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What Causes Prostate Cancer In Men

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Four Key Mistakes To Avoid If You Are Diagnosed With Low

What Causes of Prostate Cancer in Men

Here are key mistakes Dr. Hu has identified

  • Mistake: Automatically opting for treatment when you have low-risk prostate cancer.;Even though treatment for low-risk prostate cancer is generally;not;recommended, in the recent study, more than 85% of the men with low-risk prostate cancer chose to have some sort of treatment. The most common treatment was radiation therapy , and the second most common was surgery . Just 15% opted to skip treatment. The good news is that, as the study went on, there was a trend toward a greater percentage of men opting for active surveillancea trend that has accelerated according to recent surveys. However, Dr. Hu thinks too many men are;still;missing out on this proven approach.
  • Mistake: Choosing active surveillancebut not doing follow-up tests.;According to the results of this study,;fewer than 5%;of the men who skipped treatment complied with recommended monitoring. They had fewer office visits, and fewer repeat PSA tests, compared with men who had some form of active treatmentand only 13% underwent a second biopsy within two years, as recommended.

If abnormalities are detected on the digital rectal examination or PSA test, patients should undergo urologic evaluation with transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. No further urologic evaluation is necessary in patients who have an unremarkable digital rectal examination and a normal serum PSA level, because the incidence of prostate cancer is only 0.4 percent in this group.15

Talking With Your Doctor

Different kinds of doctors and other health care professionals manage prostate health. They can help you find the best care, answer your questions, and address your concerns. These health care professionals include:

  • Family doctors and internists
  • Physician assistants and nurse practitioners
  • Urologists, who are experts in diseases of the urinary tract system and the male reproductive system
  • Urologic oncologists, who are experts in treating cancers of the urinary system and the male reproductive system
  • Radiation oncologists, who use radiation therapy to treat cancer
  • Medical oncologists, who treat cancer with medications such as hormone treatments and chemotherapy
  • Pathologists, who identify diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope

View these professionals as your partnersâexpert advisors and helpers in your health care. Talking openly with your doctors can help you learn more about your prostate changes and the tests to expect.

The Most Typical Signs Of Prostate Cancer

  • Uncomfortable and dull pain
  • Nocturia
  • Unexplained weight or appetite loss
  • Bone pain;

But, there is a major crossover in symptoms between benign conditions, like BPH and prostate carcinoma. This makes it very challenging to distinguish these two very different conditions. Thats where prostate cancer screening can help identify the problem.;

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How Do You Know If You Have Prostate Cancer

Theres no way of knowing if you have prostate cancer without visiting your doctor, as most men with early prostate cancer dont have any symptoms. And if you do have symptoms they can be caused by other things.

And you cant check for prostate cancer yourself.

You may want to speak to your GP if you’re;over 50;, even if you don’t have any symptoms. These are all things that can increase your;risk of prostate cancer. Your GP can give more information or tests if necessary.

If youre not sure about what to say to your GP, print and fill out this;form;and show it to them. This will help you have the conversation.

I thought I could be at risk after learning that African Caribbean men are more likely to get prostate cancer than white men.

Risk Of Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer Causes

About 1 man in 8;will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime.

Prostate cancer is more likely to develop in older men and in non-Hispanic Black men. About 6 cases in 10 are diagnosed in men who are 65 or older, and it is rare in men under 40. The average age of men at diagnosis is about 66.

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As Screening Falls Will More Men Die From Prostate Cancer

In active monitoring, men with localized prostate cancer do not get surgery or radiation right after theyre diagnosed. Instead, they have regular biopsies, blood tests, and MRIs to see if their cancer is progressing. If it is, they can receive treatment.

Although some oncologists advise men with early, low-grade prostate cancer to choose active surveillance and professional groups such as the American Society of Clinical Oncology recommend it; many patients recoil at;what sounds like lets just wait for your cancer to become really advanced.;A decade ago fewer than 10 percent of;men diagnosed with prostate cancer chose monitoring, UCLA researchers found. But that is changing. Now at least half;of men do.

That made sense to Garth Callaghan, author of the best-selling Napkin Notes, a book;of missives he tucked into his daughters lunch box. Diagnosed with early prostate cancer in 2012, he said, none of the choices seemed particularly attractive to a 43-year-old man who dreaded the possibility of side effects of surgery or radiation, including incontinence and impotence. I was completely torn. My previous experience was, just get it out of my body. But after his doctor explained that prostate cancer is grossly overtreated in the United States, I did a complete 180 and chose active monitoring.

Questions You May Want To Consider Asking Your Doctor Include:

  • What type of prostate problem do I have?
  • Is more testing needed and what will it tell me?
  • If I decide on watchful waiting, what changes in my symptoms should I look for and how often should I be tested?
  • What type of treatment do you recommend for my prostate problem?
  • For men like me, has this treatment worked?
  • How soon would I need to start treatment and how long would it last?
  • Do I need medicine and how long would I need to take it before seeing improvement in my symptoms?
  • What are the side effects of the medicine?
  • Are there other medicines that could interfere with this medication?
  • If I need surgery, what are the benefits and risks?
  • Would I have any side effects from surgery that could affect my quality of life?
  • Are these side effects temporary or permanent?
  • How long is recovery time after surgery?
  • Will I be able to fully return to normal?
  • How will this affect my sex life?
  • How often should I visit the doctor to monitor my condition?
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Risk Factors You Cant Control

Age: The risk of developing prostate cancer increases with age. One in 10,000 men younger than 40 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, but one in 15 men in their 60s will be diagnosed with the disease.

