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Green Tea And Prostate Cancer Risk

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About Dr Dan Sperling

Green tea can reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer

Dan Sperling, MD, DABR, is a board certified radiologist who is globally recognized as a leader in multiparametric MRI for the detection and diagnosis of a range of disease conditions. As Medical Director of the Sperling Prostate Center, Sperling Medical Group and Sperling Neurosurgery Associates, he and his team are on the leading edge of significant change in medical practice. He is the co-author of the new patient book Redefining Prostate Cancer, and is a contributing author on over 25 published studies. For more information, contact the Sperling Prostate Center.

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Helps Manage Diabetic Conditions

Metabolic syndrome refers to a combination of conditions that can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, stroke, and heart disease.

Elevated fasting plasma glucose, diabetes, and obesity are major risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

As per a study, epigallocatechin-3-gallate present in green tea extract imparts anti-BPH activities in metabolic syndrome rats.

The polyphenols impart anti-diabetic effects by reducing serum glucose levels.

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Green Tea & Prostate Cancer: Implications

Prostate cancer is typically a slow-growing cancer, Henning says. That makes it an ideal cancer to try diet interventions to slow it even more.

“Green tea is high in polyphenols and it’s convenient,” she says.

Other research has found that green tea may slow prostate cancer. An Italian study found that men who had a precursor to prostate cancer and drank green tea were less likely to get prostate cancer, Henning says.

Now, Henning is studying whether adding quercetin, an antioxidant found in apples and onions, to the green tea will ramp up its cancer-fighting ability.

Sumanta Pal, MD, assistant professor of medical oncology at the City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center in Duarte, Calif., reviewed the study findings for WebMD.

“Studies such as this are critical to confirm or support a plausible explanation for how green tea may work,” he says. More study is needed, however, before making any diet recommendations.

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Studies In Preclinical Models

Androgen action in the prostate is dependent upon conversion of testosterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone by the enzyme, 5α-reductase . 5α-DHT then binds to androgen receptors to exert its cellular action . Inhibition of 5α-reductase limits the levels of 5α-DHT available to the prostate required for its growth and development, without affecting the levels of circulating testosterone, which can then be utilized for other testosterone-dependent testicular functions, sexual behavior and muscle growth. In one of the earliest reports on the beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols in prostate cancer performed in rats demonstrated that EGCG and ECG constituents of green tea polyphenols but not EC and EGC were potent inhibitors of Type 1 but not Type 2, 5α-reductase. This decrease resulted in the inhibition of growth of the prostate in male Sprague Dawley rats indicating that green tea polyphenols were able to modify androgen action in the prostate. Another study with green tea constituents showed a significant reduction in tumor size and completely abrogate tumors in both androgen-repressed LNCaP 104-R and the androgen-refractory PC3 tumor xenograft in athymic nude mice . Similar results were observed in androgen-responsive LNCaP cells inoculated intraprostatically into SCID mice .

Green Tea Vs Black Tea

Green Tea, Enlarged Prostate, Hair Regrowth

After tea leaves have been picked they can be treated in two ways. The first is a process called oxidation where the leaves are left out in the fresh air. As the leaves react to the fresh air around them they turn brown and develop a slightly bitter flavour. These brown leaves are used to make your everyday black tea, otherwise known as English Breakfast Tea.

In the second process the leaves are heated gently to prevent oxidation and to ensure the leaves do not turn brown. These leaves are used to make green tea which has a milder flavour and aroma.

So, is green tea better for the prostate gland than black tea?

As the leaves are heated to produce green tea they release catechins and antioxidants which have a range of particularly formidable sounding titles such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate . These titles can be a little hard to get your head around so we dont need to understand them in any great detail however, what is worth knowing is that these substances can bring relief from prostate symptoms.

These substances are not released when the leaves are left to oxidise, as in the production of black tea, and without these chemical structures, the drink has significantly less impact on the prostate gland, making green tea the better choice of drink.

Doesnât green tea contain caffeine?

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Conclusion And Future Directions

A decade of research with green tea polyphenols in cell culture systems, pre-clinical models viz. mouse tumor xenograft and transgenic mouse models have proven that green tea polyphenols can influence a number of molecular pathways that has relevance to tumor growth, proliferation and metastasis. Polyphenols from green tea has been shown to modulate some critical targets in the prostate which include p53, WAF1/p21, KIP1/p27, INK4a/p16, INK4c/p18, cyclin D1 and cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinases cdk2, cdk4 and cdk6, COX-2, MDM2, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and NF-κB. Green tea polyphenols can increase reactive oxygen species production causing mitochondrial depolarization, inhibit proteasome and fatty acid synthase leading to induction of apoptosis. Although green tea polyphenols inhibit and reverse tumorigenesis in the post-initiation stages, they also hold therapeutic potential through their ability to specifically kill cancer cells without affecting the growth of normal cells. It is only now with the development of sophisticated investigational techniques that the various molecular signaling pathways modulated by them are being understood. A relatively new aspect of the effect of green tea polyphenols which is gradually gaining the attention of both researchers and clinicians is their ability to reverse epigenetic gene silencing during cancer initiation and progression.

