What Are The Symptoms Of Bph
Since the prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body, it is easy to see that enlargement of the prostate can lead to blockage of the tube. You may develop:
- Slowness or dribbling of your urinary stream
- Hesitancy or difficulty starting to urinate
- Feeling of urgency or sudden need to urinate
- Need to get up at night to urinate
As symptoms progress, you may develop:
- Damage to your kidneys from back pressure caused by retaining large amounts of extra urine in the bladder
- Sudden blockage of the urinary tube, making urination impossible
Hormonal Measures And Prostate Size
Men with higher testosterone trended toward larger prostates , though greater testosterone is not associated with risk of BPH in a linear fashion , controlling for age and height. Individuals in the lowest quintile of testosterone had smaller prostates and significantly less BPH than those in the top two quintiles controlling for height and age .
There was a strong positive correlation between PSA and both prostate size and risk of BPH controlling for age and height. The median PSA in this sample was 0.88ng/mL . Men with PSA greater than 4ng/mL were more likely to present with BPH .
SHBG was not associated with prostate size , or BPH .
Basic Characteristics Of Freshly Resected Prostates
The mean prostate weight was 47.1g, ranging from 22.2g to 115.9g for the 153-patient cohort. The weight range of the series of 8 prostates used in the water displacement experiments, that are representative of radical prostatectomy cohorts, was from 21.0g to 82.2g, with a mean weight of 50.2g and diverging from the overall cohort by 6.6%. Based on the new ISUP Grade Grouping the 8 prostates were classified as: 2 GG 1 5 GG 2 and 1 GG 3 pT2c to pT3b 5 to 10% tumor volume. Using Archimedes Principle, we determined the density of the average prostate to be 1.02±0.01g/cc.
You May Like: Does An Enlarged Prostate Affect A Man Sexually
Population Standard Error Of The Mean
Let us consider our 301 prostate volumes as a population. The mean of the 301 volumes becomes the population mean =36.47 ml and the standard deviation =18.04 ml. If we randomly draw prostate volumes, they will generally be somewhat different from one another, and these differences will follow some frequency distribution is the standard deviation of this distribution. Similarly, if we calculate means m1, m2, , from repeated samples, they will generally be somewhat different one from another and will follow some frequency distribution the SEM is the standard deviation of this distribution. It is often symbolized as m. It will be smaller than , because it reflects the behavior of 301 observations rather than 1. It turns out that
Mack RoachIII MD, FACR, … Peter Carroll MD, MPH, in, 2010
What Is The Normal Prostate Size
A small prostate has a volume of 30 ml to 40 ml and a weight of 20 g to 70 g. A medium prostate has a volume of 40 ml to 80 ml and a weight of 20 g to 125g . A large prostate has a volume of 40ml to 100 ml and a weight of 40 g to 125 g.
Around age 40, prostate gland begins to grow. With a benign prostatic hyperplasia , glands size can increase by 4 to 5 times compared to its initial size.
Détection précoce du cancer de la prostate, Actualisation du référentiel de pratiques de lexamen périodique de santé , document PDF , HAS, mai 2013
Recommended Reading: Is Cranberry Juice Good For Prostate Infection
Example: Distribution Of Prostate Volumes
Figure 5.6 shows prostate volume for 291 patients in the 50- to 89-year age range separated into decades of age: 50s, 60s, 70s, and 80s. The means are shown by solid circles. The whiskers indicate about 2 standard errors above and below the mean, which includes 95% of the data on an idealized distribution. We can see by inspection that the mean volumes appear to increase somewhat by age, but that there is so much overlap in the variability that we are not sure this increase is a dependably real phenomenon from decade to decade. However, we would take a small risk in being wrong by concluding that the increase from the youngest to the oldest is a real change.
Figure 5.6. Prostate volume means for 297 men allocated to their decades of age, with attached whiskers representing about two standard deviations above and below the respective means.
R.H. Riffenburgh, in, 2012
Relationship Between Measured And Estimated Prostate Volumes
The estimated volume from TRUS imaging assumes an ellipsoid geometrical shape of the prostate using the formula . In order to identify the best coefficient for this series of 153 fresh prostate specimens, we used the measured prostate weight converted to measured prostate volume by using 1.02g/cc as the density, as defined above. Thus, the mean measured volume of our cohort was 48.1cc .
Measured prostate volumes along with TRUS-obtained prostate dimensions were then used to calculate a new coefficient from the rearranged algebraic formula: Coefficient=V/L x H x W, where L, H and W were all obtained by TRUS, and V is the measured prostatic volume of fresh prostates, obtained just after surgery, as mentioned above. This calculation was performed for each of the 153 prostates, which led to a calculated mean coefficient of 0.66.
Linear regression plots were created in order to compare the newfound coefficient of 0.66 with the ellipsoid coefficient of 0.52. Figure a shows that plotting estimated prostate volumes against measured prostate volumes using 0.66 as a coefficient yielded an equation of y=0.892x+8.8829 with an R2 value of 0.42 . By performing the same analysis using 0.52 as the coefficient, the equation generated was y=0.5652x+13.028 with R2=0.32 .
Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3
You May Like: Does An Enlarged Prostate Affect A Man Sexually
Prostate Enlargement And Psa
Cells of the prostate gland release protein known as Prostate Specific Antigen into the bloodstream. This protein can circulate in the bloodstream in two ways: on its own or bound to other proteins. PSA tests are usually conducted to measure the quantity of this antigen in the blood. While free-PSA test measures the quantity of unbound PSA and bound-PSA test measures the quantity of bound PSA, total PSA test in general measures the sum total of both free and bound PSA in the blood.
Study Design And Statistics
Two body imagers with 10 years of experience reading prostate MRIs were assigned the task of measuring total prostatic volume using T2-weighted MRI on the 140 patient cohort. They were provided with a spreadsheet showing only the patient hospital identification numbers. After determining the total prostate volumes, these spreadsheets were returned to the administrator. Intra-rater reliability was tested only on the experts data. Re-measurement of prostate volume was done between 3 and 9 months after primary measures. Inter-rater reliability for continuous variables for volumes was analyzed for actual paired case-to-case correlation using the Pearson product moment and Lins Coefficient of Concordance. Linear regression was calculated to find r2 values, Y intercepts, p values and 95% confidence intervals . These were calculated from the open access statistical programs at the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research and QI Macro Statistics® . Measurements of the administrator were used as a proxy for gross pathological specimen weight for the determination of rater accuracy. Correlations were analyzed by linear regression and graphed. A comparison of means was also done after the data was available to establish data normality. Significance was defined as p0.05.
Recommended Reading: What Is Perineural Invasion In Prostate Cancer
If You Have Any Problems
If you have any discomfort when urinating, any pain in the area around the prostate or any indication of a problem, the recommendation is to visit a urologist who can examine you to determine the source of discomfort or the problem.
It is important to visit a urologist whenever you feel the smallest discomfort, as the problem could get worse with time.
This article is merely informative, oneHOWTO does not have the authority to prescribe any medical treatments or create a diagnosis. We invite you to visit your doctor if you have any type of condition or pain.
If you want to read similar articles to What is the Normal Size of the Prostate, we recommend you visit our Family health category.
Know Your Prostate Size
June 24, 2015 by Paactusa
Know Your Prostate Size
Since everyone is different, it should be no surprise that every mans prostate is a different size. Heres why it can matter and how it can help to know: What IS surprising to me after over a decade as an advocate, and on a Helpline, is that most men dont know what size their prostate is, and most men are never even told.
SCREENING For men who are PSA testing and screening for prostate cancer, it is very helpful to know how large or small your prostate is because it bares on how much PSA you should be making. I have seen different experts use different formulas, but in simple terms, a 60cc prostate should make twice the PSA of a 30cc prostate. I know there is an age-specific PSA, but honestly, it is based on the reality that a prostate gets larger as you get older, but if thats the case, why not find out what size it really is? Ive had a couple of Helpline callers in their 70s one with a 17 cc prostate and the other with a 200 cc prostate. And, yes they were both in their 70s. So how does age-specific PSA work for them? So ask your urologist for a number What is the size of my prostate? This may be an estimate, but that is still helpful. An urologist can estimate on DRE , and if youve ever had a biopsy, there is an ultrasound report from the biopsy that has a measurement and should have a number a prostate volume or size. Ask for it.
Also Check: How To Massage A Man’s Prostate
Enlarged Prostate Volume Of Urine
Didn’t find the answer you are looking for?
Talk to experienced doctor online and get your health questions answered in just 5 minutes.
Kidney and Urinary Problems?
The question asked on this page is a free question. You can ask a free health question by downloading the Practo app.
Why You Should Know Your Prostate Volume
Sadly, most men do not know their prostate volume or size. This is usually the case because most patients do not see the need to know the exact statistics and description of their prostate but there are several reasons why you should know your prostate size.
Firstly, some treatment methods are simply inadequate for large prostate sizes. For instance, surrounding tissues such as the rectum or bladder may be damaged on treating patients with very large prostate size with cryotherapy and radiation. The aforementioned treatment methods should not be used for treating prostate volume larger than 60 cubic centimeters.
Your prostate size would also determine how much PSA test or screening you need. For instance, patients with prostate size about 80 cubic centimeters would require twice the PSA test of a patient with 40 cubic centimeters. Thus, age-specific PSA may not really give a very accurate result because men of similar age can have very different prostate sizes.
Also Check: No Ejaculate Flomax
For Confidence On 2 Or
We know that sample variance s2 drawn randomly from a normal population is distributed as 2×2/df. A confidence-type statement on 2 from this relationship, with the additional twist that the asymmetric distribution requires the chi-square values excluding 1/2 in each tail to be found separately, is given by
R.H. Riffenburgh, in, 2012
Preventing The Increase In Prostate Volume
Of course, an enlarged prostate volume can be reduced with the aforementioned targeted treatment methods and even more. However, it is often better to prevent the mayhem from occurring in the first place. The prostate health should be taken care of early enough to prevent and reduce the chances of prostate related diseases from occurring.
