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Secondary Cancers From Prostate Cancer

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Soreness In The Groin

New Approaches to Metastatic Hormone Sensitive Prostate Cancer

When prostate cancer spreads, its common for cancer cells to go to your lymph nodes and then move to more areas of your body. The lymph nodes are a network of glands that help your body filter fluids and fight infections.

There are several lymph nodes in your groin. These are the ones closest to your prostate, so its common for the cancer to spread to them first. Cancer cells prevent your lymph nodes from draining fluid and working properly. When this happens, your lymph nodes swell. As a result, you might experience pain or soreness in the area.

The Most Common Prostate Cancer: Adenocarcinoma

These cancers start in the gland cells of the prostate. Gland cells make prostate fluid. This fluid combines with sperm to make semen. When you get cancer in these cells, you could have one of two types:

Acinar adenocarcinoma. Most people get this type. It develops in the gland cells that line the prostate gland.

Ductal adenocarcinoma. This kind starts in the cells that line the ducts of the prostate gland. Itâs usually more aggressive than the other type. That means it grows and spreads more quickly.

Bladder Cancer After Radiation Therapy For Prostate Cancer

There is evidence that patients diagnosed with prostate cancer share an increased relative risk for primary bladder cancer occurrence irrespective of the treatment modality used .

Epidemiological studies show a higher rate of bladder cancer in patients receiving radiation for prostate cancer compared with patients who underwent surgery or watchful waiting . Bladder cancer cases diagnosed following prostatic radiation therapy differ in histology and biological behavior from bladder cancers diagnosed in patients with prostate cancer who did not receive radiation therapy. Histology in these cases shows an undifferentiated malignant tumor which does not resemble prostate adenocarcinoma. Radiation has been shown to be associated with the in vitro progression of low-grade urothelial tumors to high-grade tumors and a higher rate of p53 mutations .

In the vast majority, the secondary bladder carcinomas are high grade and muscle invasive at diagnosis. Moreover, bladder cancer-specific survival is worse in the population of patients who present with secondary bladder cancer following radiation for prostate cancer versus patients not treated with radiation .

Studies have suggested an increased bladder cancer risk after radiation for prostate cancer with a risk ratio of approximately 1.5 .

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Treatment For Metastatic Cancer

There are treatments for most types of metastatic cancer. Often, the goal of treating metastatic cancer is to control it by stopping or slowing its growth. Some people can live for years with metastatic cancer that is well controlled. Other treatments may improve the quality of life by relieving symptoms. This type of care is called palliative care. It can be given at any point during treatment for cancer.

The treatment that you may have depends on your type of primary cancer, where it has spread, treatments youve had in the past, and your general health. To learn about treatment options, including clinical trials, find your type of cancer among the PDQ® Cancer Information Summaries for Adult Treatment and Pediatric Treatment.

Second Cancers After Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Treatment options for localized and metastatic prostate cancer and the ...

Cancer survivors can be affected by a number of health problems, but often their greatest concern is facing cancer again. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is seldom cured, but it can often be treated and controlled for a long time. During this time, some people with CLL may develop a new, unrelated cancer later. This is called a second cancer.

Unfortunately, being treated for cancer doesnt mean you cant get another cancer. People who have had cancer can still get the same types of cancers that other people get. In fact, certain types of cancer and cancer treatments can be linked to a higher risk of certain second cancers.

People with CLL can get any type of second cancer, but they have an increased risk of:

People with CLL need to see their doctors regularly. Let your doctor know if you have any new symptoms or problems. These may be from the CLL, or they may be from some other cancer or disease. Also be sure to get your routine cancer screening tests and well check-ups. These can help find problems early, when they’re usually easier to treat.

All people with CLL should avoid tobacco smoke, as smoking increases the risk of many cancers and might further increase the risk of some of the second cancers seen in patients with CLL.

See Second Cancers in Adults for more information about causes of second cancers.

