of the rectum . It is above the muscles of the pelvic floor.

    The urethra, a narrow tube that carries urine and semen out of the body through the penis, runs through the center of the prostate, which weighs less than 1 ounce .

    The word “prostate” comes from the Greek word “prostates,” which means “one who stands before,” aptly describing the position of the gland. That is, when viewed from below, the prostate “stands before” the bladder.

    Because the rectum is behind the prostate, it is possible to feel the prostate with a finger when inserted through the rectum. The prostate feels elastic because it’s surrounded by a supportive tissue called the stroma, which is made of flexible smooth muscle fibers and connective tissue .

    The muscle cells contract during ejaculation, forcing fluid stored in the prostate into the urethra.

    What A High Psa Level Means If Its Not Prostate Cancer

    Other important components of prostatic fluid include an enzyme called prostatic acid phosphatase, citric acid, zinc, spermine and prostatic inhibin .

    During an orgasm, prostate muscles squeeze the gland’s stored fluid into the urethra, where it mixes with the sperm cells and other semen components.

    This expulsive process also helps propel the semen out of the body during ejaculation.

    Inflammation Of The Prostate

    While prostatitis can affect men of any age, it is more common in younger men, aged between 30 and 50 years. The main types of prostatitis are:

    • bacterial prostatitis acute or chronic bacterial infection
    • non-bacterial prostatitis inflamed prostate, also known as chronic pelvic pain syndrome .

    In most cases, the cause of prostatitis is unknown. Bacterial prostatitis responds well to antibiotic drugs that can get into the prostate. 

    Non-bacterial prostatitis, or CPPS, is the most common form of prostatitis and is more difficult to manage. Symptoms vary from one man to another. There is no single test to diagnose CPPS, so your doctor will need to rule out other possible causes of your symptoms before making a diagnosis.Possible causes of CPPS include:

    • a past bacterial prostatitis infection
    • irritation from some chemicals
    • chronic anxiety problems.

    How Does The Prostate Work

    The prostate is a gland about the size of a chestnut and weighs about 30 grams . It is part of the male reproductive system and is located inside the body. The prostates most important function is the production of a fluid that, together with sperm cells from the testicles and fluids from other glands, makes up semen. The muscles of the prostate also ensure that the semen is forcefully pressed into the urethra and then expelled outwards during ejaculation.

    The prostate is located directly below the bladder and above the muscles of the pelvic floor. The rectum is behind the prostate, making it possible to feel the gland from the rectum using the finger. The ducts in the prostate gland flow into the urethra, which passes through the prostate. The word prostate is taken from the Greek expression meaning one who stands before, which describes the position of the prostate gland. Viewed from below, where the urethra leaves the gland, the prostate stands before the bladder.

    The tissue of the prostate gland can be divided into three different zones, listed here from innermost to outermost, which encircle the urethra like layers of an onion:

    The prostate has various functions:

    Production of fluid for semen:

    Hormone metabolism: In the prostate the male sex hormone testosterone is transformed to a biologically active form, DHT .

    Diagnosis Of Prostate Disease

    Prostate disease is diagnosed using a variety of tests, including:

    • physical examination, including digital rectal examination , where the doctor inserts a gloved finger into your rectum to check the size of your prostate
    • blood test for prostate specific antigen
    • mid-stream urine tests to look for infection or blood in the urine
    • ultrasound scans and urinary flow studies
    • biopsies of the prostate.

    Prostate Gland Anatomy Zones

    Prostate cancer cause defined symptom risk factors

    The prostate tissue is made up of many branching ducts surrounded by connective tissue and muscles known as the stroma. These ducts contain the cells that make the prostatic fluid. The prostate has a left lobe, right lobe, a base that sits at the lower part of the bladder, and an apex where the gland narrows at the urethra. It is divided up into four anatomy zones:

    • Anterior fibromuscular zone: a thick muscle and fibrous tissue covering of the apex; there are no ducts in this part of the prostate 
    • Peripheral zone: This is the largest area of the prostate and the one closest to the rectum. Most of the fluid producing ducts are located here, and it is most easily felt in a digital rectal exam . This is where a majority of prostate cancers arise.
    • Central zone: This is the area around the ejaculatory ducts, which run from the seminal vesicles to the portion of the urethra surrounded by the prostate .
    • Transition zone: This is the area around the prostatic urethra and the part of the prostate that enlarges with age, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    What Does The Prostate Gland Do

    09 August 2010

    The prostate gland is a male reproductive organ whose main function is to secrete prostate fluid, one of the components of semen. The muscles of the prostate gland also help propel this seminal fluid into the urethra during ejaculation .

    The prostate is a muscular gland that weighs about three-fourths of an ounce about the size of a small apricot. It surrounds the urethra just beneath the bladder .

    During ejaculation, millions of sperm move from the testes through tubes called the vas deferens into the area of the prostate. At this point, the prostate contracts, closing off the opening between the bladder and the urethra, releasing fluid into the urethra and pushing semen on through.