Interestingly, your lifestyle can determine the health of your prostate. It is recommended that men eat healthy prostate diet such as pumpkin, berries, nuts, green tea, watermelon, vegetables etc and reduce the consumption of unhealthy foods such as red meat, processed meat, and so forth. The prostate should be exercised. One of the functions of prostate massagers is to vigorously exercise the prostate but you can keep the prostate healthy early enough through regular exercises. Men should have a quality sex life celibate lifestyle may be morally right but it is not healthy for the prostate. Finally, make sure you visit your doctor often to know the health status of your prostate and deal with any prostate-related condition early enough.
Don’t Miss: Is Cranberry Juice Good For Prostate Infection
Enlarged Prostate Doctor In Northern Virginia
The prostate, part of the male reproductive system, is about the same size and shape as a walnut and weighs about an ounce. Around half of men over the age of 50 have an enlarged prostate , making it a prevalent mens health issue in the United States today. Our board certified urologists at are experts in diagnosing and treating BPH to relieve symptoms like urinary dysfunction and restore your health. Call Potomac Urology in Alexandria and Woodbridge to schedule a consultation online today if youre concerned about BPH.
Comparison Of Measured Prostate Volume And Trus Estimated Prostate Volume
We further examined the percent-difference in volumes between measured and estimated volumes using the three formulas for our primary cohort . In comparison to the measured volume, the ellipsoid formula revealed an underestimation of the volume by a mean of 8.80cc , whereas the bullet formula overestimated prostate volumes by 1.97cc . Finally, when comparing measured prostate volumes to TRUS-estimated volumes using our new formula with 0.66 as the coefficient, there was an overestimation by a mean of 2.76cc .
Also Check: What Is Perineural Invasion In Prostate Cancer
How Is Bph Diagnosed
After evaluating your medical history and giving you a complete physical, your doctor will perform a digital rectal examination.
Because the prostate gland is in front of the rectum, the doctor can feel if the back of the gland has any abnormalities during this examination. This enables the doctor to estimate the size of the prostate and to detect any hard areas that could be cancer.
Several studies may be done to help diagnose your condition:
- A urine test called a urinalysis
- A seven-question BPH Symptom Score Index survey to evaluate the severity of your symptoms
- A flow study to see if the urine stream is slow compared with normal flow
- A study to detect how much urine is left in the bladder after urination
How To Understand Psa Levels
As men get older, they almost all develop enlargement of the prostate. Invariably, PSA rises as a result. PSA comes both from the prostate gland and potentially, in some cases, from prostate cancer. This is what confuses things. PSA can come from both cancer and the benign prostate gland. So when checking PSA, the question should never be, “Is it above a pre-specified arbitrary threshold such as 2.5 or 4.0?” The question should be, “Is the PSA elevated above what should be expected based on the size of the prostate?”
The size of a mans prostate can be estimated by a digital rectal examination by a well-trained doctor. However, in my experience, very few physicians are skillful at estimating the prostate size by digital examination. Therefore, in most cases, prostate size can only be determined by measuring it with an ultrasound or MRI. Ultrasounds can be performed in the doctors office by a urologist. MRI is usually performed at a specialized imaging center. Modern prostate MRI imaging technology, termed 3-T multi-parametric MRI, is gaining in popularity and becoming more widely available.
Don’t Miss: What Is Perineural Invasion In Prostate Cancer
What Is The Function Of The Prostate
The prostate plays a fundamental role in the formation of seminal fluid, making sure it produces the correct volume. Their secretions also benefit the mobility of sperm, ensuring that they arrive safely to the egg to fertilize it.
Additionally, this gland is responsible for protecting men from urinary tract infections and maintains a healthy bladder, so it is paramount that it is in perfect condition.
Is My Prostate Size Normal
I got a pelvic ultrasound and my prostate size was reported as 4 x 2.7 x 4 cm. It was reported to be “normal in size.”
From what I understand, prostate size should be 30 cc. By a simple volume calculation , the size of my prostate is 43 cc. I had been having mild chronic prostatitis symptoms for years.
So my question is, is my prostate enlarged or normal? And am I calculating the size wrong?
0 likes, 15 replies
Posted 4 years ago
I have read that normal weight should be 20-25g and size approximately4x2x3cm. I have no idea how anyone can tell how much it weighs! If you have mild prostatitis yours possibly is larger than “normal”. It’s probably like anything else, each person will differ. This forum is great and I’m sure a lot more people will be along to offer advice soon.
Posted 4 years ago
They just put two fingers under it and know from experience how much it weighs. It seems not to need much training to do it as GP’s who do not do it very often usually get it right. Now they are training nurses to do initial consultations to decide who needs passing up the chain. Every DRE estimate I’ve had has later been confirmed by a TRUSS or cystoscopy.
Size does not mean a lot it depends on where it is pressing and causing an obstuction. Mine was reduced from 135grm to 55grm in my last laser procedure.The 55gms of tissue left is not causing any problem.
You May Like: Do Females Have Prostate Cancer