Last Revised: May 10, 2018

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What If You Have Metastatic Hormone

If your doctor tells you that you have this type of metastatic prostate cancer, it means your cancer responds to hormone therapy

Most prostate cancer cells need male sex hormones, including androgens like testosterone, to grow. A type of hormone therapy like androgen deprivation therapy could slow the growth of mHSPC by lowering the level of these hormones.

You could also ask your doctor if youâre eligible for any clinical trials.

Still, some people with mHSPC prefer to avoid or delay getting treatment with an option called active surveillance. Thatâs when your doctor keeps close tabs on your health but doesnât give you treatment unless test results show your cancer is getting worse.

You could ask your doctor if watchful waiting is an option for you.

What You Need To Know About The Prostate Secondary Cancers From Prostate Cancer

The main purpose of the prostate is to produce semen, a milky fluid that sperm swims in. During puberty, the body produces semen in a large number of cases, including enlarged prostate. This fluid causes the prostate to swell and cause a number of bladder-related symptoms. This is why the prostate is important to the body. It can be caused by many factors, including infection and inflammation.

A enlarged prostate can also cause blockages in the urethra. A blocked urethra can also damage the kidneys. A patient suffering from an enlargement of the prostate may have pain in his lower abdomen and genitals. If pain is present, a digital rectal examination will reveal hard areas. A doctor may prescribe surgery or perform an endoscopic procedure. If the enlarged prostate is not completely removed, it will shrink.

While the size of an enlarged prostate will influence the extent of urinary symptoms, men may experience a range of urinary symptoms. Some men have minimal or no symptoms at all. Some men will have a very enlarged prostate, whereas others will have a mild enlargement. Generally, the symptoms can stabilize over time. Some men may have an enlarged prostate but not notice it. If they have an enlarged colon, their physician can perform a TURP procedure.

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Selection And Data Extraction

Two authors performed study selection. Titles and abstracts were screened for initial study inclusion, with full text review when the abstract was insufficient to determine if the study met the inclusion or exclusion criteria. Final agreement on study inclusion was made by discussion and consensus with other authors. Two reviewers performed all data extraction including evaluation of study characteristics, risk of bias, and outcome measures. Key variables were selected based on clinical and methodological relevance. Two authors pilot tested the data abstraction form to ensure completeness. Discrepancies were resolved through consensus . Study authors were contacted when suitable data were not available.

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Radiation Centers, Secondary Cancers, IMRT vs Brachytherapy | Ask a Prostate Expert, Mark Scholz, MD

An enlarged prostate can also be the cause of other problems. If the enlarged prostate is causing symptoms, the best treatment would be a natural remedy. In the meantime, there are treatments for a wide range of conditions that cause a man to experience pain. A common surgical procedure involves an electric loop, laser, or electro-stimulation. The procedure is a safe and effective option for treating enlarged or symptomatic BPH.

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Aggressive Prostate Cancer Subtype More Common Than Expected

t-SCNC is diagnosed by its appearance under the microscope. Compared with adenocarcinoma , t-SCNC cells are smaller and more crowded together.

The researchers also found genetic differences between t-SCNC and the adenocarcinoma subtype, which accounts for most prostate cancers at diagnosis. Taking advantage of these unique features may improve the diagnosis and treatment of t-SCNC, said lead investigator Rahul Aggarwal, M.D., of the University of California, San Francisco.

The study was published July 9 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

The fact that nearly 20% had this subtype is a surprise, said William Dahut, M.D., head of the Prostate Cancer Clinical Research Section of NCIs Center for Cancer Research. Thats a greater percentage than we thought.

This finding could lead to clinical trials specifically for men with this subtype of prostate cancer, Dr. Dahut added.