    The fluid excreted by the prostate makes up about one-third of the total volume of semen and contains various enzymes, zinc and citric acid. Though prostate fluid is slightly acidic, another fluid in semen made by the seminal vesicles leaves semen slightly alkaline, or basic. This alkalinity helps protect sperm and prolong their life after they are deposited in the acidic environment of the vagina, according to the biology textbook, “Life: The Science of Biology, Eighth Addition” .

    One component of prostate fluid an enzyme called Prostate Specific Antigen also aids in the success of sperm by liquefying semen that has thickened after ejaculation. This thinning action allows sperm to swim more freely, according to the medical reference book “Prostate Specific Antigen” .

    Prostate Cancer: Risk Factors Symptoms And Treatment

    Aside from prostatitis and BPH, another common prostate issue is prostate cancer.

    Excluding skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer among American men, according to the American Cancer Society. About 1 in 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime.

    The risk of developing prostate cancer is higher for men who are over age 65, are African-American, or have a family history of the disease.

    Most often, prostate cancer develops slowly, but some men develop an aggressive form of the disease.

    Early prostate cancer generally doesn’t cause any symptoms. Symptoms generally develop as the disease progresses and include:

    • Urination issues
    • Bone pain
    • Numbness of the legs and feet
    • Loss of bladder or bowel control

    Urinary Tract Infections In Men: Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

    Nonbacteria microbes may cause a different type of chronic prostatitis, known as chronic pelvic pain syndrome, which may also develop as a result of chemicals in the urine, a urinary tract infection, or pelvic nerve damage.

    Affecting 10 to 15 percent of the U.S. male population, chronic pelvic pain syndrome is the most common type of prostatitis, but also the least understood.

    Symptoms vary depending on the type of prostatitis, but can include urination problems, pain , fever, and body aches, among other things.

    Some people develop asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in which the prostate is inflamed but doesn’t produce any symptoms or require treatment.

    Bacterial prostatitis is most often treated with antibiotics. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome may require drugs, surgery, and lifestyle changes.

    Over time, prostatitis may cause sexual dysfunction, abscesses in the prostate, inflammation of nearby reproductive organs, and infection of the bloodstream.

    Learn More About Prostate Problems and Complications

    What Is The Prostate Gland What Does It Look Like

    The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system, and it is a walnut-sized gland found in men that is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It surrounds the urethra, the tube through which urine and semen exit the body. Its main function is to produce seminal fluid in order to transport sperm through the urethra.

    Medical Definition Of Prostate

    Reviewed on 3/29/2021

    Prostate: A gland within the male reproductive system that is located just below the bladder. Chestnut shaped, the prostate surrounds the beginning of the urethra, the canal that empties the bladder.

    The prostate is actually not one but many glands, 30-50 in number, between which is abundant tissue containing many bundles of smooth muscle. The secretion of the prostate is a milky fluid that is discharged into the urethra at the time of the ejaculation of semen.

    The origin of the name “prostate” is quite curious. The word is from the Greek “prostates”, to stand before. The anatomist Herophilus called it the prostate because, as he saw matters, it stands before the testes.

    Treatment For Prostate Disease

    Treatment for prostatitis may include antibacterial drugs and supportive treatments, depending on the type of prostatitis.Treatment for BPH may include medications to relax the smooth muscle of the gland or to shrink the size of the prostate, and surgery to produce a permanently widened channel in the part of the urethra that passes through the prostate.Treatment for prostate cancer is tailored to suit individual circumstances. The nature of the cancer, other health problems the person may have, and their wishes will all be taken into account.Management approaches for prostate cancer include:

    • active surveillance
    • surgery for example, prostatectomy
    • radiotherapy
    • ablative treatments such as high-intensity focused ultrasound and NanoKnife®
    • hormone treatment
    • chemotherapy

    Who Should Get A Digital Rectal Exam

    Not all medical institutions agree on when men should begin screening for prostate cancer or even if a DRE should be part of the screening.

    To help detect prostate cancer in its early stages, the American Cancer Society recommends that men talk to their doctors about the benefits, risks, and limitations of prostate cancer screening before deciding whether to be tested.

    For most men at average risk, discussions about screening begin at age 50. However, some doctors recommend that men at higher risk of prostate cancer — African-American men or men with a family history of prostate cancer — start screening earlier.

     

    Side View Of The Prostate

    PPT

    The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located between the bladder and the penis. The prostate is just in front of the rectum. The urethra runs through the center of the prostate, from the bladder to the penis, letting urine flow out of the body.

    The prostate secretes fluid that nourishes and protects sperm. During ejaculation, the prostate squeezes this fluid into the urethra, and itâs expelled with sperm as semen.

    The vasa deferentia bring sperm from the testes to the seminal vesicles. The seminal vesicles contribute fluid to semen during ejaculation.

    Who Is At Risk For Prostate Cancer

    Certain men are at higher risk than others for prostate cancer, which may affect when they should start being screened. The risk increases with age, particularly after age 50. Some risk factors include:

    • African American men are twice as likely as white men to develop the disease.
    • Having a family history a father or a brother diagnosed with prostate cancer, particularly if it is at a relatively early age increases the risk.
    • Having a family history of breast and ovarian cancer may also be associated with an inherited risk of developing prostate cancer 
    • High-fat diet and/or obesity

    The Function Of The Prostate Gland

    The prostate glands job is to produce and secrete prostatic fluid, one of the components of semen. This fluid both nourishes and transports sperm and typically accounts for 25-30% of semen volume.

