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How Do People Get Prostate Cancer

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Survival For All Stages Of Prostate Cancer

How to Prevent Prostate Cancer | Ask a Prostate Expert, Mark Scholz, MD

Generally for men with prostate cancer in England:

  • more than 95 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 1 year or more
  • more than 85 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 5 years or more
  • almost 80;out of 100 will survive their cancer for 10 years or more

Survival for prostate cancer is also reported in Scotland and Northern Ireland. But it is difficult to compare survival between these countries because of differences in the way the information is collected.;

Cancer survival by stage at diagnosis for England, 2019Office for National Statistics

These statistics are for net survival. Net survival estimates the number of people who survive;their;cancer rather than calculating the number of people diagnosed with cancer who are still alive. In other words, it is the survival of cancer patients after taking into account the background mortality that they would have experienced if they had not had cancer.

Risks And Causes Of Prostate Cancer

The cause of the majority of prostate cancers is unknown. However, the risk of developing prostate cancer may be slightly increased with the following:

Increasing age Prostate cancer is quite rare in men under 50.

Family history If your father or brother is diagnosed with prostate cancer you are two to three times more likely to get prostate cancer yourself. If they had it at a young age your risk is greater still.

*Genetics ;Men who carry a faulty BRCA2 gene are at higher risk of developing prostate cancer. To learn more about the BRCA gene in men, click here.

Diet the Western diet, which is rich in fats and low in fibre, may increase risk.

Race African-American and African-Caribbean men are more at risk than other ethnic groups.

Click here for more information about risks factors and causes of prostate cancer.

Family History And Genes

Your risk of prostate cancer is higher if you have a close relative, such as a brother or father, who has had prostate cancer.

Some inherited genes can increase your risk of prostate cancer. These inherited genes are rare and account for only a small number of prostate cancers.

The risk increases by up to 5 times in men with the gene BRCA2. And the risk might increase with the BRCA1 gene. These genes also cause breast and ovarian cancers.

Men with a rare syndrome called Lynch syndrome have a higher chance of developing prostate cancer and some other cancers. A change in one of the genes that fixes mistakes in DNA causes this syndrome eg. MSH2 and MLH1 genes.;

Researchers are looking into other genes that might also increase the risk of prostate cancer.

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Surgery For Prostate Cancer

There are many types of surgery for prostate cancer. Some are done to try to cure the cancer; others are done to control the cancer or make symptoms better. Talk to the doctor about the kind of surgery planned and what you can expect.

Side effects of surgery

Any type of surgery can have risks and side effects. Be sure to ask the doctor what you can expect. If you have problems, let your doctors know so they can help you.

What Will Happen After Treatment

Its Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, so man up and make ...

Youll be glad when treatment is over. But its hard not to worry about cancer coming back. When cancer comes back it is called a recurrence. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry about it. For years after treatment ends, you will see your cancer doctor. At first, your visits may be every few months. Then, the longer youre cancer-free, the less often the visits are needed.

Be sure to go to all follow-up visits. Your doctors will ask about your symptoms, examine you, and might order blood tests and maybe other tests to see if the cancer has come back.

Having cancer and dealing with treatment can be hard, but it can also be a time to look at your life in new ways. You might be thinking about how to improve your health. Call us at 1-800-227-2345 or talk to your doctor to find out what you can do to feel better.

You cant change the fact that you have cancer. What you can change is how you live the rest of your life,;making healthy choices and feeling as good as you can.

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Risk Of Prostate Cancer

About 1 man in 8;will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime.

Prostate cancer is more likely to develop in older men and in non-Hispanic Black men. About 6 cases in 10 are diagnosed in men who are 65 or older, and it is rare in men under 40. The average age of men at diagnosis is about 66.

Thinking About Taking Part In A Clinical Trial

Clinical trials;are carefully controlled research studies that are done to get a closer look at promising new treatments or procedures. Clinical trials are one way to get state-of-the art cancer treatment. In some cases they may be the only way to get access to newer treatments. They are also the best way for doctors to learn better methods to treat cancer. Still, they’re not right for everyone.

If you would like to learn more about clinical trials that might be right for you, start by asking your doctor if your clinic or hospital conducts clinical trials.;

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Screening For The Early Detection Of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer could be found early if you undergo a screening. Screening is a way to test for signs of cancer before symptoms even develop. If the results show any abnormalities, you might need a biopsy to determine if you have cancer. Some;medical organizations find these tests controversial, especially if they are performed on healthy individuals who havent shown symptoms of the disease. No one knows if the benefits outweigh any possible risks. You should discuss this with your doctor so they can review your medical history, risk factors, and other information to determine if you should undergo screenings.

