Can White Button Mushroom Extract Slow The Growth Of Prostate Cancer
Xiaoqiang Wang, MD, PhD, of the City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California, and colleagues conducted a study to analyze the mechanism and efficacy of the white button mushroom in the potential chemoprevention and treatment of prostate cancer. These researchers discovered that this extract suppressed the growth of prostate tumors with minimal side effects. Their findings were recently presented virtually at the 2021 Endocrine Society Annual Meeting.
We found that white button mushrooms contain chemicals that can block the activity of the androgen receptor in mouse models, indicating this fungus can reduce prostate-specific antigen levels, stated Dr. Wang in an Endocrine Society press release. While more research is needed, its possible that white button mushrooms could one day contribute to the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.
This reverse translational study was conducted utilizing androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell lines and patient-derived-xenografts of prostate tumors treated with 6 ~ 30 mg/mL of white button mushroom extract. Additionally, mice implanted with human prostate tumors were studied, creating an animal model for translation to human trials.
Disclosure: No disclosure information was provided.
Ethics Approval And Consent
Experiments performed in this study comply with current laws in the United States of America. All applicable institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. Animal research procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at City of Hope . Facilities are credited by AAALAC and operated according to NIH guidelines.
Cytokine Profiling Assay And Data Analysis
Proteome Profiler Mouse XL Cytokine Array Kit , a membrane-based antibody array, was applied to semi-quantify 111 mouse cytokines, chemokine growth factors, and other soluble proteins in serum. There were five mice in each treatment group , and serum was collected from each mouse. For the mice in the same treatment groups, their serums were pooled for a total of 500L . Therefore, there was one pooled sample corresponding to each treatment group . The array test was duplicated for each group. The assay was performed following the manuals protocol. The scanned image of dot spots was analyzed by the Quick Spots software , which measured the mean spot pixel density. The significant changes were defined as upregulated versus downregulated . The overlapping cytokines between the two treatments are displayed by Venn diagram using Venny 2.1. GSEA was used to identify pathways underlying cytokine synergism. The top five pathways determined by GSEA are presented with False Discovery Rate q values , p values , and k/K values .
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Mushroom And Chemical Reagents
WBM extract was prepared via hot water extraction. Briefly, 6g of freeze-dried WBM powder generated from 60g fresh mushrooms were boiled in 1L hot water for 3h. The broth was centrifuged at 3000×g for 30min, twice, to collect the fraction of the supernatant. The liquid fraction was rotor-evaporated to dryness and then re-dissolved in 1mL of hot water to produce a 6× mushroom extract . Enza, an AR antagonist, was purchased from Selleckchem . LT, a shiitake mushroom-derived immunomodulatory –glucan, was purchased from Carbosynth .
You Don’t Like Mushrooms
If mushrooms are not high on your list of fun foods, you’re in luck. Studies indicate a number of other foods have been shown to potentially lower the risk of prostate cancer, including:
Tomatoes. Lycopene, the antioxidant found in tomatoes, may help reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer, according to research published in the journal Medicine in 2015.
Broccoli. This green vegetable has numerous complex compounds, especially sulforaphane, that can protect you from cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute, studies suggest there is a link between a person’s intake of cruciferous vegetableswhich include broccoli, cabbage, kale and cauliflower, among othersand a reduced risk of prostate cancer.
Soybeans. Foods that contain soybeans, including tofu, lentils, peanuts and chickpeas, have a nutrient called isoflavones. Consumption of isoflavones may be linked to a lowered risk of prostate cancer, according to a 2014 review of research .
Fish. Certain fish, such as salmon, trout and sardines, provide “good fats” that don’t trigger inflammation of the prostate in quite the same way as saturated animal fats. Researchers have identified inflammation within the prostate as a dangerous condition that can make it easier for cancer to take hold.
While much more research is needed about the foods that could reduce your risk of prostate cancer, eating a balanced, healthy diet that includes any of the foods above should be celebrated as a step in the right direction.
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Mushrooms Vs Prostate Cancer
The Endocrine Society study isn’t the first to indicate the potential of mushrooms to prevent prostate cancer. A 2019 study published by the International Journal of Cancer demonstrated a potential connection between eating mushrooms regularly and a lowered risk of prostate cancer. The study looked at more than 36,000 Japanese men between the ages of 40 and 79, recording health information such as physical activity, diet and medical history.
The research indicated that men who consumed mushrooms once or twice per week had an 8 percent lower risk of prostate cancer than those who never ate mushrooms. Men who ate mushrooms three times or more each week had a 17 percent lower risk.
The study’s findings were believed to be the first to show that mushrooms might actually prevent prostate cancer on a wide scale. The researchers did note, however, that a balanced diet is more important than eating mushrooms in every meal.
Eating Mushrooms Might Reduce Prostate Cancer Risk
In the first study of its kind, Japanese researchers have found an association between eating mushrooms and a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Although the size of the effect is relatively small, the findings are likely to inspire further investigation.
