Monday, May 23, 2022

What Happens To The Prostate Later In Life

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What Factors Influence Cancer Predictions If The Psa Level Is Elevated

As previously noted, PSA rising after surgery can mean many different things in terms of the status of prostate cancer. These different prognoses are based on several different factors, outlined below:

  • Gleason Score of Prostate Cancer: The Gleason score is a measure of how aggressive the cells of prostate cancer are. The higher the score, the more aggressive cancer. Men with higher Gleason scores who experience PSA recurrence are at greater risk for metastasis of prostate cancer than those men with lower Gleason scores. Is the Gleason Score 7 or less or is it 8 or higher?
  • Time from Surgery: How soon after surgery the PSA reappears is one indicator specialists use to determine the aggressiveness of cancer. Generally, the longer the time between surgery and PSA recurrence, the less likely cancer is aggressive and going to spread. In turn, the better rate of survival will be. Is the time greater or less than 2 years?
  • PSA Doubling Time: The term refers to the time it takes for the PSA to double in value. The value measures the rate at which the PSA rises, and can be a very significant indicator of the aggressiveness of cancer. Men with a shorter PSA doubling time postoperatively are more likely to have more aggressive disease. In these cases, a more aggressive secondary treatment plan may be advised. Is the PSA doubling in less or greater than 10 months?

Study Raises Biological Questions

Researchers say the findings raise several questions about the biological role of sexual activity and ejaculation in the development of prostate cancer.

Leitzmann says that until now, sexual activity had been associated with prostate cancer risk due to the hormone hypothesis. The male sex hormone testosterone is known to spur the growth of prostate cancer cells and it also fuels the male sex drive. Therefore, it had been proposed that very sexually active men had a higher risk of prostate cancer because they had higher levels.

But he says this theory has its shortcomings because testosterone levels alone do not predict prostate cancer risk and they do not appear to correlate with sexual desire as much as previously thought.

Instead, researchers say ejaculation may protect the prostate through a variety of biological mechanisms that merit further research, such as:

  • Flushing out cancer-causing substances. Frequent ejaculation may help flush out retained chemical carcinogens in the prostate glands.
  • Reducing tension. The release of psychological tension that accompanies ejaculation may lower nervous activity associated with stress and slow the growth of potentially cancerous cells in the prostate.

  • Promoting rapid turnover of fluids. Frequent ejaculation may help prevent the development of mini-crystals that can block ducts within the prostate gland, reducing cancer risk.

What Will I Learn By Reading This

When you have treatment for your prostate cancer, you may have erectile dysfunction also known as impotence. Erectile dysfunction is a very common side effect . Side effects from prostate cancer treatment are different from one man to the next. They may also be different from one treatment to the next. Some men have no erectile dysfunction. The good news is that there are ways to deal with erectile dysfunction. In this booklet you will learn:

  • What erectile dysfunction is
  • Why prostate cancer treatment can cause erectile dysfunction
  • What can be done about erectile dysfunction
  • How erectile dysfunction may affect your sex life
  • What your partner can expect

It is important for you to learn how to deal with erectile dysfunction so that you can continue to have a satisfying intimate relationship.

Effects On Orgasm And Ejaculation

A number of factors involved with prostate cancer may change how a man feels about sex. Understanding the risks may help people deal with these consequences.

Removing a prostate gland entirely for cancer treatment means that ejaculation will no longer be possible. Instead, the man may have a dry orgasm.

Some surgical treatments may lead to a disorder called retrograde ejaculation. With this condition, the semen does not leave the body during orgasm. Instead, it goes into the bladder and leaves through urination.

Other prostate cancer treatments may result in smaller ejaculations. Hormone therapy may also reduce the intensity of orgasm sensations.

How Does The Doctor Know I Have Prostate Cancer

What Should I Expect After Prostate Cancer Surgery?

Prostate cancer tends to grow slowly over many years. Most men with early prostate cancer dont have changes that they notice. Signs of prostate cancer most often show up later, as the cancer grows.