The;two main screening tests;include:

  • Prostate-specific antigen blood test PSA is a protein made in the prostate gland for semen. It can also be found in the blood. As your PSA level rises, the chance that you have prostate cancer also increases. There isnt a specific level that indicates whether theres cancer. Some doctors will decide additional testing is necessary if theres a PSA of 2.5 or 3, while others will recommend it if the level is 4 or higher.

  • Digital rectal exam A doctor will lubricate a glove and insert one finger into the rectum to feel for hard areas or bumps on the prostate that could indicate cancer. A rectal exam is not as effective as a PSA test but might detect prostate cancer if someone has a normal PSA level.

Prognosis For Prostate Cancer

How to detect and prevent prostate cancer | symptoms | Early Signs

It is not possible for a doctor to predict the exact course of a disease, as it will depend on each person’s individual circumstances. However, your doctor may give you a prognosis, the likely outcome of the disease, based on the type of prostate cancer you have, the test results, the rate of tumour growth, as well as your age, fitness and medical history.

Prostate cancer often grows slowly and even more aggressive types tend to grow more slowly than other types of cancer. If diagnosed early, prostate cancer has one of the highest five year survival rates.;

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What A Psa Score Really Means For Your Prostate

The best way to know if you have prostate cancer at the earliest possible stage is not the PSA or the digital rectal exam. The best indication is a test called PSA velocity testing.

With PSA velocity testing, its possible to diagnose an early cancer even when the PSA and the rectal exam are normal.

PSA velocity describes how high the value of a mans PSA tests increase in one year. For example, if a you have a PSA test and its 0.5 higher than it was the year before, you have a PSA velocity score of 0.5. If the last time you had a PSA was five years ago, and this years test was 1.0 higher, then your PSA velocity is 0.2, or 1.0 divided by the five years.

As a man ages, due to the normal age-related increase in prostate size, his PSA is likely to rise ever so slightly. But as long as the PSA velocity is minimal, the odds are that if he has a latent cancer, his immune system is still keeping it in check. In fact, a PSA velocity of 0.03 or less per year has been shown to be accurate proof that no prostate cancer exists. Thats an optimal velocity. Although the values may vary slightly from year to year, there should not be any consistent overall increase greater than 0.03.

And all of this is true even if the highest PSA number is still in the normal range. So any PSA velocity greater than 0.15 should be a cause for immediate treatment.

Am I At Risk Of Prostate Cancer

In the UK, about 1 in 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. We don’t know exactly what causes prostate cancer but there are some things that may mean you are more likely to get it these are called risk factors.

There are three main risk factors for getting prostate cancer, which are things you can’t change. These are:;

  • getting;older; it mainly affects men aged 50 or over
  • being;black.

If you have any of these risk factors or if you have any;symptoms, speak to your GP. They can talk to you about your risk, and about the;tests;that are used to diagnose prostate cancer. You can also get in touch with;our Specialist Nurses, who can help you understand your risk of prostate cancer.

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What Is Prostate Cancer

The prostate is a small gland located underneath the bladder in men and is part of the reproductive system. Some men develop prostate cancer, usually later in life. If cancer develops on your prostate gland, it will likely grow slowly. In rare cases, the cancer cells may be more aggressive, grow quickly, and spread to other areas of your body. The earlier your doctor finds and treats the tumor, the higher the chances are of finding curative treatment.

According to the Urology Care Foundation, prostate cancer is the second most common cause of all cancer-related deaths among American men. About 1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with the disease in their lifetime. Approximately 1 in 39 men will die from it. Most of these deaths occur among older men.

Who Is At Risk For Prostate Cancer

What are the early signs of prostate cancer?

All men are at risk for prostate cancer, but African-American men are more likely to get prostate cancer than other men.

All men are at risk for prostate cancer. Out of every 100 American men, about 13 will get prostate cancer during their lifetime, and about 2 to 3 men will die from prostate cancer.

The most common risk factor is age. The older a man is, the greater the chance of getting prostate cancer.

Some men are at increased risk for prostate cancer. You are at increased risk for getting or dying from prostate cancer if you are African-American or have a family history of prostate cancer.

