Gene And Protein Expression
About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and almost 75% of these genes are expressed in the normal prostate. About 150 of these genes are more specifically expressed in the prostate with about 20 genes being highly prostate specific. The corresponding specific proteins are expressed in the glandular and secretory cells of the prostatic gland and have functions that are important for the characteristics of semen. Some of the prostate specific proteins, such as the prostate specific antigen , and the Prostatic acid phosphatase.
In the developing embryo, at the hind end lies an inpouching called the cloaca. This, over the fourth to the seventh week, divides into a urogenital sinus and the beginnings of the anal canal, with a wall forming between these two inpouchings called the urorectal septum. The urogenital sinus divides into three parts, with the middle part forming the urethra the upper part is largest and becomes the urinary bladder, and the lower part then changes depending on the biological sex of the embryo.
Location Of The Prostate Gland
The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut. The prostate gland surrounds the neck of a mans bladder and urethra the tube that carries urine from the bladder. It is partly muscular and partly glandular, with ducts opening into the prostatic portion of the urethra.
It is made up of three lobes: a center lobe with one lobe on each side.
What Are The Constituents Of Prostatic Fluid
The prostate secretes a milky fluid, the prostatic fluid, which makes up about 30 percent of the total fluid thats ejaculated. The prostatic fluid contains various ingredients, such as enzymes, citric acid and zinc, which keeps sperm alive and protects them and the genetic codes they carry. PSA is one of the enzymes in the fluid that, after ejaculation, makes semen runnier and helps sperm travel through semen more easily, which increases the likelihood of successful fertilization of an egg. While prostatic fluid is weakly acidic, the other constituents of semen turn it alkaline overall, which helps to counteract vaginal acidity and prevent damage of sperm.
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Can Male Menopause Be Treated
If your testosterone levels are low, hormone replacement therapy may help relieve symptoms, such as the loss of interest in sex, depression and fatigue. However, replacing male hormones can make prostate cancer worse, and may make atherosclerosis worse, also.
You should receive a complete physical examination and laboratory tests should be performed before starting hormone replacement therapy. There are still many unanswered questions about how many middle-aged men could benefit from hormone replacement therapy. Talk to your healthcare provider about all the pros and cons of this treatment and what the best option is for you.
Diagnosis Of Enlarged Prostate Gland And Urinary Problems
If you are troubled by urination problems, see a doctor no matter what your age. If your doctor agrees that your symptoms need further evaluation and treatment, you may need to undergo a few tests.These may include:
- general examination medical history and review of any health conditions including obesity, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnoea, depression and erectile dysfunction. A rectal examination may be done to check the size and shape of your prostate gland
- a urine check to ensure the prostate is not infected
- a flow-rate check to estimate the speed with which you pass urine
- an ultrasound examination to assess if the bladder is emptying completely and to examine your kidneys
- urodynamics a series of tests on the bladder to see how your urinary system is functioning may be recommended in some circumstances.
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Pain During Erection Or Ejaculation
Some men find that erections and ejaculating is painful after surgery, or during and after their course of radiotherapy.
Painful erections following surgery could be due to internal bruising caused by the operation. The tube which carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body gets inflamed by the radiotherapy treatment.
This side effect should disappear a few weeks after you finish radiotherapy or as you recover from surgery. Talk to your specialist nurse for specific advice. If masturbation and sex is important to you, its important to keep stimulating the penis to keep it healthy. On the other hand, if erections are very painful, you might need to avoid ejaculation for a while and try again later.
The penile injections to stimulate an erection can cause painful erections in some men. This pain might lessen with continued treatment.
Medication For Urinary Problems
Your doctor may suggest various medications to help ease your urinary problems, including:
- medications to reduce the tone of the muscles of the urethra and prostate to minimise any constriction to urine flow caused when these muscles contract
- medication to reduce the size of the prostate gland. These medications work by blocking the action of male hormones produced by the prostate gland
- medications to relax the bladder, making unwanted contractions less likely and reducing the symptoms of urgency and frequency of urination
- the over-the-counter preparation ‘saw palmetto’ is sometimes used. This may help some men, especially if frequent urination at night is a problem.
However, recent reviews of the evidence for using saw palmetto as a treatment for mild or moderate urinary symptoms did not show any improvement, compared to no treatment, in men with BPH.
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Wednesday 4 October 2017
Hey guys, we know that talking about your prostate can be a little uncomfortable. You might not know where or what it is, or you might have only heard about it in stories about older men having difficulty peeing or the doctor sticking their finger up you know where to check on it.