Although treatment for this type of cancer is continually improving, there is neither a cure nor any way to prevent it.
However, evidence suggests that eating healthfully might reduce the risk.
If scientists can identify simple dietary interventions that can reduce this risk, even by a small amount, it could make a substantial difference globally.
Researchers have recently carried out a study on mushrooms, publishing their findings in the
Mushrooms are a relatively inexpensive and widely consumed food throughout the world. In recent years, studies have begun to identify their potential disease fighting capabilities.
A 2012 review claims that certain compounds in mushrooms have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties, among others.
According to the authors of the recent paper, only one previous human trial has investigated mushrooms and prostate cancer. The earlier study tested powdered white button mushrooms in men with recurrent prostate cancer.
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Who Will Be In The Study
The clinical trial will evaluate the effects of mushroom tablets on 2 different groups of prostate cancer patients.
Additional Study Parameters
The clinical trial will also collect blood and tissue samples to evaluate the effect of mushroom tablets on a variety of parameters including immune function and changes in cancer regulatory mechanisms.
What We’ve Learned About Mushrooms
The researchers analyzed the effect of white button mushroom extract on prostate cancer cells that were especially sensitive to androgen.
They also looked at the effect on lab mice artificially implanted with human prostate tumors. Lab mice were fed mushroom extract for six days. Researchers said mushrooms significantly suppressed the growth of prostate tumors during that time, and the mice’s prostate-specific antigen levels fell.
Wang said that although more studies are needed, it’s possible these mushrooms could contribute to the prevention of prostate cancer in the future. According to the U.S.-based Mushroom Council, white buttons are the most popular mushrooms in the country, making up approximately 90 percent of the mushrooms consumed.
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Production Of Mushroom Extract
The mushroom extract was prepared via hot water extraction as previously described . Briefly, 6 g of freeze-dried WBM powder was boiled in 1 L hot water for 3 h. The broth was centrifuged at 3,000 g for 30 min, twice, to collect the fraction of supernatant. The liquid fraction was rotor-evaporated to dryness and then re-dissolved in 1 mL of hot water to produce a 6× mushroom extract. Therefore, the concentration of 6× WBM extract originated from 6 g dried WBM powder/mL . Sixty
Expression Levels And Localization Of Ar Tmprss2 And Ace2 In Human Tissues
For the expression and localization of AR, TMPRSS2, and ACE2 in the human prostate, lungs, small intestine, and kidneys, the mRNA expression values and IHC images were obtained from HPA . The mRNA expression values were chosen from the HPA/GTEx Dataset. GTEx dataset reports mRNA expression of each gene in human tissue as average pTPM. Transcripts per kilobase million is the normalization method for RNA-seq in GTEx dataset, TPM is for all transcripts in a sample that add up to 1 million mapped reads. pTPM is for all TPM values per sample scaled to a sum of 1 million TPM. There were 152 samples for prostate, 427 samples for lungs, 137 samples for the small intestine, and 45 samples for kidneys. The IHC images were extracted from the HPA/Protein Expression Summary subcategory. The information on expression patterns and specific cell types that express respective genes were extracted from the staining reports in the Protein Expression Summary database. In this database, IHC staining was performed on normal human tissue. AR expression was detected with a rabbit antibody and validated with another rabbit antibody . ACE2 expression was primarily detected with a rabbit antibody and confirmed with a mouse antibody TMPRSS2 expression was detected with a rabbit antibody .
White Button Mushroom Tablets Used To Slow The Advancement In Prostate Cancer
Written by Yasmine Poot , Podcast Editor|Sep 24, 2021
There are over 14,000 known species of mushrooms, many still unknown. Mushrooms hold a valuable place in our environment. These species hold a key to our future. However, can they do the same in modern medicine?
City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center that houses the Beckman Research institute has been researching the white button mushroom. The research has shown the advancement of the mushroom with prostate cancer. Therefore phase one of the trial began on January 29, 2009 with using men who had a history with prostate cancer who had to have a 2.0 increase of prostate specific antigen in their blood. The trial used freeze dried mushrooms that were turned into powder and were made into tablets that are 500mg of white button mushroom these tablets were taken twice a day.
Researchers at City of Hope are developing a much less toxic therapy to fight this cancer. The reason why white button mushroom was used is because Shiuan Chen, Ph. D. Professor and chair, department of cancer biology said, Mushrooms came out as one of the important vegetables that was said to have the ability to suppress the proliferation in both breast and prostate cancer cells. Video found on the City of Hope website shows the progress of two men who took the mushroom tablet and showed that just after 60 days one mans PSA levels were undetectable for four years and the other was as low as .04 it is unknown of how long it stayed that low.
City Of Hope Opens Phase Ii Clinical Trial To Test If Intake Of Mushroom
City of Hope is recruiting patients for a phase II clinical trial to investigate whether pills containing white button mushroom extract could regulate the immune system, affecting prostate-specific antigen levels to either remain stable or decline.