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Surgical procedures to remove the diseased prostate are usually necessary. Surgical procedures are not always necessary. If the disease is caused by bacterial infections, a doctor can treat the symptoms using alpha-blockers or surgery. Physical therapy, relaxation exercises, and warm baths are all recommended. A physician may also prescribe antibiotics to cure the infection. A bacterial infection can also cause a recurrence of the condition.

An enlarged prostate can be uncomfortable for both men and women. Some of the symptoms of an enlarged male reproductive organ include a weakened urine stream, urgent need to urinate, and urinary tract infections. BPH can also cause damage to the kidneys. A sudden inability to urinate can be life-threatening, as it can lead to bladder and kidney damage. Unfortunately, most men with enlarged prostrates put up with the symptoms for years before they seek treatment. However, many of the men with symptoms finally decide to go to a doctor for proper gynecological evaluation and to begin enlarged prostatic therapy.

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How We Treat Prostate Cancer

The prognosis for metastatic prostate cancer can be discouraging, but some treatment centerslike the Johns Hopkins Precision Medicine Center of Excellence for Prostate Cancerspecialize in innovative, individualized therapy with the potential to improve outcomes.

What Are The Chances Of Getting Metastatic Prostate Cancer

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About 50% of men diagnosed with local prostate cancer will get metastatic cancer during their lifetime. Finding cancer early and treating it can lower that rate.

A small percentage of men aren’t diagnosed with prostate cancer until it has become metastatic. Doctors can find out if it’s metastatic cancer when they take a small sample of the tissue and study the cells.

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Bladder And Urinary Troubles

A prostate tumor that has grown significantly in size may start to press on your bladder and urethra. The urethra is the passage the carries urine from your bladder out of your body. If the tumor is pressing on your urethra, you might have trouble passing urine.

One of the common areas for prostate cancer to spread to is the bladder, because the two organs are close. This can cause additional problems with urination and bladder function.

Some symptoms your bladder and urethra are being affected by cancer include:

  • urinating more frequently
  • getting up in the middle of the night to pee
  • having blood in your urine or semen
  • feeling like you have to urinate often and not actually passing anything

Its not as common, but prostate cancer can also spread to your bowel. The cancer first spreads to the rectum, which is the part of your bowel closest to the prostate gland.

Symptoms of cancer thats spread to the bowels include:

  • stomach pain

Incidence Of Second Malignancies For Prostate Cancer

  • * E-mail:

    Affiliation Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Division of Cancer Studies, School of Medicine, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom

  • Affiliations Foundation National Institute for Cancer Epidemiology and Registration , Zurich, Switzerland, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

  • Affiliation Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Division of Cancer Studies, School of Medicine, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom

  • Affiliation Cancer Registry Zurich and Zug, Zurich, Switzerland

  • Affiliation Cancer Registry Zurich and Zug, Zurich, Switzerland

  • Affiliation Cancer Registry Zurich and Zug, Zurich, Switzerland

  • Affiliation Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

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Comparison With Other Studies

To our knowledge, there is only one other meta-analysis on this subject in addition to non-systematic reviews of the literature.1112131415 Our review differs from the previous meta-analysis15 on this topic, which included only four studies. We identified significantly more studies and even among them we had to select studies from SEER cohort. In addition, most of their analyses relied on a single publication.40 Further, they did not assess different radiotherapy techniques separately. Ours is the first attempt to quantify available knowledge on the subject in the most comprehensive, reproducible, and methodologically appropriate fashion.

Secondary primary cancers can arise because of common etiologic factors, including genetic predispositions, or effects related to treatment. Further, there might be issues of diagnostic bias when comparisons are made between treated patients and the general population. Considering that the comparison between patients treated with radiotherapy and those treated with surgery showed similar results to the main analysis, however, our data suggest that secondary cancers are largely because of effects related to treatment.

What Can You Do

Local Therapy – Managing Locoregional Complications in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

After completing treatment for thyroid cancer, you should see your doctor regularly. You may also have tests to look for signs that the cancer has come back or spread. Experts do not recommend any additional testing to look for second cancers in patients without symptoms. Let your doctor know about any new symptoms or problems, because they could be caused by the thyroid cancer coming back or by a new disease or second cancer.