Below, weve got all the details about what your prostate is, where it is and what it does. Well also discuss how it might change as you age, and any changes or symptoms you should keep an eye on and tell your doctor about.
Can Anything Be Done For Erectile Dysfunction Caused By Prostate Cancer Treatment
Yes, there are things you can try if you have erectile dysfunction after your prostate cancer treatment. You should keep in mind that the following things will affect your ability to have an erection after your prostate cancer treatment:
- How good your erections were before your treatment
- Other medical conditions you have like high blood pressure or diabetes
- Some types of medicines you may take such as medicines for high blood pressure or antidepressants
- Things you do in your life such as drinking or smoking
- Your age
- The type of prostate cancer treatment you had
It is important that you and your partner speak with your doctor or healthcare team about what you can do. Your doctor or healthcare team will speak with you about what might work best for you if you have erectile dysfunction. It is important that you speak with them since some treatments for erectile dysfunction can affect other medical problems you may have.
Types of treatment for erectile dysfunction include:
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What Hormones Do The Testes Produce
The main hormone secreted by the testes is testosterone, an androgenic hormone. Testosterone is secreted by cells that lie between the seminiferous tubules, known as the Leydig cells. The testes also produce inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone from Sertoli cells, and insulin-like factor 3 and oestradiol from the Leydig cells.
Testosterone is important in the first stages of developing the male reproductive organs in a foetus. It also causes the development of male characteristics such as growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice and the growth spurt that takes place during puberty. Testosterone is important in maintaining these secondary male characteristics throughout a mans life. From puberty onwards, testosterone provides the main stimulus for sperm production.
Prostate Specific Antigen Testing
Prostate Specific Antigen is a protein made by the cells in your prostate. Your PSA levels can be measured using a blood test and give an indication of your prostate health.
A PSA test isnt a test for cancer. Higher levels of PSA might indicate prostate cancer, but a high reading could also be caused by other conditions. It is also possible to have low level readings and have prostate cancer. This means that a PSA test isnt enough to definitively diagnose or rule out prostate cancer. Your PSA levels can vary, so your doctor might run this test a few times to compare your results and help determine your risk of prostate cancer.
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The Importance Of A Healthy General Way Of Life
The regular practice of a sport is recommended. Beware of sports that are too extensive or location too much pressure on the pelvic floor , as they can aggravate prostate adenoma.Likewise, maintaining sexual activity if it is reasonable, also plays a protective role.Tobacco and alcohol, like all pro-inflammatory compounds, need to be
- prevented. And yes, the more swelling there is in the body, the higher the prostates risk.To prevent troubles, such as a frequent requirement to urinate, connected to prostate conditions, certain habits can be adopted:
- Prevent holding yourself back for long periods when you feel the requirement to urinate, as the bladder would then press excessive on the prostate.Prevent constipation the maintained stool might compress the prostate.
- Make the effort to empty your bladder when you urinate.
- Adapt your water usage to your activity: avoid drinking excessive before bedtime or a long car journey. Prostate Cancer Causes Seminal Fluid
Three Main Zones Of The Prostate
- The peripheral zone is the largest area of the prostate. It can easily be felt by the doctor during a digital rectal exam .
- Most prostate cancers start in the peripheral zone.
- This is the area located in the middle of the prostate, between the peripheral and central areas. It surrounds your urethra that runs through the prostate.
- With age, the transitional area increases in size until it becomes the largest portion of your prostate. This is called benign prostatic hyperplasia or enlarged prostate.
- It is the part of the prostate that is farthest from the rectum. This is why prostate tumors located in this area can not be felt by the doctor during a digital rectal examination.
- If the doctor is in doubt, the following information will help decide if additional investigation is necessary:
- The PSA level
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Hormone Therapy For Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer cells depend on hormones such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone to thrive. Hormone therapy, which is also called androgen deprivation therapy or androgen suppression therapy, for prostate cancer involves depriving the cancer cells of this fuel by either blocking the production or action of androgen hormones.
Although hormone therapy plays an important role in treating patients with advancing prostate cancer, it is increasingly being used to treat localized disease as well. It may be used before radiation to help shrink the tumor or along with radiation if theres a high risk of recurrence following treatment. Because hormone therapy alone does not cure prostate cancer, it is usually used in concert with other treatments.
Whats Involved In A Prostate Exam And When Is It Needed
Due to the location of the prostate , it is possible to feel the organ with a finger inserted into the rectum. The tissues of the stroma give the prostate an elastic feel to the touch.
