Symptoms Of Advanced Prostate Cancer
If you are worried about prostate cancer, we have more information about the signs and symptoms.
Symptoms of prostate cancer may not develop for many years. The symptoms of advanced prostate cancer may be caused by an enlarged prostate. Or symptoms may be a sign of secondary cancer, where the cancer has spread to another part of the body.
Two New Treatments Approved For Advanced Prostate Cancer
This has been a truly historic week, with two new treatment options receiving FDA approval for men with advanced prostate cancer.
On Friday, 5/15/20, the FDA approved rucaparib, a new medication to treat some patients with advanced prostate cancer. Then, on Tuesday, 5/19/20, olaparib was approved by the FDA for certain metastatic prostate cancers that are not responsive to hormone therapy. Rucaparib and olaparib are both PARP inhibitors, a class of precision medicines, that are used to treat cancers with specific mutations.
For men with advanced disease, these are two more modern weapons in the fight against advanced prostate cancer, a disease state that, in the past, has had few treatment alternatives. For PCF science, these approvals are an important testament to the value of early foundational work which can bear multiple fruits in the form of new treatments, even many years later. Once again, PCF is proud to have been involved since the beginning, in every stage of the research that lead to this development.
The idea that PARP could be the key to finding treatments for prostate cancer came from a PCF-funded team led by Dr. Karen Knudsen of Thomas Jefferson University. PARP is a protein that is involved in repairing damaged DNA. Dr. Knudsens team provided data to prove that PARP is a driver of prostate cancer and that PARP inhibitors can suppress prostate tumor growth and progression.
Help Getting Through Cancer Treatment
People with cancer need support and information, no matter what stage of illness they may be in. Knowing all of your options and finding the resources you need will help you make informed decisions about your care.
Whether you are thinking about treatment, getting treatment, or not being treated at all, you can still get supportive care to help with pain or other symptoms. Communicating with your cancer care team is important so you understand your diagnosis, what treatment is recommended, and ways to maintain or improve your quality of life.
Different types of programs and support services may be helpful, and can be an important part of your care. These might include nursing or social work services, financial aid, nutritional advice, rehab, or spiritual help.
The American Cancer Society also has programs and services including rides to treatment, lodging, and more to help you get through treatment. Call our National Cancer Information Center at 1-800-227-2345 and speak with one of our trained specialists.
Read Also: How Do You Treat An Enlarged Prostate
Treatments For Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer
The following are treatment options for . Locally advanced prostate cancer has spread outside of the prostate but hasn’t spread to lymph nodes or distant parts of the body. Your healthcare team will suggest treatments based on your needs and work with you to develop a treatment plan.
Treatment options for locally advanced prostate cancer include:
- radiation therapy with hormone therapy
- surgery and radiation therapy, with or without hormone therapy
- hormone therapy alone
- watchful waiting
Immunotherapy: Vaccines For Prostate Cancer
Immunotherapies are treatments that harness the power of the immune system to fight cancer. These treatments can either help the immune system attack the cancer directly or stimulate the immune system in a more general way.
One type of treatment vaccine called sipuleucel-T is approved for men with few or no symptoms from metastatic CRPC.
You May Like: When Should You Get Tested For Prostate Cancer
Parp Inhibitors For Prostate Cancer
A PARP inhibitor is a substance that blocks an enzyme in cells called PARP. PARP helps repair DNA when it becomes damaged. Some prostate tumors have genetic defects that limit their ability to repair DNA damage. Such tumors may be sensitive to PARP inhibitors.
Two PARP inhibitors, olaparib and rucaparib , have been approved for some men whose prostate cancer has metastasized, and whose disease has stopped responding to standard hormone treatments.
What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer
When prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate or returns after treatment, it is often called advanced prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is often grouped into four stages, with stages III and IV being more advanced prostate cancer.
- Early Stage | Stages I & II: The tumor has not spread beyond the prostate.
- Locally Advanced | Stage III: Cancer has spread outside the prostate but only to nearby tissues.
- Advanced | Stage IV: Cancer has spread outside the prostate to other parts such as the lymph nodes, bones, liver or lungs.
When an early stage prostate cancer is found, it may be treated or placed on surveillance . Advanced prostate cancer is not curable, but there are many ways to treat it. Treatment can help slow advanced prostate cancer progression.
There are several types of advanced prostate cancer, including:
With biochemical recurrence, the prostate-specific antigen level has risen after treatment using surgery or radiation, with no other sign of cancer.
Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer that no longer responds to hormone treatment and is only found in the prostate. This is found by a rise in the PSA level, while the testosterone level stays low. Imaging tests do not show signs the cancer has spread.
Metastatic Prostate Cancer
- Lymph nodes outside the pelvis
- Other organs, such as liver or lungs
Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer
You May Like: What Does The Fluid Secreted From The Prostate Gland Do
Treatments To Control And Prevent Further Cancer Spread In Patients With Castrate Refractory Advanced Prostate Cancer:
At BPC we offer:
- Hormones , Enzalutamide , Diethylstilboestrol)
- Chemotherapy .