Some signs of prostate cancer are trouble peeing, blood in the pee , trouble getting an erection, and pain in the back, hips, ribs, or other bones.

If signs are pointing to prostate cancer, tests will be done. Most men will not need all of them, but here are some of the tests you may need:

PSA blood test: PSA is a protein thats made by the prostate gland and can be found in the blood. Prostate cancer can make PSA levels go up. Blood tests will be done to see what your PSA level is and how it changes over time.

Transrectal ultrasound : For this test, a small wand is put into your rectum. It gives off sound waves and picks up the echoes as they bounce off the prostate gland. The echoes are made into a picture on a computer screen.

MRI: This test uses radio waves and strong magnets to make detailed pictures of the body. MRI scans can be used to look at the prostate and can show if the cancer has spread outside the prostate to nearby organs.

Prostate biopsy: For a prostate biopsy, the doctor uses a long, hollow needle to take out small pieces of the prostate where the cancer might be. This is often done while using TRUS or MRI to look at the prostate. The prostate pieces are then checked for cancer cells. Ask the doctor what kind of biopsy you need and how its done.

Prostate Growth And Sex

Urinary problems caused by are known as lower urinary tract symptoms, or LUTS. Men with LUTS often have problems in the bedroom.

The link between LUTS and sexual problems is not fully understood. But many of these men have a lowered sex drive, trouble maintaining an erection, and theyâre less satisfied with sex. Depression, loss of sleep due to frequent nighttime trips to the toilet, or some related physical cause may play a role.

Whatever the reason, the worse LUTS get, the more trouble a man may have in the bedroom. LUTS can be treated, so see a doctor early, before the symptoms cause a bladder problem or begin to spoil your life.

How Might An Enlarged Prostate Affect My Life

Having an enlarged prostate affects men in different ways. Some men can manage mild symptoms and dont need treatment. Other men find they need to stay near a toilet. This can make it difficult to work, drive, be outdoors and attend social events. If you need the toilet a lot during the night, this can affect your sleep and make you feel more tired during the day.

Some men with an enlarged prostate find their symptoms improve over time without treatment. But for most, the symptoms will stay the same or slowly start to cause more problems over time unless they have .

What Have I Learned By Reading This

You learned about:

  • Why prostate cancer treatment can cause erectile dysfunction
  • What can be done about erectile dysfunction
  • How erectile dysfunction may affect your sex life
  • What your partner can expect

If you have any questions, please talk to your doctor or health care team. It is important that you understand what is going on with your prostate cancer treatment. This knowledge will help you take better care of yourself and feel more in control. It will also help you manage any side effects you may have from your treatment.

Sexuality And Feeling Good About Your Body

Prostate cancer treatment can often affect sexual function. Learning to be comfortable with your body during and after prostate cancer treatment is a personal journey, one that is different for everyone. Information and support can help you cope with these changes over time. Learn more in Sex and the Man With Cancer.

What Does The Prostate Do Can You Live Without It And What Happens When You Have It Removed

All men have a prostate, yet many know little about what it does or what happens if it is removed. Here’s the lowdown…

    THE prostate is a male reproductive organ which surrounds the neck of the bladder which releases a fluid component of semen.

    All men have a prostate, yet many know little about what it does or what happens if it is removed. Here’s the lowdown…

    When You Meet With Patients Who Have Opted For Prostate Cancer Surgery What Complications Seem To Cause The Most Anxiety

    Patients are usually concerned about longer-term quality-of-life issues, such as urinary control also called urinary continence and changes in sexual function. Prostate cancer surgery does sometimes have a negative impact on these functions, although the likelihood depends on a variety of factors, including age, the extent of the cancer, and baseline function, or how well everything worked before the procedure.

    The outcomes for urinary continence at MSK are what I would consider to be excellent. More than 90 percent of our patients will regain urinary control, although they may go through a period perhaps several months or a year after surgery in which they do not have complete control.