Family history: Being born with a gene mutation is one of the unavoidable risks of prostate cancer. Two of them include the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations. BRCA and other inherited mutations, including HOXB13 and DNA mismatch repair genes, may explain why prostate cancer runs in families. Having a father or brother with prostate cancer may double a mans risk, especially if that relative was diagnosed before age 55.

Hormones: The level of male sex hormones, called androgens, may be higher in some men than others. Higher levels of androgensmainly testosteronehave been linked to a higher risk of prostate cancer. Men who use testosterone therapy are at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer, as an increase in testosterone stimulates the growth of the prostate gland.

Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia : This condition may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. PIN is a condition in which prostate gland cells look abnormal when examined with a microscope. Its not necessarily linked with any symptoms. Nearly half of men will be diagnosed with PIN before age 50.

Race: Studies show that African-American men are about 70 percent more likely to develop prostate cancer in their lifetime than Caucasian or Hispanic men.

First Steps Towards Holistic Treatment Of Prostate Cancer

What Causes of Prostate Cancer in Men

Since what causes prostate cancer is internal, the solution is also within. So you can find strength in your ability to survive financially and physically on your own, take risks, recover from human or material loss, bounce back and start afresh.

From a spiritual perspective every relationship we develop, helps us to become more conscious. ;The challenge, however, is to associate with people and emotions that support our development and release those that handicap our growth. Most of all, it is important to steer away from any hindrance to your holistic treatment of prostate cancer.

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Risk Prostate Cancer And Being 70 To 80 Years Of Age

So a relatively new article in Reviews in Urology caught your Sitemasters eye this morning and worried him because it seemed to be communicating a conclusion of questionable accuracy, which we will explore below. And if we have misinterpreted the data provide in the paper, we are more than willing to be corrected.

The new paper by Shah and Ioffe is based on a retrospective analysis of data from 5,100 patients of between 70 and 80 years, all of whom received radiation therapy of some type for the treatment of prostate cancer over a 10-year period from 2005 to 2015. The authors state that:

Multiple studies in peer-reviewed journals document that men 70 years and older have more prevalence of prostate cancer, more high-grade disease, more metastases, and more prostate cancer-specific deaths compared with men under 70 years.

That they have a higher prevalence of prostate cancer and more prostate cancer-specific deaths than men of < 70 years is probably undisputed, for the simple reason that they are older, incidence of prostate cancer is well understood to be age-related, and many such patients may well have at least micrometastatic disease by the time they are initially diagnosed . Whether they really have more high-grade disease at time of diagnosis, however, is not quite as clear.

So the first thing that worries us about this study is that it appears to include exclusively men who received treatment for prostate cancer. The authors state this very clearly:

Does Bph Affect Sexual Health

Even after understanding what causes an enlarged prostate, you might still wonder how it affects your sex life.

While BPH doesnt directly affect your sexual function, some medications that treat an enlarged prostate might have sexual side effects, such as ED .

However, if youre experiencing both ED and BPH , some ED medications can also improve BPH.

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When To See A Doctor

Consult with your doctor if you experience any of the symptoms discussed on this page particularly if they have been going on for a while. You will need a thorough work-up to determine the underlying cause, which may or may not be prostate cancer.

Its important to understand that other diseases or disorders can share these same symptoms. Benign prostatic hyperplasia , also called enlargement of the prostate, and are quite common. Men with these benign conditions can experience symptoms more often and more severely than men with prostate cancer.

Erectile dysfunction is relatively common, especially as one ages, and can also have causes unrelated to prostate cancer, such as smoking or cardiovascular disease. Experiencing a lower amount of fluid during ejaculation can be related to something as simple as diet or dehydration.

Its important to keep track of your symptoms, determining whats normal or abnormal for your own body. If you are worried about a particular symptom, or if its interfering with a relationship, you should discuss your concerns with your primary care physician.

Prostate Cancer | Bills Story

Eating A Healthy Diet

Causes and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

Meals packed with veggies and fruits are highly beneficial for the body. They can lessen the risk of cancer and help people maintain optimal overall health. Experts suggest you opt for a low-fat diet, such as low-fat meats, dairy, oils, cheese, and nuts.;

Another option would be to eat more veggies and fruits-particularly those packed with nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. Even though there isnt enough research to prove their efficiency in preventing prostate cancer, they are a good way of enhancing the immune system.;

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What Is The Prostate

The prostate is a small gland in men that helps make semen. Located just below the bladder in front of the rectum, it wraps around the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. It tends to grow larger as you get older. If your prostate gets too large, it can cause a number of health issues.