Patients who have completed treatment should keep up with early detection tests for other types of cancer.

All patients should be encouraged to avoid tobacco smoke, as smoking increases the risk of many cancers.

To help maintain good health, survivors should also:

  • Get to and stay at a healthy weight
  • Keep physically active and limit the time you spend sitting or lying down
  • Follow a healthy eating pattern that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and limits or avoids red and processed meats, sugary drinks, and highly processed foods
  • Not drink alcohol. If you do drink, have no more than 1 drink per day for women or 2 per day for men

These steps may also lower the risk of some other health problems.

See Second Cancers in Adults for more information about causes of second cancers.

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Second Cancers After Bladder Cancer

Cancer survivors can be affected by a number of health problems, but often a major concern is facing cancer again. If a cancer comes back after treatment it’s called a recurrence. But some cancer survivors may develop a new, unrelated cancer later. This is called a second cancer.

Being treated for bladder cancer doesnt mean you cant get another cancer. Survivors of bladder cancer can get any type of second cancer, but they have an increased risk these cancers compared to the general population:

  • A second bladder cancer
  • Cancer of the renal pelvis/ureter

Many of these cancers have been clearly linked to smoking, which is also a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Talk to your doctor if you need help to quit smoking.

Rectal Cancer After Radiation Therapy For Prostate Cancer

The risk of developing cancer of the rectum after radiation therapy for prostate cancer is similar to the risk of having a first-degree relative with colorectal cancer. There is evidence that radiation shifts the patients from normal to moderate risk for rectal cancer. Baxter and colleagues reported a significant increase in the development of rectal cancer, indicating that the effect was specific to directly irradiated tissue. The observed hazard ratio for radiation therapy and subsequent rectal cancer was 1.7 . Results from the SEER database estimated the relative risk of rectal cancer developing after EBRT, brachytherapy, and EBRTbrachytherapy compared with radical prostatectomy to be 1.26, 1.08, and 1.21, respectively .

On the other hand, a large analysis of 33,831 patients who received radiation for prostate cancer did not reveal the presence of measurable risk for the subsequent development of rectal cancer .

It seems that there is a relatively increased risk of rectal cancer for patients that underwent radiation therapy for prostate cancer. However, it is still not clear whether this risk should be solely attributed to the effects of radiation alone.

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Symptoms Of Metastatic Cancer

Metastatic cancer does not always cause symptoms. When symptoms do occur, what they are like and how often you have them will depend on the size and location of the metastatic tumors. Some common signs of metastatic cancer include:

  • pain and fractures, when cancer has spread to the bone
  • headache, seizures, or dizziness, when cancer has spread to the brain
  • shortness of breath, when cancer has spread to the lung
  • jaundice or swelling in the belly, when cancer has spread to the liver

Second Cancers After Colorectal Cancer

A generalized overview of prostate cancer (PCa) progression ...

Colorectal cancer survivors can be affected by a number of health problems, but often a major concern is facing cancer again. Cancer that comes back after treatment is called a recurrence. But some cancer survivors develop a new, unrelated cancer later. This is called a second cancer.

Unfortunately, being treated for colorectal cancer doesnt mean you cant get another cancer. People who have had colorectal cancer can still get the same types of cancers that other people get. In fact, they might be at higher risk for certain types of cancer.

People who have had colon cancer can get any type of second cancer, but they have an increased risk of:

  • A second colon cancer
  • Rectal cancer
  • Kidney cancer
  • Cancer of the ureter

People who have had rectal cancer can get any type of second cancer, but they are at increased risk of:

The increased risk with some of these cancers may be due to shared risk factors, such as diet, obesity, and physical activity. Genetics may also be a factor. For example, people with Lynch syndrome have an increased risk of many of these cancers.

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