    During ejaculation, smooth muscle cells inside the prostate contract and forcefully press the fluid that has been stored in the prostate out into the urethra. Here, the prostatic fluid combines with sperm and with fluid from other glands to form semen, immediately before being ejaculated. 

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    What Happens During A Digital Rectal Exam

    Your health care provider will insert a gloved finger into the rectum and feel the prostate for hard, lumpy, or abnormal areas. The test takes only a few minutes to complete.

    You may feel slight, momentary discomfort during the test. The procedure does not cause significant pain or any damage to the prostate.

    Prostate Disease And Ageing

    Around 25 per cent of men aged 55 years and over have a prostate condition. This increases to 50 per cent by the age of 70 years. Early stages of prostate disease may have no symptoms.

    If you are a man and you are in your 50s or 60s, talk to your doctor about whether you need to have your prostate gland checked and, if so, how often. If you have a family history of prostate disease , talk to your doctor earlier about when prostate checks might be suitable for you.

    Types Of Prostate Cancer

    Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. These cancers develop from the gland cells .

    Other types of cancer that can start in the prostate include:

    • Small cell carcinomas
    • Neuroendocrine tumors
    • Transitional cell carcinomas
    • Sarcomas

    These other types of prostate cancer are rare. If you are told you have prostate cancer, it is almost certain to be an adenocarcinoma.

    Some prostate cancers grow and spread quickly, but most grow slowly. In fact, autopsy studies show that many older men who died of other causes also had prostate cancer that never affected them during their lives. In many cases, neither they nor their doctors even knew they had it.

    What Does The Prostate Do

    The prostate is not essential for life, but it is important for reproduction. Healthy semen is the perfect consistency and environment for sperm transit and survival, and for fertilization. Semen includes enzymes like PSA , as well as other substances made by the seminal vesicles and prostate, such as zinc, citrate, and fructose . Semen also contains substances that may protect the urinary tract and sperm from bacteria and other pathogens.

    The prostate typically grows during adolescence, under the control of the male hormone testosterone and its byproduct dihydrotestosterone . Testosterone is primarily made in the testes, but a smaller amount it is also made in the adrenal glands above the kidneys.

    Who Should Undergo Radical Prostatectomy

    Men younger than age 75 with limited prostate cancer who are expected to live at least 10 more years tend to get the most benefit from radical prostatectomy.

    Before performing radical prostatectomy, doctors first try to establish that the prostate cancer has not spread beyond the prostate. The statistical risk of spread can be determined from tables comparing the results of a biopsy and PSA levels. Further testing for spread, if needed, can include CT scans, bone scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound.

    If it appears that the prostate cancer has not spread, a surgeon may first offer other options besides surgery. These can include radiation therapy, hormone therapy, or simply observing the prostate cancer over time, since many prostate cancers grow slowly. Depending on how high the risk of cancer spread, pelvic lymph node dissection may be considered, as well.

    What Does The Prostate Gland Actually Do

    Prostate Cancer or Not

    The prostate gland isn’t essential for life, but it is vital for reproduction and is part of the male reproductive system.

    The function of the prostate is to produce a slightly alkaline fluid called the prostatic fluid that makes up part of the seminal fluid, or semen.

    The rest of semen is composed of sperm cells from the testicles, fluid from the seminal vesicles, and secretions from the pea-sized bulbourethral gland.

    The prostatic fluid contains substances that are important to the functioning and survival of sperm cells, such as the enzyme prostate-specific antigen , which thins or loosens up semen, helping the tadpole-like sperm cells swim freely to reach the egg.

    Gene And Protein Expression

    About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and almost 75% of these genes are expressed in the normal prostate. About 150 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the prostate with about 20 genes being highly prostate specific. The corresponding specific proteins are expressed in the glandular and secretory cells of the prostatic gland and have functions that are important for the characteristics of semen. Some of the prostate specific proteins, such as the prostate specific antigen , and the Prostatic acid phosphatase.

    In the developing embryo, at the hind end lies an inpouching called the cloaca. This, over the fourth to the seventh week, divides into a urogenital sinus and the beginnings of the anal canal, with a wall forming between these two inpouchings called the urorectal septum. The urogenital sinus divides into three parts, with the middle part forming the urethra; the upper part is largest and becomes the urinary bladder, and the lower part then changes depending on the biological sex of the embryo.

    Symptoms Of Prostate Disease

    In its earliest stages, prostate disease may or may not be associated with symptoms. The symptoms of prostate disease depend on the condition, but may include:

    • difficulties urinating, such as trouble starting the flow of urine
    • the urge to urinate often, particularly at night
    • feeling as though the bladder can’t be fully emptied
    • painful urination
    • blood in the urine or blood coming from the urethra independent of urination.

    Blood in the urine is often due to causes not related to the prostate. Always see your doctor if you find blood in your urine.

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