Tests Used To Check The Prostate

This first step lets your doctor hear and understand the “story” of your prostate concerns. You’ll be asked whether you have symptoms, how long you’ve had them, and how much they affect your lifestyle. Your personal medical history also includes any risk factors, pain, fever, or trouble passing urine. You may be asked to give a urine sample for testing.

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Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer

One of the challenges of prostate cancer is that it often doesnt present symptoms that alert men to its presence, particularly in the early stages. But the Urology Care Foundation notes that there may be some warning signs that you have problems related to your prostate, including the following:

  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Hip, back or thigh pain
  • Reduced appetite
  • Weight loss
  • If you get screened for prostate cancer, there are additional warning signs based on how the prostate gland cells look under a microscope, notes the American Cancer Society. Cells that may be concerning will exhibit some level of what is known as prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia . These cells may exhibit low-grade PIN, in which something is slightly off with the cells, or high-grade PIN, when they show clear abnormalities.

    Under a microscope, prostate gland cells may also exhibit what is known as proliferative inflammatory atrophy . PIA indicates cells that are smaller than normal and show some signs of inflammation. These cells may be worth additional monitoring because they could develop high-grade PIN and ultimately prostate cancer.

    How To Recognize Prostatic Carcinoma

    What Causes Prostate Cancer

    During its early phases, this cancer is usually asymptomatic. Some cancer patients dont develop any symptoms in the early stage. But, as time passes, the signs are quite similar to that of an enlarged prostate.;

    According to experts, signs often believed to correlate with this cancer feature lower urinary symptoms. They tend to be easy to recognize.

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    You Can Take Action Now To Reduce Your Risk Of Prostate Cancer Later On

    You cant control your genes or what the future may hold. But you can take steps to reduce your risk of prostate cancer through lifestyle choices. For starters:

    • Maintain a healthy diet. A diet full of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins and healthy fats can contribute to your overall health.
    • Exercise regularly. Exercise not only improves your physical health, but also your mood and mental health. Plus, there is some evidence that men who exercise are at a lower risk of developing prostate cancer.
    • Try to maintain a healthy weight. Obesity is a risk factor for prostate cancer.
    • Talk proactively with your doctor about your risk for prostate cancer. If youre over 40 and havent discussed your risk level with your doctor or urologist, I suggest you make an appointment. Depending on your risk factors, you and your doctor can work together to create an action plan that works best for you, which may include a prostate cancer screening.

    Also, if youve been experiencing any unusual urinary or erectile symptoms, dont ignore them. Make a primary care appointment, for starters.

    Your doctor will talk with you about your symptoms, answer your questions and recommend treatment next steps if needed. They may also recommend you see a urologist like me. Urologists are experts in urinary and male reproductive health, including prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.

    How To Prevent Bph

    The role your hormones play in BPH depends mainly on genetics. Of course, you cant stop the aging process, which ultimately causes an enlarged prostate.

    It might seem like theres no way to avert the onset of this condition, but you might be able to postpone it or at least reduce the symptoms if you follow these lifestyle suggestions.

    • Maintain a healthy weight
    • Limit caffeine intake
    • Limit alcohol consumption

    When you live a healthy lifestyle, it notably affects your hormone production and balance in positive ways, making it a critical factor in prostate health and offsetting BPH.

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    What Causes An Enlarged Prostate And Is It Preventable

    If youre a man dealing with prostate problems, youve probably wondered what causes an enlarged prostate aside from the age factor. What exactly is going on down there?

    The walnut-shaped prostate gland is a vital part of the male reproductive system, generating the fluids necessary for semen production. It sits right below the bladder and surrounds the urethra, which means it can directly affect the urinary tract.

    If you live long enough, its nearly inevitable that youll develop an enlarged prostate, also known as BPH . About 30% of men over 50 will develop the condition, and 90% will develop it by age 85.

    But what causes this condition, and is prevention possible?

    Approach To Prostate Cancer Screening

    Symptoms of Prostate Cancer in Men Should Not Be Ignored ...

    Patients generally should be evaluated by a urologist if physical examination of the prostate reveals any area of asymmetry, nodularity or induration, because up to 50 percent of these findings will be caused by prostate cancer.8 The problem with using only the digital rectal examination as a screening tool is that it does not detect cancers before they have spread beyond the prostate. More than 50 percent of prostate cancers diagnosed by digital rectal examination have spread locally or have metastasized to lymph nodes or bone.

    The approach to screening has been revolutionized by the discovery of PSA as a serum marker that is 70 to 80 percent sensitive for prostate cancer. This serum marker is a protein made only by prostate cells. Serum PSA levels are proportional to either the total volume of prostate tissue or the amount of irritation in the prostate . Either increased volume or irritation causes PSA to spill from the prostate into the bloodstream.

    The rightsholder did not grant rights to reproduce this item in electronic media. For the missing item, see the original print version of this publication.

    Once a patient reaches 70 years of age or competing comorbid conditions limit survival beyond 10 to 15 years, consideration can be given to terminating prostate screening as long as the patient remains asymptomatic.

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