Tuesday, May 24, 2022

Is Prostate And Pancreatic Cancer The Same

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What Are The Screening Options For Fpc

Breast Cancer Gene Also Linked To Prostate And Pancreatic Cancers

It is unknown if screening for pancreatic cancer is effective, and there is no routine screening for pancreatic cancer that is currently recommended for the general population. The medical community continues to research who to screen, which tests to use, and how often to use them.

Given that individuals from FPC families, or individuals with germline genetic mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, CDKN2A, ATM, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, STK11,;and EPCAM, are at increased risk for pancreatic cancer, there is special interest in researching pancreatic cancer screening for these high-risk individuals. Its important to talk with your doctor about the screening options below, as each person is different.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging An MRI uses magnetic fields to produce detailed images of the pancreas.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound A thin, lighted tube is passed through the patient’s mouth and stomach. The tube goes down into the small intestine to take a picture of the pancreas.

Screening options are likely to change over time as new technologies are developed and more is learned about FPC. Its important to talk with your doctor about screening tests that are right for you. Learn more about what to expect when having common tests, procedures, and scans.

Professor Keeps Focus On Silver Lining After Pancreatic And Prostate Cancer

Since he was a boy, Bruce Horwitz has enjoyed photography. He shared some of his favorite recent photos.

Since he was a boy, Bruce Horwitz has enjoyed photography. He shared some of his favorite recent photos.

Since he was a boy, Bruce Horwitz has enjoyed photography. He shared some of his favorite recent photos.

Since he was a boy, Bruce Horwitz has enjoyed photography. He shared some of his favorite recent photos.

It is Bruce Horwitzs nature to see silver linings. Hes a clinical psychologist and an assistant professor of psychiatry at the MU School of Medicine, and he tries to practice what he preaches. That outlook was tested in August 2017 when mild abdominal pain led to a devastating diagnosis.

Its hard to find the silver lining in pancreatic cancer.

I looked at a lot of research when I was diagnosed, and it just made me feel worse, Horwitz said. It was very depressing at first.

Three years later, Horwitz, 71, has a different perspective. The genetic testing he received during treatment for his pancreatic cancer alerted him that he might be at risk for other cancers. That prompted him to be tested for prostate cancer. He indeed had an aggressive form of that disease, but because it was discovered early, it was treatable.

So, in a way, pancreatic cancer saved his life. Hows that for a silver lining?

You have to take an active interest in your own health care, he said.

Can I Lower My Risk Of Getting A Second Cancer

There are steps you can take to lower your risk and stay as healthy as possible. For example, prostate cancer survivors should do their best to stay away from all tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Smoking can increase the risk of bladder cancer, as well as increase the risk of many other cancers.

To help maintain good health, prostate cancer survivors should also:

  • Get to;and stay at a healthy weight
  • Keep physically active and limit the time you spend sitting or lying down
  • Follow a healthy eating pattern that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and limits or avoids red and processed meats, sugary drinks, and highly processed foods
  • Not drink alcohol. If you do drink, have no more than 1 drink per day for women or 2 per day for men

These steps may also lower the risk of some other health problems.

See Second Cancers in Adults to learn a lot more about the causes of second cancers.

Our team is made up of doctors and;oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

Bostrom PJ, Soloway MS. Secondary cancer after radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Should we be more aware of the risk?;Eur Urol. 2007;52:973-982.

Moon K, Stukenborg GJ, Keim J, Theodorescu D. Cancer incidence after localized therapy for prostate cancer.;Cancer. 2006;107:991-998.

Last Revised: June 9, 2020

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How Doctors Find Metastatic Prostate Cancer

When you are diagnosed with prostate cancer, your doctor will order tests such as:

  • X-rays
  • MRI scans
  • PET scans

These tests may focus on your skeleton and in your belly and pelvic areas. That way doctors can check for signs that the cancer has spread.

If you have symptoms such as bone pain and broken bones for no reason, your doctor may order a bone scan. It can show if you have signs of cancer spread in your bones.

Your doctor will also ask for blood tests, including a check of PSA levels, to look for other signs that the cancer is spreading.

PSA is a protein made by the prostate gland. A rise in PSA is one of the first signs your cancer may be growing. But PSA levels can also be high without there being cancer, such as if you have an enlarged prostate a prostate infection, trauma to the perineum, or sexual activity can also cause PSA level to be high.

If you’ve been treated, especially if a surgeon removed your prostate, your PSA levels should start to go down. Doctors usually wait seve,ral weeks after surgery before checking PSA levels. A rise in PSA after treatment may suggest the possibility cancer is back or spreading. In that case, your doctor may order the same tests used to diagnose the original cancer, including a CT scan, MRI, or bone scan. The radiotracer Axumin could be used along with a PET scan to help detect and localize any recurrent cancer.

Though very rare, it’s possible to have metastatic prostate cancer without a higher-than-normal PSA level.

Who Is At Risk For Prostate Cancer

Expression of MAT2 and MAT in prostate and pancreatic ...

All men are at risk for prostate cancer, but African-American men are more likely to get prostate cancer than other men.

