What Are The 5 Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer
Each year, almost 250,000 men in the United States are diagnosed with prostate cancer. As with other forms of cancer, this is a dangerous disease that is more easily treated if detected early. Let’s discuss what may cause prostate cancer, the 5 common warning signs associated with it, and what to do if you suspect that you have it.
Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer Spread To The Bones
The most common place for prostate cancer to spread to is the bones. This can include the:
The most common symptom if cancer has spread to the bone is bone pain. It is usually there most of the time and can wake you up at night. The pain can be a dull ache or stabbing pain.
Your bones might also become weaker and more likely to break .
When prostate cancer spreads to the spine, it can put pressure on the spinal cord and cause spinal cord compression. This stops the nerves from being able to work properly. Back pain is usually the first symptom of spinal cord compression.
Spinal cord compression is an emergency. You should contact your treatment team immediately if you are worried you might have spinal cord compression.
Other Professionals Who Can Help
Your doctor, nurse or GP can refer you to these professionals.
- Physiotherapists can help with mobility and provide exercises to help improve fitness or ease pain. This can help you stay independent for longer.
- Counsellors, psychologists or psychotherapists can help you and your family work through any difficult feelings and find ways of coping. Many hospitals have counsellors or psychologists who specialise in helping people with cancer. You can also get free counselling on the NHS without a referral from your GP. Visit nhs.uk/counselling to find out more.
- Dietitians can give you advice about healthy eating, which might help with fatigue and staying a healthy weight. They can also help if you are losing weight or having problems eating.
- Occupational therapists can provide advice and access to equipment and adaptations to help with daily life. For example, help with dressing, eating, bathing or using the stairs.
- Social services, including social workers, can provide practical and financial advice and access to emotional support. They can give you advice about practical issues such as arranging for someone to support you at home. Whats available varies from place to place. Your GP, hospital doctor or nurse might be able to refer you to some services. The telephone number for your local social service department will be in the phonebook under the name of your local authority, on their website and at the town hall.
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What Are The Treatment For Prostate Cancer
Treatment possibilities differ, depending on the stage, symptoms of prostate cancer, and how aggressive the cells are.
Surgery and radiation therapy are both great treatment options for attempting to eliminate prostate cancer. They are the two most validated therapies for prostate cancer and both have shown long-term cancer management and recovery.
Although radiation and surgery have never been compared in a clinical trial, they have closely related success rates of cancer control and cure. They also have almost the same effects on a patients post-treatment quality of life with similar chances of erectile and urinary problems. Both radiation and surgery are wonderful treatment options for prostate cancer.
People who feel uncertain about the best treatment for their unique situation may find some clarity by consulting with a radiation oncologist and urologic surgeon to understand the pros and cons of each treatment.
The most important part of the journey is to become educated about the different types of prostate cancer, treatment options, and for each patient to determine the best treatment protocol for his particular circumstances and risk sensitivity.
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Genetic Features Of Neuroendocrine Tumors
The researchers also examined patterns of gene expression in the t-SCNC tumors and compared them with those of adenocarcinoma tumors. This analysis identified a group of 61 genes that were expressed differentially between the two subtypes. The investigators also identified the topmost upregulated master regulatorsproteins that control hundreds or thousands of other genes that are critical for cancer growth and survivalin the t-SCNC tumors.
Based on these findings, the researchers developed a unique pattern of gene expressioncalled a signaturefor t-SCNC tumors that correctly distinguished t-SCNC tumors from adenocarcinoma prostate tumors in separate sets of tumor samples.
The validated signature has several potential clinical uses, said Dr. Aggarwal, such as to identify genes or pathways that potentially can be targeted by drugs. And if effective drugs become available, the signature could also be used to help diagnose t-SCNC prostate tumors in cases where a traditional tumor biopsy is not possible or would be unreliable, he added.
Taken together, these findings suggest that t-SCNC tumors may have unique molecular characteristics that can potentially be targeted by drugs, Dr. Aggarwal explained.
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What Kind Of Treatment Will I Need
There are many ways to treat prostate cancer. The main kinds of treatment are observation, active surveillance, surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemo. Sometimes more than one kind of treatment is used.
The treatment thats best for you will depend on:
- Any other health problems you might have
- The stage and grade of the cancer
- Your feelings about the need to treat the cancer
- The chance that treatment will cure the cancer or help in some way
- Your feelings about the side effects that might come with treatment
Signs Of Advanced Prostate Cancer
If youre experiencing these symptoms, you may have a more advanced or aggressive prostate cancer. If you are experiencing a combination of these symptoms and are concerned about prostate cancer, set up a visit with your physician to discuss screening options.