Other treatment options ongoing clinical studies:
- Autologous cellular immunotherapy, which is in late trial stage and although not currently available outside a trial setting in the UK, is likely to be licensed soon.
Multidisciplinary Nature Of Treatment In Todays Advanced Prostate Cancer Care Paradigm
As the therapeutic landscape evolves to include increasingly complex combinations of systemic therapies with or without local therapies, advances in imaging, and germline and somatic genetic testing, treating men with advanced prostate cancer is increasingly one that must embrace multidisciplinary management approaches. Team members should include urologists, medical oncologists, and radiation oncologists at a minimum when supporting treatment decisions for advanced disease. Additional specialists may also include genitourinary pathology, genetic counseling, palliative care, and holistic specialists, as appropriate, in addition to primary care. Best practices must also include clinicians comfortable describing the use of germline and somatic genetic testing, and when advanced imaging techniques could be optimally used or avoided. Radiologists and nuclear medicine specialists are valuable in helping to accurately interpret scans. Palliative care team members may also play a key role when treating men with symptomatic metastatic disease. Palliative care itself is an interdisciplinary, holistic approach to managing an advanced disease such as prostate cancer with a guarded prognosis. It can include controlling symptoms that are physical, psychological, spiritual, and social. The goal of palliation is to prevent and relieve suffering and to support the best possible QOL for the patient and family.
Also Check: What Is A Transrectal Ultrasound Of The Prostate
Treatment For Advanced Prostate Cancer
Although advanced prostate cancer cannot be cured, it can be controlled with treatment, sometimes for several years. Treatments can also help relieve symptoms and improve your quality of life.
A multidisciplinary team will meet to discuss the best possible treatment for you. This will depend on different factors, like your general health. Your cancer doctor will talk to you about the advantages and disadvantages of these treatments.
The main treatments are:
- Hormonal therapy
Hormonal therapies reduce the amount of testosterone in the body. This may slow the growth of the cancer or stop it growing for a while.
Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer drugs to destroy cancer cells. You may have it with hormonal therapy when you are first diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer. Or, it can be given when hormonal therapy is no longer controlling the cancer.
Radiotherapy is most often used to shrink cancer that has spread to the bones. External beam radiotherapy uses high energy rays to destroy cancer cells. Its given using a large machine. Radioisotope therapy is a type of internal radiotherapy given as an injection.
Surgery to remove the prostate is not suitable for advanced prostate cancer. Surgery may be used to help control symptoms or to help stabilise a bone that is at risk of breaking.
Your doctor or nurse will usually ask you to sign a form giving your permission for them to give you the treatment. They cannot give treatment without your consent.
Hormone Sensitive Advanced Pca After Prior Local Therapy
Patients treated with prior local therapy may have relapsed disease. The first step is to assess the disease burden. Asymptomatic patients with a rising PSA and no evidence of radiographic metastasis are said to have BCR. Asymptomatic men may initially be observed, as toxicity of systemic ADT may outweigh benefits depending on a variety of factors and incorporating estimated life expectancy. Patients with oligometastatic disease recurrence may be considered for metastatectomy or radiation therapy to sites of disease.4 This may be associated with a survival benefit and role for these therapies continues to be evaluated. Most men with radiographic evidence of disease will need ADT. Whether ADT should be indefinite or intermittent remains an open question.5 Non-inferiority studies did not reach statistical significance but were associated with a better quality of life . However, the consensus remains that patients with high risk/high volume disease are more likely to benefit from continuous ADT.
Determination Of Evidence Strength
Based on assessments of the domains described above, the methodology team graded the strength of evidence for each intervention as high, moderate, low, or very low. Randomized controlled trials of interventions start as high strength of evidence and are graded down based on the presence and severity of shortcomings in each domain. A high grade indicates high confidence that the evidence reflects the true effect and that further research is very unlikely to change confidence in the estimate of effect. A moderate grade indicates moderate confidence that the evidence reflects the true effect and further research may change the estimate. A low grade indicates low confidence that the evidence reflects the true effect and further research is likely to change the confidence in the estimate of effect and could increase the confidence in the estimate. A very low grade indicates evidence either is unavailable or is too limited to permit any conclusion due to extreme study limitations, inconsistency, imprecision, or reporting bias.
The AUA employs a three-tiered strength of evidence system to underpin evidence-based guideline statements. In short, high certainty by GRADE translates to AUA A-category strength of evidence, moderate to B, and both low and very low to C.
|Table 1: Strength of Evidence Definitions
|AUA Strength of Evidence Category
|GRADE Certainty Rating
Initial Treatment Of Prostate Cancer By Stage And Risk Group
The stage of your cancer is one of the most important factors in choosing the best way to treat it. Prostate cancer is staged based on the extent of the cancer and the PSA level and Gleason score when it is first diagnosed.
For prostate cancers that haven’t spread , doctors also use risk groups to help determine if more tests should be done and to help guide treatment options. Risk groups range from very-low-risk to very-high-risk, with cancers in the lower risk groups having a smaller chance of growing and spreading compared to those in higher risk groups.