    For sexual function, the extent of recovery is especially affected by the nature of the cancer. Unfortunately, the nerve tissue that allows a man to get an erection is right up against the prostate. We obviously want to remove all the disease, and if the cancer extends outside the prostate at all, its not wise for us to try to preserve the nerve tissue because we might leave some cancer behind.

    You often see claims made by institutions or surgeons that the patients they treat recover their erectile function in 90 percent of cases. Thats true only for a very select group of patients,  usually those who are younger and had full erections prior to surgery.

    How Is Bph Diagnosed

    Diagnosing BPH in its earlier stages can lower the risk of developing complications. Delay can cause permanent bladder damage for which BPH treatment may be ineffective. In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for BPH may include the following:

    • Digital rectal exam. A procedure in which the doctor inserts a gloved finger into the rectum to examine the rectum and the prostate gland for signs of cancer.

    • Intravenous pyelogram. A series of X-rays of the kidney, ureters, and bladder with the injection of a contrast dye into the vein to detect tumors, abnormalities, kidney stones, or any obstructions, and to assess renal blood flow.

    • Cystoscopy . An examination in which a scope–a flexible tube and viewing device–is inserted through the urethra to examine the bladder and urinary tract for structural abnormalities or obstructions, such as tumors or stones.

    • Urine flow study. A test in which the patient urinates into a special device that measures how quickly the urine is flowing. A reduced flow may suggest BPH.

    Common Thoughts And Feelings

    Enlarged prostate later in life could stem from fetal ...

    You may feel all sorts of things after you finish treatment. Some men are relieved and feel ready to put the cancer behind them and get back to normal life. But others find it difficult to move on. Adjusting to life after cancer can take time.

    For some men, the emotional impact of what they have been through only hits them after they have finished treatment. You might feel angry for example, angry at what you have been through, or about the side effects of treatment. Or you might feel sad or worried about the future.

    Follow-up appointments can also cause different emotions. You might find it reassuring to see the doctor or nurse, or you may find it stressful, particularly in the few days before your appointments.

    Worries about your cancer coming back

    You may worry about your cancer coming back. This is natural, and will often improve with time. There are things you can do to help manage your concerns, such as finding ways to reduce stress. Breathing exercises and listening to music can help you relax and manage stress. Some people find that it helps to share what theyre thinking with somebody else, like a friend. If you are still struggling, you can get help for stress or anxiety on the NHS you can refer yourself directly to a psychological therapies service or ask your GP.

    If youre worried about your PSA level or have any new symptoms, speak to your doctor or nurse. If your cancer does come back, you’ll be offered further treatment.

    Feeling isolated

    Getting Regular Physical Activity

    Some research has suggested that men who regularly after treatment might be less likely to die from their prostate cancer than those who dont. Its not clear exactly how much activity might be needed, but more seems to be better. More vigorous activity might also be more helpful than less vigorous activity. Further studies are needed to follow up on these findings.

    What Kind Of Treatment Will I Need

    There are many ways to treat prostate cancer. The main kinds of treatment are observation, active surveillance, surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemo. Sometimes more than one kind of treatment is used.

    The treatment thats best for you will depend on:

    • Your age
    • Any other health problems you might have
    • The stage and grade of the cancer
    • Your feelings about the need to treat the cancer
    • The chance that treatment will cure the cancer or help in some way
    • Your feelings about the side effects that might come with treatment

    What Happens To A Man When He Has His Prostate Removed

    Prostate is a male reproductory gland located anterior to the rectum and inferior to the bladder surrounding the urethra. It is involved in the secretion of prostate fluid that forms an important constituent of semen. It also works in the propulsion of seminal fluid into the urethra and also blocks the connection between the urethra and the bladder by contracting at the time of ejaculation. The prostatic fluid constitutes about one third of the total seminal fluid containing various enzymes of which PSA is of specific importance, not only in thinning of the seminal fluid and helping proper motility of the sperm, but also in the testing procedure for prostate related diseases, such as BPH .