Several prostate health issues may develop as a man ages, in particular prostatitis , enlarged prostate , and prostate cancer.
A prostate exam, also known as a digital rectal exam, is a common procedure to help diagnose these issues.
For the exam, a doctor will insert a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum while youre standing, bending forward at the waist, or lying on your side with knees pulled up .
The doctor will feel your prostate to determine its size and look for bumps, hard spots, or other abnormalities that may be indicative of prostate cancer.
The prostate exam is not typically painful unless theres an abnormality within your prostate.
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Can I Have An Orgasm Without An Erection
Yes. An erection is not necessary for orgasm or ejaculation. Even if a man cannot have an erection or can only get or keep a partial erection, with the right sexual stimulation you can experience an orgasm. Your orgasm has little to do with your prostate gland. As long as you have normal skin sensation, you can have an orgasm.
Diagnosing Benign Prostate Enlargement
To find out whether your prostate gland is enlarged, you’ll need to have a few tests.
Some tests will be carried out by your GP and others will be carried out by a urologist .
First, your GP will ask about your symptoms. If it seems that you have symptoms of benign prostate enlargement, the next stage is to calculate your International Prostate Symptom Score .
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The Perils Of Too Much Testosterone
Having too much naturally-occurring testosterone is not a common problem among men. That may surprise you given what people might consider obvious evidence of testosterone excess: road rage, fighting among fathers at Little League games and sexual promiscuity.
Part of this may be due to the difficulty defining “normal” testosterone levels and “normal” behavior. Blood levels of testosterone vary dramatically over time and even during the course of a day. In addition, what may seem like a symptom of testosterone excess may actually be unrelated to this hormone.
In fact, most of what we know about abnormally high testosterone levels in men comes from athletes who use anabolic steroids, testosterone or related hormones to increase muscle mass and athletic performance.
Problems associated with abnormally high testosterone levels in men include:
- Low sperm counts, shrinking of the testicles and impotence
- Heart muscle damage and increased risk of heart attack
- Prostate enlargement with difficulty urinating
- Liver disease
- Fluid retention with swelling of the legs and feet
- Weight gain, perhaps related in part to increased appetite
- High blood pressure and cholesterol
- Increased risk of blood clots
- Stunted growth in adolescents
- Uncharacteristically aggressive behavior
- Mood swings, euphoria, irritability, impaired judgment, delusions
Side Effects Of Hormone Therapy
As the primary male hormone, testosterone plays an important role in establishing and maintaining the typical male characteristics along with a variety of other processes in the body.
The potential effects of testosterone loss include the following:
Osteoporosis, which can lead to bone fractures
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Can A Man Go Through Menopause
Menopause is a term used to describe the end of a woman’s normal menstrual function. In women, this is marked by changes in hormone production. One of the biggest changes for a woman after menopause is that she can no longer have children. The testes, unlike the ovaries, don’t lose the ability to make hormones. If a man is healthy, he may be able to make sperm well into his 80s or longer.
On the other hand, subtle changes in the function of the testes can happen as early as 45 to 50 years of age, and more dramatically after the age of 70. For many men, hormone production may remain normal into old age, while others may have declining hormone production earlier on. This can sometimes be a result of an illness, such as diabetes.
Its unclear whether decreasing testicular function contributes to symptoms like fatigue, weakness, depression or impotence.
Are There Things I Can Do To Help Myself If I Have Erectile Dysfunction
Yes, there are changes you can make in your life that may help with your erectile dysfunction. Remember to speak with your doctor or healthcare team before making any of these changes.
Some changes you may want to consider are:
- Try to exercise on a regular basis.
- Try to eat a healthy diet.
- Drink responsibly. Long-term, heavy drinking lowers your ability to have an erection.
- Try to lower your stress and fatigue . Being diagnosed with prostate cancer and working in all the changes it brings to your life can be stressful. Stress and the tiredness caused by your prostate cancer treatment, can make it difficult for you to get in the mood. Many men going through prostate cancer treatment feel this way. Talking with your partner might help lower your stress. You may also speak to your doctor or healthcare team about how you are feeling. They are there to help you through this time.
- Stop smoking. Research studies show that smoking can harm your ability to have sex. If you need help to stop smoking, speak with your doctor or healthcare team.
- Practice your Kegel exercises. Kegel exercises help strengthen your pelvic floor muscles, which support your bladder and bowel. These muscles also help with erections. For more information, please see the IMPACT booklet, Kegel Exercises for Men.
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