Does The National Cancer Institute Recommend The Use Of Tea To Prevent Cancer

NCI is a research institution. It develops evidence-based research results for others to interpret. In general, therefore, NCI does not make recommendations about specific medical or dietary interventions.

Moreover, as noted above, the evidence regarding the potential benefits of tea consumption in relation to cancer is inconclusive at present.

Selected References
  • Seeram NP, Henning SM, Niu Y, et al. Catechin and caffeine content of green tea dietary supplements and correlation with antioxidant capacity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2006 54:15991603.

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    Does Green Tea Help The Prostate

    Green tea is a terrific superfood. A Chinese proverb says that its better to be deprived of food for three days than tea for one.

    Thats how the Ancient Chinese regarded this healthy food, and we can benefit a lot from embracing their wisdom.

    Back then, people believed that a sip of green tea cures many ailments. And today those beliefs are backed by evidence and scientific research.

    Egcg Targets Map Kinases Pi3k

    Nagi Kumar on Green Tea Catechin Treatment for Prostate Cancer Prevention

    MAPKs are serine threonine kinases that have been observed in various malignant cell lines to be involved in regulating cell proliferation and cell death. Six distinct groups of MAPKs are known that include extracellular signal-regulated kinases , c-Jun N-terminal kinases , p38 isoforms, ERK5, ERK3/4, ERK3 and ERK 7/8 . Modulation of ERK1/2 and p38 was observed in DU-145 cells with effects seen at 10 to 20 M of EGCG . In vivo evaluation in TRAMP mice found that GTP in drinking water reduced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by 5062% in the dorsolateral prostate . In another study, EGCG alone in drinking water led to a reduced expression of ERK1 and 2 phosphorylation by 57 and 45% respectively in the ventral prostate compared to a 92 and 93% reduction respectively in the dorsolateral prostate .

    PI3k/Akt plays an important role in a variety of signaling pathways that can regulate cell growth, survival and motility. Green tea polyphenols decreased PI3K and Akt expression in LNCap and DU-145 cells . This mechanism of cancer inhibition was reproducible in the TRAMP mouse model where GTP was shown to reduce PI3K levels by 6779% and also reduced the phosphorylation of AKT by up to 65% .

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    Things You Can Change: Diet And Lifestyle

    Men in western countries have much higher rates of prostate cancer than men in Asia. While no one can definitively explain this phenomenon, experts suspect differences in eastern and western diets are to blame. Poor eating habits and diets that heavily rely on fats and animal proteins can cause DNA damage and lead to cancer.

    Even men who are already at greater risk due to age, race or genetics can reduce their chances of developing prostate cancer by adopting healthy diets and lifestyles.

    Why Ginger Can Treat Cancer

    Ginger is such a promising treatment for cancer due the fact that it has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and also appears to be able to prevent a cancerous tumor from growing or spreading. This is due to its ability to interrupt the reproductive cycle of cancer cells. It also appears to be able to induce cancer cell suicide, also called apotosis. What is most important, however, is that it seems to be able to do this without being toxic to other kinds of rapidly-reproducing cells such as though in the digestive tract. Chemo especially is very harmful to these kinds of cells, leading to problems with nausea, vomiting, mouth sores and other highly undesirable side effects. In addition to this, men taking ginger supplements can receive other health benefits as well, including improvement in blood pressure, arthritis and high cholesterol, just to name a few.

    In conclusion, men who are worried about prostate health but are seeking a natural solution for it would do well to consider regular ginger supplementation. This, combined with avoidance of a diet high in sugar and processed foods, can make an enormous difference in prostate health, particularly as a man ages.

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    Increase Your Vitamin D

    Most people dont get enough vitamin D. It can help protect against prostate cancer and many other conditions. Vitamin D-rich foods include cod liver oil, wild salmon and dried shitake mushrooms. Since the sun is a better, more readily available source of vitamin D, many experts recommend getting 10 minutes of sun exposure every day. Doctors often recommend vitamin D supplements. However, you should talk to your doctor before taking any vitamin or supplement.

    Green Tea Keeps You Looking Youthful

    8 ordinary foods that may help you live longer

    Not only is green tea good for your physical health, but it could also keep you looking great! Beauty experts commonly use green tea products for their anti-inflammatory effects. For instance, a combined regimen of 10% green tea cream and green tea supplements improves the elasticity of skin, which keeps your skin looking more youthful as you age .

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    Are Prostate Supplements Safe

    Dietary supplements typically come with a label called Supplement Facts. This label has all active ingredients, the dosage and amount per serving, as well as filler ingredients, binders, and added flavors. The label will also note the suggested dose, but you should consult your doctor to learn how much you should take.

    The active ingredients in supplements may have significant impacts on your body. When you start taking a new vitamin or supplement, you should be cautious and alert to possible side effects. Side effects most commonly stem from taking high doses of supplements, or if you take several supplements at once.