- Pain or burning when urinating
- Difficulty starting or stopping urination and dribbling
- Increased frequency of urinating
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Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
- The need to pee often, especially at night
- Trouble starting or stopping a stream of urine
- A weak stream or one that starts and stops
- Leaking pee when you laugh or cough
- Not being able to pee standing up
- Pain or burning when you pee
- Blood in your pee or
- Pressure or pain in your rectum
- Pain or stiffness in your lower back, hips, pelvis, or thighs
- New trouble getting an erection
These arenât symptoms of the cancer itself. They happen because the cancer growth is blocking your prostate.
What Are 5 Common Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer
In many cases, prostate cancer does not produce clear symptoms in its initial stages of development. In fact, many men may have prostate cancer without even realizing it. However, there are some common warning signs that could indicate a person has prostate cancer. Five of the most common ones include:
Of course, these five symptoms are not the only potential warning signs of prostate cancer. Other possible indicators could include weak urine flow, and unexplained pain deep in the groin area when sitting down. If cancer has spread beyond the prostate, a man may also suffer lower body swelling, abnormal urinary or bowel habits, or inexplicable weight loss.
It’s important to note that most of these symptoms are not unique to prostate cancer, and may indicate a different condition that is not life-threatening.
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What Does It Mean If My Biopsy Report Mentions The Word Core
The most common type of prostate biopsy is a core needle biopsy. For this procedure, the doctor inserts a thin, hollow needle into the prostate gland. When the needle is pulled out it removes a small cylinder of prostate tissue called a core. This is often repeated several times to sample different areas of the prostate.
Your pathology report will list each core separately by a number assigned to it by the pathologist, with each core having its own diagnosis. If cancer or some other problem is found, it is often not in every core, so you need to look at the diagnoses for all of the cores to know what is going on with you.
Health And Social Care Professionals You Might See
You might see a range of different professionals to help manage your symptoms and offer emotional and practical support. Some may have been treating you since your diagnosis. Others provide specific services or specialise in providing treatment to manage symptoms .
If you have questions or concerns at any time, speak to someone in your medical team. They can explain your diagnosis, treatment and side effects, listen to your concerns, and help you get support.
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What Is The Treatment For Advanced Prostate Cancer
No matter where prostate cancer spreads, its still treated as prostate cancer. Its harder to treat when it reaches an advanced stage.
Treatment for advanced prostate cancer involves targeted and systemic therapies. Most men need a combination of treatments and they may have to be adjusted from time to time.
Bladder And Urinary Troubles
A prostate tumor that has grown significantly in size may start to press on your bladder and urethra. The urethra is the passage the carries urine from your bladder out of your body. If the tumor is pressing on your urethra, you might have trouble passing urine.
One of the common areas for prostate cancer to spread to is the bladder, because the two organs are close. This can cause additional problems with urination and bladder function.
Some symptoms your bladder and urethra are being affected by cancer include:
- urinating more frequently
- getting up in the middle of the night to pee
- feeling like you have to urinate often and not actually passing anything
Its not as common, but prostate cancer can also spread to your bowel. The cancer first spreads to the rectum, which is the part of your bowel closest to the prostate gland.
Symptoms of cancer thats spread to the bowels include:
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Get An Annual Check Up
According to Dr. Ramin, In the United States, the average age of prostate cancer diagnosis is 69. After that year, the chances that a man will develop prostate cancer increase significantly. So, around the age of 50, men should be receiving a regular, annual physical and screening for prostate cancer. Putting in the work of getting comfortable with and committed to regular health checkups puts a man in a much better position to identify problems early when hes older.
Testing Options For Prostate Cancer
There is no one age for prostate cancer testing, but the American Cancer Society makes recommendations about prostate cancer screenings. According to the ACS, patients in any of these groups should consider asking their doctor about testing:
- Men age 50 or older who have an average risk of prostate cancer and a life expectancy of at least 10 more years
- Men age 45 or older with a high risk, including African-American men and those with a first-degree relative who had prostate cancer before age 65
- Men age 40 or older who have a higher risk, such as more than one first-degree relative diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early age
Expert cancer care
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Loss Of Libido And Erectile Dysfunction
The hormones that are often used to treat advanced prostate cancer can decrease libido and cause erectile dysfunction , which occurs when a man isnt able to have or keep an erection to have sex, according to the University of Rochester Medical Center in Rochester, New York.