All men are at risk for prostate cancer. Out of every 100 American men, about 13 will get prostate cancer during their lifetime, and about 2 to 3 men will die from prostate cancer.

The most common risk factor is age. The older a man is, the greater the chance of getting prostate cancer.

Some men are at increased risk for prostate cancer. You are at increased risk for getting or dying from prostate cancer if you are African-American or have a family history of prostate cancer.

Also Check: What Is A Transrectal Ultrasound Of The Prostate

Questions You May Want To Consider Asking Your Doctor Include:

  • What type of prostate problem do I have?
  • Is more testing needed and what will it tell me?
  • If I decide on watchful waiting, what changes in my symptoms should I look for and how often should I be tested?
  • What type of treatment do you recommend for my prostate problem?
  • For men like me, has this treatment worked?
  • How soon would I need to start treatment and how long would it last?
  • Do I need medicine and how long would I need to take it before seeing improvement in my symptoms?
  • What are the side effects of the medicine?
  • Are there other medicines that could interfere with this medication?
  • If I need surgery, what are the benefits and risks?
  • Would I have any side effects from surgery that could affect my quality of life?
  • Are these side effects temporary or permanent?
  • How long is recovery time after surgery?
  • Will I be able to fully return to normal?
  • How will this affect my sex life?
  • How often should I visit the doctor to monitor my condition?
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About The Prostate And Prostate Cancer

The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system and produces fluid that mixes with semen during ejaculation to help sperm travel. The prostate is a walnut-sized, rubbery organ that surrounds the urethrathe urinary duct that carries urine from the bladder out of the bodyand sits directly below the bladder.

The prostate gland, which grows during puberty, is considered an organ and is made up of several dozen lobules or saclike glands, held together with connective prostate tissue and muscle between them. The glands are called exocrine glands, because they secrete liquid to outside the body.

An enlarged prostate, called benign prostatic hyperplasia , is common in men over the age of 40 and may obstruct the urinary tract. The abnormal prostate cell growth in BPH is not cancerous and doesnt increase your risk of getting prostate cancer. However, symptoms for BPH and prostate cancer can be similar.

A condition called prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia , where prostate gland cells look abnormal when examined under a microscope, may be connected to an increased risk of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is often caught by a doctor performing a digital rectal exam , through a prostate-specific antigen blood test, through a prostate biopsy;or with a CT scan.

Another condition, prostatitis, is the inflammation of the prostate. While not cancerous, it may cause higher PSA levels in the blood.

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How Do You Recognize A Family Cancer Syndrome

Its important to keep in mind that cancer is common. In fact, about 1 in 3 people in the United States will develop cancer during their lifetime, so its not uncommon to have many cancers in a family.

When many cases of cancer occur in a family, it is most often due to chance or because family members have been exposed to a common risk factor, such as smoking.

Sometimes there might be an interaction between certain genes and exposures. For example, some people inherit gene changes that make it harder for their bodies to get rid of toxins in tobacco smoke. These people might be more likely to get cancer if they smoke than someone who does not have these gene changes.

Less often, cancers in a family are strongly linked to an inherited gene mutation that is part of a family cancer syndrome.

Certain things make it more likely that cancers in a family are caused by a family cancer syndrome, such as:

  • Many cases of the same type of cancer
  • Cancers occurring at younger ages than usual
  • More than one type of cancer in a single person
  • Cancers occurring in both of a pair of organs
  • More than one childhood cancer in siblings
  • Cancer occurring in the sex not usually affected
  • Cancer occurring in many generations

When trying to determine if cancer might run in your family, first gather some information. For each case of cancer, look at:

Brca1/2 Mutations In Stomach Cancer

Professor Keeps Focus on Silver Lining After Pancreatic and Prostate Cancer (Gregory Biedermann, MD)

Stomach cancer represents a significant global cancer burden and BRCA1/2 mutations have been reported to increase the lifetime risk of developing stomach cancer by as much as 6-fold greater among first-degree relatives of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers . The risk is reported to be 4-fold greater in BRCA1 mutation carriers and at least 2-fold greater in BRCA2 mutation carriers .

Tulinius et al. conducted a cohort study using record linkage of breast cancer families to estimate the risk of malignant diseases in families of probands with the same BRCA2 mutation. Of the 995 probands in the study, 887 were tested for the mutation. 797 tested negative for the BRCA2 mutation and 90 tested positive. The relative risk of stomach cancer was significantly increased among the BRCA2 mutation positive cohort and was reported to be 2.40-fold for first-degree relatives and 1.91-fold for second-degree relatives. Similarly, Bermejo and Hemminki demonstrated that the incidence of individuals affected with stomach cancer before aged 70 years in families with breast and ovarian cancer was 1.88 %, which is significantly higher than in the general population.

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What Are The Estimated Cancer Risks Associated With Fpc

The lifetime risk of pancreatic cancer for the average individual without a family history of pancreatic cancer is approximately 1%. Individuals with a family history of pancreatic cancer are at an increased lifetime risk for developing pancreatic cancer. This risk is likely higher for individuals from a family with FPC. The following cancer risk estimates are generalized and should be interpreted with caution since the actual risk for each individual may be different:

  • Individuals from FPC families who have 1 first-degree relative, meaning a parent, sibling, or child, with pancreatic cancer are estimated to have an increased lifetime risk of pancreatic cancer that is 3 to 5 times higher than the general population.