    The location of prostate is such that, if the patient experiences BPH then it might lead to urethral compression causing difficulty in urination and leading to LUTS . Unfortunately, BPH is a common problem in adult men and the chances of BPH drastically increases after the age of 60 years. A growth in size of prostate is also a sign of prostatic cancer.

    What Is A Common Misconception You Find In Patients Regarding Complications That Might Occur After Prostate Cancer Surgery

    I have found that patients often misunderstand the real meaning of percentages doctors give them about the likelihood of recovering their function. A patient might be told that their chance for recovery of erections is 75 percent. A lot of patients interpret that as meaning, I have a 75 percent chance of returning to my baseline function. It actually means 75 percent of patients will be able to get a functional erection, often with the aid of a pill. Unless the doctor makes this clear to them, many patients will be disappointed. When a percentage is quoted, patients should ask their surgeons what it actually means because as is usually the case the devils in the details.

    Where Can I Find Prostate Cancer Support Groups

    Even though once you complete the surgery you most likely will find yourself cancer-free, the anxiety and stress may never totally go away. The support of your friends and family is essential in these moments, but the most relief you will find is among people that have gone through the same experience.

    We advise you to search locally for prostate cancer or cancer survivors support groups and discuss your journey in beating this. You will find there plenty of people that lived through the same emotions and painful experiences and you will gather your strength to overcome this and not let it define the rest of your life.

    If physical presence is not an option for you, there are plenty of forums and online communities that gather around this subject. You can find people that share their experiences and advice below:

    • https://www.cancerforums.net/forums/14-Prostate-Cancer-Forum
    • http://community.prostatecanceruk.org/
    • http://www.topix.com/forum/health/prostate-cancer

    Prostate cancer surgery is not as severe of a surgery as other ones. The recovery, especially after robotic surgery, usually lasts up to 2 to 3 weeks and patients can return to work and to living their normal lives.

    Dealing With A Growing Prostate

    Some men notice no symptoms of prostate growth. For the many who do, though, treatments can ease the peeing process.

    Lifestyle changes: Cut down on, or cut out, alcohol and coffee, and drink less fluid in the evening. Both strategies can lessen the number of trips to the toilet. Also, talk to your doctor about your current . Some drugs may worsen your symptoms.

    Medications: The FDA has approved several medications for benign prostate growth, which help by slowing growth, shrinking the prostate, or relaxing the muscles that make urination easier. Some men may benefit from a combination of drugs.

    Surgery: For men who donât benefit from medications, there are many types of surgery to offer relief. Some are minimally invasive, others are more involved. The most common, called TURP , removes the prostate tissue thatâs compressing the urethra. TURP may result in retrograde ejaculation, a condition in which semen enters the bladder rather than exiting the urethra. It is harmless, but can lead to male infertility.

    Side Effects Of Treatment

    Treatments for prostate cancer can cause side effects, which might carry on after your treatment has finished. Some side effects can even start several months or years after treatment finishes.

    Side effects will affect each man differently you may not get all the possible side effects from your treatment.

    Read more about:

    Managing side effects

    Side effects can affect your day-to-day life, but there are treatments for them, as well as things you can do to manage them yourself. Its important to speak to your doctor, nurse or GP about them.

    If youre having problems with a side effect, you might have a meeting with your doctor or nurse to work out what support you need. They may refer you to someone who can give you more advice and support. 

    Read more about managing the side effects of prostate cancer treatment.

    What Will Happen After Treatment

    Male Infertility Treatment May Increase Risk of Prostate ...

    Youll be glad when treatment is over. But its hard not to worry about cancer coming back. When cancer comes back it is called a . Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry about it. For years after treatment ends, you will see your cancer doctor. At first, your visits may be every few months. Then, the longer youre cancer-free, the less often the visits are needed.