Other factors, such as your age, overall health, life expectancy, and personal preferences are also taken into account when looking at treatment options. In fact, many doctors determine a mans possible treatment options based not just on the stage, but on the risk of cancer coming back after the initial treatment and on the mans life expectancy.
You might want to ask your doctor what factors he or she is considering when discussing your treatment options. Some doctors might recommend options that are different from those listed here.Taking part in a clinical trial of newer treatments is also an option for many men with prostate cancer.
Don’t Miss: What Is Your Prostate Gland For
Radiation Therapy In Metastatic Crpc
Approximately 90% of advanced PCa patients will develop bone metastases. Radiation therapy is an important therapeutic option for of bone disease. Patients with isolated, painful bone lesions may be treated with palliative external beam radiation. Additionally, oligometastatic disease may be treated to slow progression. Systemically administered, bone targeted radiopharmaceuticals can be used for control of bone predominant disease. Radium-223 is an alpha particle emitting agent approved for the treatment of mCRPC patients with symptomatic bone lesions, without visceral disease. Patients in the ALSYMPCA trial receiving radium-223 had an improvement in OS as well as significant improvements in skeletal- and pain-related outcomes.20 Treatment with radium-223 alone has been shown effective in comparison to placebo however, there are several ongoing studies investigating combinations with other approved agents in mCRPC.
What You Can Do
Its important that you learn all you can about advanced prostate cancer so you can make informed decisions. Be open with your doctors and others on your healthcare team. Express your concerns and feel free to advocate for yourself and your quality of life. Get another medical opinion if you feel its necessary.
Some complementary therapies may prove helpful in coping with advanced cancer. For example:
- tai chi, yoga, or other movement therapy
- music therapy
- meditation, breathing exercises, or other relaxation techniques
A variety of services can help you with everything from lodging while youre getting treatment to getting some help around the house. Communicating with online or in-person groups are a good way to share information and lend mutual support.
Also Check: What Is Benign Prostate Enlargement
Biomarkers For Prognosis And Treatment Selection
Biomarkers, characteristics that are objectively measured and evaluated as indicators of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention , can be disease- or host-related. Many biomarkers have been proposed for prognostication or direct therapy, but few have been rigorously verified or validated. With advances in next-generation sequencing and its falling costs, much has been learned about the genomic basis of advanced prostate cancer and its response to therapy. In fact, many ongoing studies are developed based on our genomic understanding of the disease .
What Is The Difference Between Prostate Cancer And Advanced Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer occurs when cells in the prostate gland begin to grow out of control. In the early stages of prostate cancer, the cancer cells are only present in the prostate and have not spread to nearby tissues.
Advanced prostate cancer, also known as stage 4 prostate cancer, occurs when cancer cells have spread to other areas of the body.
Recommended Reading: Do Females Have A Prostate
How Long Can I Live With Advanced Prostate Cancer
Besides the fact that each case is different, it would be impossible to determine how long someone can live with advanced prostate cancer. The good news is that new drugs and treatments are being discovered every day. Medications that were not available five years ago are keeping more guys alive today. Based on a study by Belgium researchers, the following is the survival rates they have come up with:
Metastatic prostate cancer that does not have bone metastasis:
- One year: 87%
Metastatic prostate cancer that does have bone metastasis:
- One year: 47%
Metastatic prostate cancer that does have bone metastasis and involvement of the skeleton:
- One year: 40%
Endocrine Therapy And Prostate Cancer
Male hormones, specifically testosterone, fuel the growth of prostate cancer. By reducing the amount and activity of testosterone, the growth of advanced prostate cancer is slowed. Hormone therapy, known as androgen ablation or androgen suppression therapy, is the main treatment for advanced prostate cancer. It is the first line of treatment for metastatic prostate cancer.
In many patients, endocrine therapy provides temporary relief of symptoms of advanced prostate cancer. Endocrine therapy may reduce tumor size and levels of prostate specific antigen in most men. PSA is a substance produced by the prostate gland that, when present in excess amounts, signals the presence of prostate cancer.
Eventually, most patients with advanced prostate cancer stop responding to hormone therapy. Doctors call this castrate-resistant prostate cancer.
Also Check: What Is The Best Prostate Biopsy Procedure
Treatment Of Prostate Cancer
There are different treatment options for prostate cancer. Together with your doctor you will decide what is the best prostate cancer treatment for you. Treatment usually includes surgery and radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Other options include chemotherapy and hormone treatment for prostate cancer, which both aim to kill the cancer cells.
Multimodality Strategy For Advanced Prostate Canceris The Future Here Yet
Recent results have encouraged exploration of a multimodal strategy in oligometastatic advanced prostate cancer, especially because studies suggest that each modality contributes to further disease debulking and, thus, disease control . Several studies are evaluating this strategy, including PEACE1 , MetaCure , and the radiotherapy arm of MRC STAMPEDE.