    There are a few supplements that can cause an increased risk of bleeding or interact with anesthesia during surgical procedures. Additionally, some supplements can have adverse reactions when taken with certain medications, like blood thinners, birth control, or transplant drugs, so itâs always a good idea to talk to your doctor before adding a new supplement to your diet.

    You may not realize that youâre taking a higher dose of a supplement than you should be, especially since many foods have additives in the form of vitamins, minerals, and other supplemental ingredients. Taking supplements when eating this type of food can result in you consuming a higher dosage than you think.

    Also, individuals who are pregnant or breastfeeding should be cautious when taking supplements, and discuss with their doctor whether itâs safe to take them or not.

    Clinical Trials Of Green Tea For The Prevention And/or Treatment Of Prostate Cancer

    At present there are three published clinical trials using different forms of green tea preparations for the prevention or treatment of prostate cancer. Two of these studies were performed in late stage hormone refractory PCa while another study was performed in patients who were identified as having prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia , a pre-cancerous lesion of the prostate and are summarized below.

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    Effective Against Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Some research has indicated that green tea may help relieve symptoms associated with an enlarged prostate.

    A study by researchers at Winthrop University Hospital evaluated the impact of green and black tea mixture on lower urinary tract symptoms. The 46 participants were given either a placebo or the tea mixture on a daily basis for 12 weeks.

    The results showed that men who had taken mixture showed an improvement in urinary symptoms and quality of life in as little as six weeks.

    Dietary Assessment And Analysis

    Prostate Cancer May Be Fought With Green Tea, Pomegranate, Turmeric and Broccoli

    Dietary intake was assessed using a validated 117-item food frequency questionnaire adapted from the UK EPIC study with frequency reported across nine categories from ânever/less than once per monthâ to âsix or more times per dayâ for the previous 6 months . Analyses were conducted as described previously and men were excluded from dietary analyses if they were assessed as misreporting energy intake [< 800 kcal/day or > 4,000 kcal/day ref. ). Alcohol consumption was categorized as above or below national recommendations .

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    Green Tea And Prostate Cancer

    Men with prostate cancer who drank green tea had less prostate tissue inflammation, linked to cancer growth, and other changes than those who didn’t drink it, says Susanne M. Henning, PhD, RD, adjunct professor at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles.

    ”We were able to show the green tea polyphenols reached the prostate tissue and they did modify inflammation of the prostate,” she says. Polyphenols are antioxidants that protect against cell damage.

    Henning’s team assigned 79 men with prostate cancer scheduled to undergo surgery to drink either six cups of brewed green tea or water daily. They did so for three to eight weeks, depending on when their surgery was scheduled.

    Before and after the study, Henning obtained urine and blood samples. She collected samples of prostate tissue after the surgery.

    She reported on the 67 men who finished the study. Levels of prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, were lower after the study in those who drank green teas. Higher levels of PSA, a protein produced by the prostate gland, may reflect prostate cancer.

    An indicator of inflammation, called nuclear factor-kappaB, was also reduced in those who drank green tea compared to those who didn’t, Henning found. Inflammation is linked to cancer growth.

    “We were not able to inhibit tumor growth,” she says. But the study length may not have been long enough to show that a longer-term study is needed, she says.

    Where To Buy Green Tea

    You can buy Green Tea from any grocery store. Retailers like Walmart and Lion are always offering a great variety of green and black teas. You can also order Green Tea from online retailers like Amazon and eBay.

    The prices vary from $9.95 per 25 tea bags and can come up to $20.50 for 25 tea bags of the famous Japanese Green Tea.

    Furthermore, the Matcha Green Tea powder usually costs around $9.95 per ounce. Remember that you need some grams to add to food and beverages so that you can have the best green tea flavor you always wished for.

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    Green Tea & Breast Cancer

    Other researchers reported that an extract from green tea, Polyphenon E, may help inhibit breast cancer by affecting substances called growth factors. Growth factors are involved in the signals that tell breast cancer to grow.

    In earlier research, Katherine Crew, MD, assistant professor of medicine and epidemiology at Columbia University Medical Center in New York, had assigned 40 women already treated for breast cancer to take 400, 600, or 800 milligrams of the extract or to take a placebo twice daily for six months.

    That was a study to examine any toxic effects of the extract. For the current study, she evaluated blood and urine samples from 34 of the women to see how the extract might work as a cancer fighter.

    “We wanted to better understand the biological effects,” she says.

    “After two months of Polyphenon E, there was a reduction in hepatocyte growth factor,” she says. This is one of the growth factors that affect breast cancer cell growth, spread, and invasion. That reduction declined and was not different from the placebo group at four months, however.

    It’s still too early to recommend green tea extract as a way to prevent breast cancer, Crew says.

    Helps Soothe Arthritis Pain

    What are the benefits and side effects of drinking green tea?

    Green tea contains quercetin which has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. According to studies, sipping 4 cups of green tea a day can help cut down aches and pains associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Also, in a separate study, it was revealed that women who drink more than 3 cups of green tea are 60% less likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis as compared to non-drinkers.

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