  • Individuals from FPC families who have 2 first-degree relatives with pancreatic cancer are estimated to have an increased lifetime risk of pancreatic cancer that is 5 to 7 times higher than the general population.

  • Individuals from FPC families who have 3 or more first-degree relatives with pancreatic cancer are estimated to have an increased lifetime risk of pancreatic cancer that may be up to 30 times higher than the general population.

Tobacco use increases an individuals lifetime risk of pancreatic cancer, regardless of their family history. Tobacco use may significantly increase the risk of pancreatic cancer for individuals from FPC families.

How The Prostate Changes As You Age

Because the prostate gland tends to grow larger with age, it may squeeze the urethra and cause problems in passing urine. Sometimes men in their 30s and 40s may begin to have these urinary symptoms and need medical attention. For others, symptoms aren’t noticed until much later in life. An infection or a tumor can also make the prostate larger. Be sure to tell your doctor if you have any of the urinary symptoms listed below.

Tell your doctor if you have these urinary symptoms:

  • Are passing urine more during the day
  • Have an urgent need to pass urine
  • Have less urine flow
  • Feel burning when you pass urine
  • Need to get up many times during the night to pass urine

Growing older raises your risk of prostate problems. The three most common prostate problems are inflammation , enlarged prostate , and prostate cancer.

One change does not lead to another. For example, having prostatitis or an enlarged prostate does not increase your risk of prostate cancer. It is also possible for you to have more than one condition at the same time.

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Screening For Brca1/2 Mutations

After the discovery of mutations in BRCA1/2 genes, widespread interest in genetic testing developed among women at risk of harbouring a disease-associated mutation . Screening and genetic testing has the potential to cause unease within a family as the impact of receiving a positive BRCA mutation diagnosis not only has implications for the carrier, but all family members. Additionally, in some countries, screening for BRCA1/2 mutations can result in implications for health and life insurances.

What Are The Screening Options For Hboc

Expression of MAT2 and MAT in prostate and pancreatic ...

Screening is the use of different tests to find specific types of cancer before signs and symptoms appear. It is important to talk with your health care team about the following screening options, as each person is different:

Screening for women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation

  • Monthly breast self-examinations, beginning at age 18

  • Clinical breast examinations performed twice a year by a health care team or nurse, beginning at age 25

  • Yearly magnetic resonance imaging scans of both breasts, between ages 25 and 29.

  • Yearly mammogram and breast MRI, between ages 30 and 75.

  • Pelvic examination, trans-vaginal ultrasound, and CA-125 blood test every 6 months, beginning at age 30 to 35. It should be noted, however, that screening is not yet able to find most early ovarian cancers.

  • Consideration of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy, between ages 35 and 40, and once a woman is done giving birth to children

Screening for men with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation

Screening options may change over time as new methods are developed and more is learned about HBOC. Talk with your health care team about appropriate screening tests for you.

Learn more about what to expect when having common tests, procedures, and scans.

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Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer

Some risk factors have been linked to prostate cancer. A risk factor is something that can raise your chance of developing a disease. Having one or more risk factors doesn’t mean that you will get prostate cancer. It just means that your risk of the disease is greater.

  • Age. Men who are 50 or older have a higher risk of prostate cancer.
  • Race. African-American men have the highest risk of prostate cancer√Ęthe disease tends to start at younger ages and grows faster than in men of other races. After African-American men, prostate cancer is most common among white men, followed by Hispanic and Native American men. Asian-American men have the lowest rates of prostate cancer.
  • Family history. Men whose fathers or brothers have had prostate cancer have a 2 to 3 times higher risk of prostate cancer than men who do not have a family history of the disease. A man who has 3 immediate family members with prostate cancer has about 10 times the risk of a man who does not have a family history of prostate cancer. The younger a man’s relatives are when they have prostate cancer, the greater his risk for developing the disease. Prostate cancer risk also appears to be slightly higher for men from families with a history of breast cancer.
  • Diet. The risk of prostate cancer may be higher for men who eat high-fat diets.

What Is Hereditary Breast And Ovarian Cancer

A diagnosis of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome is considered when there are multiple cases of breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer on the same side of the family. The chance that a family has HBOC increases in any of these situations:

  • 1 or more women are diagnosed at age 45 or younger

  • 1 or more women are diagnosed with breast cancer before age 50 with an additional family history of cancer, such as prostate cancer, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer

  • There are breast and/or ovarian cancers in multiple generations on the same side of the family, such as having both a grandmother and an aunt on the fathers side both diagnosed with these cancers

  • A woman is diagnosed with a second breast cancer in the same or the other breast or has both breast and ovarian cancers

  • A male relative is diagnosed with breast cancer

  • There is a history of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and/or pancreatic cancer on the same side of the family

  • Having Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry

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