    Be sure to go to all follow-up visits. Your doctors will ask about your symptoms, examine you, and might order blood tests and maybe other tests to see if the cancer has come back.

    Having cancer and dealing with treatment can be hard, but it can also be a time to look at your life in new ways. You might be thinking about how to improve your health. Call us at 1-800-227-2345 or talk to your doctor to find out what you can do to feel better.

    You cant change the fact that you have cancer. What you can change is how you live the rest of your life, making healthy choices and feeling as good as you can.

    Can I Stay In My Own Home

    Its important that you get the care you need, are comfortable and your pain is controlled. Where you will be will depend on a number of things, including your own wishes, the amount of help you have and your local services.Lots of people would choose to die at home and there are health professionals and organisations who provide care, equipment and help at home, so you and your carers get practical and emotional support to help you do this.At some point, you may decide that you need to be cared for in a hospice, nursing home or hospital. You may have the option to spend a short time in a hospice or hospital and then come home again or go to a hospice day service.

    How Is Advanced Prostate Cancer Treated

    The primary treatment of prostate cancer is , which is a surgery to remove a part of the prostate gland or the entire prostate gland in younger patients.

    deprivation therapy is usually the choice of treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Also known as hormone therapy, it is also used for treating patients who are unfit or unwilling to undergo surgery or/and radiation therapy.

    Examples of hormone therapies for advanced prostate cancer include

    • Abiraterone

    What Happens At A Follow

    Discussion with your doctor or nurse

    At each appointment, your doctor or nurse will ask how youve been since your last appointment.

    Tell them about any symptoms or treatment side effects youve had, as well as any other problems or concerns. You can tell them how you are feeling emotionally as well as physically. You can also discuss any practical problems you might have, such as problems at work or with day-to-day activities. You may be given a questionnaire about your physical, social, emotional and practical needs. You might hear this called a holistic needs assessment form.

    Your GP or hospital doctor or nurse can help you deal with side effects, or refer you to someone else who can. For example, if you have problems with leaking urine , they might refer you to a continence service. Or if you have problems getting or keeping erections , they can refer you to an erectile dysfunction service. They can also help you get support for emotional problems, such as feeling anxious or depressed, and practical problems, such as managing your finances.

    You might feel embarrassed talking about some of the side effects of treatments, such as erection problems. But remember doctors and nurses see people with these problems every day, so be as open as you can. They are there to help.

    PSA test

    You may be asked to avoid any vigorous exercise or ejaculating in the 48 hours before a PSA test, as this could cause a temporary rise in your PSA level.

    Bigger But Not Better

    Prostatic enlargement is pretty much inevitable. The urinary symptoms associated with it are treated with pills called , which essentially enlarge the urethral channel by relaxing the muscle fibers within it. You can start with herbals like that of the woody shrub saw palmetto, pumpkin seeds , stinging nettle extract, pygeum, rye grass or beta-sitosterol extract and cruciferous vegetables but in randomized trials herbals take a distant second place to alpha blockers. Other drugs called 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors actually shrink the gland by 1/3 of its size and can also help urination. If these pills don’t keep you peeing straight and strong, there are also various indescribable procedures that can remove the excess prostatic tissue. And yes, some of them involve lasers, which you just gotta love.The prostate can also become inflamed, termed  which occurs in about 10% of men at least once during their lives. This diagnosis is not subtle as most men with prostatitis pee firewater several times an hour.  Ways to avoid this include good hydration, regular, timed voiding and treating BPH when it occurs.

    What Are Next Steps

    Bone metastasis have a profound effect on the long-term outlook for prostate cancer. But its important to remember that the numbers are only statistics.

    The good news is that life expectancy for advanced prostate cancer continues to increase. New treatments and therapies offer both longer life and better quality of life. Speak to your doctor about your treatment options and long-term outlook.

    Everyones cancer experience is different. You may find support through sharing your treatment plan with friends and family. Or you can turn to local community groups or online forums like Male Care for advice and reassurance.

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