As a result, for couples, theres a real struggle to recover that sense of life together how to be intimate without having sex, says Michael J. Morris, MD, an oncologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City.
Depending on the type of treatment that caused the ED, the ability to have an erection may improve over time, according to the University of Rochester Medical Center. You and your partner may want to explore other ways to be intimate in your relationship. A sex therapist or couples counselor may be able to help. There are also treatments available for erectile dysfunction, such as medications and implants.
Ongoing Work To Learn More
Dr. Aggarwal and his colleagues are investigating how the t-SCNC subtype develops in men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer.
We think it arises from adenocarcinoma,â Dr. Aggarwal said. âThe cancer cells transform into this subtype of prostate cancer through genetic reprogramming.
Some aspects of this reprogramming event are understood, such as specific factors that control the transition. However, he added, more studies still need to be done to understand how and when it happens.
Potent hormone therapies such as abiraterone and enzalutamide may push prostate cancer toward this transformation, said Dr. Dahut. That may be why this subtype is more prevalent in men who have received treatment than in men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer, noted Dr. Aggarwal.
The research teams ultimate goal is to find therapies for t-SCNC. Master regulator proteins are opportune drug targets, Dr. Aggarwal explained, because they control many pathways that contribute to cancer growth and survival.
Several of the master regulators that they identified in t-SCNC tumors can be targeted directly or indirectly by drugs that are in development, and the team hopes to be able to test these in clinical trials of men with this subtype of prostate cancer.
Dr. Dahut also speculated that a better understanding of the genetic reprogramming event that creates t-SCNC could potentially lead to the discovery of drugs that prevent the development of this hard-to-treat subtype.
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Supportive And Palliative Care For Adults With Cancer
The guidance on supportive and palliative care for adults with cancer was published by NICE in March 2004. It placed importance on the holistic approach to managing patients, their carers and relatives following a diagnosis of cancer. In particular, the multidisciplinary team was recognized as key in the process of providing continuity of total care. The importance of working as a multidisciplinary team cannot be stressed enough. To believe that the suffering experienced by patients with a terminal diagnosis can be solely managed by one professional body is foolish. Within the context of the Palliative Care Team, members of the MDT should include those who can deal with physical, spiritual, psychological and social needs. Rehabilitative and nutritional needs should also be recognized and addressed along with the provision of access to complementary therapies.
What Are Next Steps
Bone metastasis have a profound effect on the long-term outlook for prostate cancer. But its important to remember that the numbers are only statistics.
The good news is that life expectancy for advanced prostate cancer continues to increase. New treatments and therapies offer both longer life and better quality of life. Speak to your doctor about your treatment options and long-term outlook.
Everyones cancer experience is different. You may find support through sharing your treatment plan with friends and family. Or you can turn to local community groups or online forums like Male Care for advice and reassurance.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
If you have any symptoms that worry you, be sure to see your doctor right away. They may be caused by conditions other than prostate cancer.
Different people have different symptoms for prostate cancer. Some men do not have symptoms at all.
If you have any of the following symptoms, be sure to see your doctor right away
- Difficulty starting urination.
- Weak or interrupted flow of urine.
- Urinating often, especially at night.
- Trouble emptying the bladder completely.
- Pain or burning during urination.
- Pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesnt go away.
Keep in mind that these symptoms may be caused by conditions other than prostate cancer.
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What Stages Have To Do With Cancer Spread
Cancers are staged according to tumor size and how far it has spread at the time of diagnosis. Stages help doctors decide which treatments are most likely to work and give a general outlook.
There are different types of staging systems and some are specific to certain types of cancer. The following are the basic stages of cancer:
- In situ. Precancerous cells have been found, but they havent spread to surrounding tissue.
- Localized. Cancerous cells havent spread beyond where they started.
- Regional. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, tissues, or organs.
- Distant. Cancer has reached distant organs or tissues.
- Unknown. Theres not enough information to determine the stage.
- Stage 0 or CIS. Abnormal cells have been found but have not spread into surrounding tissue. This is also called precancer.
- Stages 1, 2, and 3. The diagnosis of cancer is confirmed. The numbers represent how large the primary tumor has grown and how far the cancer has spread.
- Stage 4. Cancer has metastasized to distant parts of the body.
Your pathology report may use the TNM staging system, which provides more detailed information as follows:
T: Size of primary tumor
- TX: primary tumor cant be measured
- T0: primary tumor cant be located
- T1, T2, T3, T4: describes the size of the primary tumor and how far it may have grown into surrounding tissue
N: Number of regional lymph nodes affected by cancer
M: Whether cancer has metastasized or not
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