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The Prostate And Prostate Cancer

The prostate is a small gland found only in men and is part of the male reproductive system. It is the size of a walnut and surrounds the first part of the tube which carries urine from the bladder to the penis. The prostate lies close to the rectum through which it can be closely felt and examined for its size. The function of the prostate is to make some of the fluid used to carry sperm.

Choosing To Stop Treatment Or Choosing No Treatment At All

For some people, when treatments have been tried and are no longer controlling the cancer, it could be time to weigh the benefits and risks of continuing to try new treatments. Whether or not you continue treatment, there are still things you can do to help maintain or improve your quality of life.

Some people, especially if the cancer is advanced, might not want to be treated at all. There are many reasons you might decide not to get cancer treatment, but its important to talk to your doctors and you make that decision. Remember that even if you choose not to treat the cancer, you can still get;supportive care;to help with pain or other symptoms.

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Common Symptoms Associated With Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer might not cause any symptoms, especially when its in the early stages. Some signs and symptoms are similar to other diseases and ailments, so you must speak with a doctor to determine your diagnosis.

Prostate cancer symptoms;in advanced stages include:

  • Blood in the semen or urine

  • Pain in the back, chest, hips, or other parts of the body where it spread to the bones

  • Difficulty urinating, including the urge to urinate more frequently or a weak or slow urinary stream

  • Numbness or weakness in the feet or legs

  • Loss of bowel or bladder control if the cancer is pressing against the spinal cord

If you notice any of the symptoms above, you should immediately make an appointment with a medical provider. Most of these symptoms can be the result of another ailment. For instance, non-cancerous growth of the prostate, known as benign prostatic hyperplasia , can cause trouble urinating. You might have a less serious condition thats causing your symptoms; however, you should see a specialist so they can perform tests and screen for prostate cancer.

Are Prostate Problems Always A Sign Of Prostate Cancer

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Not all growths in the prostate are cancerous, and not all prostate problems indicate cancer. Other conditions that cause similar prostate cancer symptoms include:

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia : At some point, almost every man will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia . This condition enlarges the prostate gland but doesnt increase cancer risk. The swollen gland squeezes the urethra and blocks the flow of semen and urine. Medications, and sometimes surgery, can help.
  • Prostatitis: Men younger than 50 are more prone to prostatitis, inflammation and swelling of the prostate gland. Bacterial infections are often the cause. Treatments include antibiotics or other medications.

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Deaths From Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, behind only lung cancer. About 1 man in 41 will die of prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer can be a serious disease, but most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die from it. In fact, more than 3.1 million men in the United States who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point are still alive today.

Our team is made up of doctors and;oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

American Cancer Society. Facts & Figures 2021. American Cancer Society. Atlanta, Ga. 2021.

National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Prostate Cancer. Accessed at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/prost.html on March 15, 2019.

Noone AM, Howlader N, Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest A, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA . SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2015, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2015/, based on November 2017 SEER data;submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2018.

American Cancer Society. Facts & Figures 2021. American Cancer Society. Atlanta, Ga. 2021.

National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Prostate Cancer. Accessed at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/prost.html on March 15, 2019.

Last Revised: January 12, 2021

Being Overweight Or Obese

Obese means being very overweight with a body mass index of 30 or higher. And being overweight means having a BMI of between 25 and 30.

Try to keep a healthy weight by being physically active and eating a healthy, balanced diet.

There is some evidence that being active might help to lower your risk of developing prostate cancer.

Being overweight or obese increases your risk of advanced prostate cancer. Researchers have found a link between being obese or overweight and cancers being higher grade .

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What About Trans People

People assigned male at birth can develop prostate cancer whether they remain male or not.

Trans women who use hormone therapy such as estrogenmay have a lower risk, but the risk is still present.

Anyone assigned male at birth should speak to their doctor about screening for prostate cancer.

Knowing the stage of prostate cancer can help a person understand what to expect, and it will inform decisions about treatment. We list the stages below:

Stage 0: Precancerous cells are present, but they only affect a small area and are slow growing.

Localized : Cancer is only present in the prostate gland. Effective treatment is possible at this stage.

Regional : Cancer has spread to nearby tissues.

Distant : Cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or bones.

If a male has symptoms that may indicate prostate cancer, the doctor will likely:

  • ask about symptoms
  • ask about personal and medical history
  • conduct a blood test to assess PSA levels
  • carry out a urine test to look for other biomarkers
  • carry out a physical examination, which may include a digital rectal exam

During a DRE, the doctor will check manually for any abnormalities of the prostate with their finger.

Learn more about prostate exams here.

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