Heightened levels of PSA in men may indicate the existence of prostate tumors.
Shiuan Chen, the Lester M. and Irene C. Finkelstein Chair in Biology, has been investigating the potential beneficial effects of white button mushroom at City of Hope for about 20 years. His translational preclinical and clinical research has found that this bioactive food available in most supermarkets might prevent or slow the spread of prostate and breast cancers.
The common fungus appears to block the activity of dihydrotestosterone, a strong form of the male hormone.
White button mushroom, like green tea, turmeric, soybean, rosemary and tomato, has been considered a superfood with positive effects on human health, Chen, co-investigator of the clinical trial, said in a statement. What were trying to do is scientifically prove whether the hype is true. If white button mushroom can slow the progression of prostate cancer, we want to know what the active agent is and what biological mechanisms are at work.
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White Button Mushroom Powder And Recurrent Prostate Cancer
A small Phase I clinical trial in just 36 patients, funded by the Mushroom Growers of Australia and North America, has suggested that powdered mushroom may have an effect on PSA levels of at least some men with recurrent prostate cancer after first-line therapy.
We can be clear that this study was probably well carried out, since it was conducted at the City of Hope and has been published in Cancer , but its going to need a lot more data to convince most physicians to treat men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer with something as bland as white button mushroom powder!
Twardowski et al. enrolled a total of 36 patients into this study, all of whom had continuously rising PSA levels after first-line treatment. Since this was a Phase I study designed to find the highest possible, safe level of mushroom powder that could be administered to the patients, the patients were divided into six cohorts of six patients, such that no more than one patient per cohort could be exposed to dose-limiting toxicity by getting an excessively high dose of the mushroom powder .
Here are the studys basic findings:
- No patient at all experienced dose-limiting toxicity.
- Two patients, treated with 8 g/day and 14 g/day of the mushroom powder, had complete responses to treatment.
- Their PSA levels decreased to undetectable levels and remained there for 49 and 30 months.
Rod Stewart Urges Fans To Get Checked For Prostate Cancer
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Early indicators of prostate cancer include urinary issues, such as needing to urinate more frequently, often during the night. As with any cancer, if the tumour hasn’t spread, the more likely treatment will be successful. Lead researcher Xiaoqiang Wang presented the breakthrough discovery that mushrooms could help quell the abnormal reproduction of cancerous cells. Wang explained: “Androgens, a type of male sex hormone, promote the growth of prostate cancer cells by binding to and activating the androgen receptor, a protein that is expressed in prostate cells.
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Mushroom Extract Makes Significant Cancer Progress
Study authors set out to determine how white mushrooms accomplish this feat. The team analyzed the effect of the mushroom extract on prostate cancer cells that are particularly sensitive to androgen. Then, researchers also studied the extracts effect in a group of mice artificially implanted with human prostate tumors.
Those experiments helped researchers observe that white button mushroom extract suppresses androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer cells. Lab mice received white mushroom extract for six days. During that time, researchers say mushrooms significantly suppressed prostate tumor growth and their PSA levels dropped.
We found that white button mushrooms contain chemicals that can block the activity of the androgen receptor in mouse models, indicating this fungus can reduce PSA levels, Wang concludes. While more research is needed, its possible that white button mushrooms could one day contribute to the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.
Although the U.S. Department of Agriculture classifies them as vegetables, mushrooms actually provide nutrients common in both plants and animals. Previous studies find mushrooms are rich in antioxidants which may stop harmful inflammation that damages the cells. This oxidative stress can lead to chronic diseases, including cancer.
Researchers presented the findings virtually at ENDO 2021, the Endocrine Societys annual meeting.
White Button Mushroom Extract Suppresses Prostate Cancer Growth In Mice
Scientists continue to search for increasingly powerful drugs to take on cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth, and nature continues to provide them with a rich source of inspiration. The latest example comes from white button mushrooms, which a team of researchers has found can suppress prostate tumor growth in mouse models and induce other signs of anti-cancer activity.
The research was led by Shiuan Chen, from cancer research center City of Hope, whose previous investigations around white button mushrooms and cancer had returned some intriguing results. As part of a phase one clinical trial, white button mushroom powder was given to patients with recurrent prostate cancer, which appeared to reduce levels of what’s known as prostate-specific antigen in their blood.
While heightened PSA levels can serve as a biomarker of prostate cancer, they can also be the result of infections or entirely benign tumors that will never require treatment. As a result, high PSA readings can quite often lead to unnecessary biopsies and angst for patients, with up to 75 percent of men who return these readings then returning negative cancer results from their biopsies.
Androgens, a type of male sex hormone, promote the growth of prostate cancer cells by binding to and activating the androgen receptor, a protein that is expressed in prostate cells, says co-author Xiaoqiang Wang. White button mushrooms appear to suppress the activity of the androgen receptor.
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