Social Determinants Of Health
Cancer disparities reflect the interplay among many factors, including social determinants of health, behavior, biology, and geneticsall of which can have profound effects on health, including cancer risk and outcomes.
Certain groups in the United States experience cancer disparities because they are more likely to encounter obstacles in getting health care.
For example, people with low incomes, low health literacy, long travel distances to screening sites, or who lack health insurance, transportation to a medical facility, or paid medical leave are less likely to have recommended cancer screening tests and to be treated according to guidelines than those who dont encounter these obstacles.
People who do not have reliable access to health care are also more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage cancer that might have been treated more effectively if diagnosed earlier.
Some groups are disproportionately affected by cancer due to environmental conditions. People who live in communities that lack clean water or air may be exposed to cancer-causing substances.
The built environment can also influence behaviors that raise ones risk of cancer. For example, people who live in neighborhoods that lack affordable healthy foods or safe areas for exercise are more likely to have poor diets, be physically inactive, and obese, all of which are risk factors for cancer.
Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Prostate Cancer Is False 42+ Pages Explanation In Doc
Open 25+ pages which of the following statements regarding prostate cancer is false explanation in Google Sheet format. Which of the following statements about colon cancer is FALSE. -A full bladder facilitates transabdominal visualization of the prostate gland. PSA is elevated at 18. Check also: regarding and which of the following statements regarding prostate cancer is false Transrectal biopsy confirms adenocarcinoma of the prostate Gleason score 43.
The central zone is located at the apex of the prostate the peripheral zone accounts for what percentage of prostatic glandular tissue. In metastatic prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Misdiagnosis Delayed Cancer Diagnosis It occurs when prostate cells grow abnormally and uncontrollably b.
|Topic: It is likely to lead to prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Misdiagnosis Delayed Cancer Diagnosis Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Prostate Cancer Is False|
|Number of Pages: 21+ pages|
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Harms Of Early Detection And Treatment
The harms of screening for prostate cancer include harms from the PSA screening test and subsequent harms from diagnosis and treatment. Potential harms of screening include frequent false-positive results and psychological harms. One major trial in men screened every 2 to 4 years concluded that, over 10 years, more than 15% of men experienced at least 1 false-positive test result.5 Harms of diagnostic procedures include complications of prostate biopsy, such as pain, hematospermia , and infection. Approximately 1% of prostate biopsies result in complications requiring hospitalization. The false-positive and complication rates from biopsy are higher in older men.3 Adequate evidence suggests that the harms of screening and diagnostic procedures are at least small.
PSA-based screening for prostate cancer leads to the diagnosis of prostate cancer in some men whose cancer would never have become symptomatic during their lifetime. Treatment of these men results in harms and provides them with no benefit. This is known as overdiagnosis, and follow-up of large randomized trials suggests that 20% to 50% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer through screening may be overdiagnosed.3 Overdiagnosis rates would be expected to increase with age and to be highest in men 70 years and older because older men have high risk of death from competing causes.
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Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Prostate Cancer Is False In 7+ Pages Powerpoint Ppt Analysis
Read which of the following statements regarding prostate cancer is false from 6+ different content Treatment options for metastatic prostate cancer include all of the following EXCEPT. Early symptoms include pain or stiffness in the lower back hips or upper thighs. -A full bladder facilitates transabdominal visualization of the prostate gland. Check also: following and which of the following statements regarding prostate cancer is false Which of the following statements about colon cancer is FALSE.
Which one of the following statements is false. Which Of The Following Statements About Cancers Is FALSE.
Prostate Cancer Misdiagnosis Delayed Cancer Diagnosis
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|Number of Pages: 35+ slides|
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Research Needs And Gaps
There are many areas in need of research to improve screening for and treatment of prostate cancer, including
- Comparing different screening strategies, including different screening intervals, to fully understand the effects on benefits and harms
- Developing, validating, and providing longer-term follow-up of screening and diagnostic techniques, including risk stratification tools, use of baseline PSA level as a risk factor, and use of nonâPSA-based adjunctive tests that can distinguish nonprogressive and slowly progressive cancer from cancer that is likely to become symptomatic and affect quality or length of life, to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment
- Screening for and treatment of prostate cancer in African American men, including understanding the potential benefits and harms of different starting ages and screening intervals and the use of active surveillance given the large disparities in prostate cancer mortality in African American men, this should be a national priority
- How to better inform men with a family history of prostate cancer about the benefits and harms of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer, including the potential differences in outcomes between men with relatives who died of prostate cancer and men with relatives diagnosed with prostate cancer who died of other causes
- How to refine active prostate cancer treatments to minimize harms
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Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy Is From Psych 230 At Washington State University
Expectant management is the preferred treatment in the US especially for young men. The greatest risk factor is older age. Which one of the following statements is false. Prostate cancer can often be found before symptoms arise by. Most warning signs occur in the early stages of cancer. Prostate cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among men.
Impedimetric Aptamer Based Glycan Psa Score For Discrimination Of Prostate Cancer From Other Prostate Diseases Sciencedirect A median survival is 18 months.
|Topic: Allicin may reduce prostate cancer risk. Impedimetric Aptamer Based Glycan Psa Score For Discrimination Of Prostate Cancer From Other Prostate Diseases Sciencedirect Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Prostate Cancer Is False|
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The Rapidly Evolving Role Of Psma In Prostate Cancer Diagnostics And Therapeutics The greatest risk factor is older age.
|Topic: Incidence and death rates are significantly higher among Black men than White men. The Rapidly Evolving Role Of Psma In Prostate Cancer Diagnostics And Therapeutics Which Of The Following Statements Regarding Prostate Cancer Is False|
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|Number of Pages: 7+ pages|
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Benefits Of Early Detection And Treatment
The goal of screening for prostate cancer is to identify high-risk, localized prostate cancer that can be successfully treated, thereby preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with advanced or metastatic prostate cancer.
Adequate evidence from randomized clinical trials shows that PSA-based screening programs in men aged 55 to 69 years may prevent approximately 1.3 deaths from prostate cancer over approximately 13 years per 1000 men screened.3, 4 Screening programs may also prevent approximately 3 cases of metastatic prostate cancer per 1000 men screened.3 Current results from screening trials show no reductions in all-cause mortality from screening. There is inadequate evidence to assess whether the benefits for African American men and men with a family history of prostate cancer aged 55 to 69 years are different than the benefits for the average-risk population. There is also inadequate evidence to assess whether there are benefits to starting screening in these high-risk groups before age 55 years.
Adequate evidence from RCTs is consistent with no benefit of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer on prostate cancer mortality in men 70 years and older.
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General Considerations For Screening
The goal of screening for cancer is to detect preclinical disease in healthy, asymptomatic patients to prevent adverse outcomes, improve survival, and avoid the need for more intensive treatments. Screening tests have both benefits and adverse consequences .
Breast self-examination, breast self-awareness, clinical breast examination, and mammography all have been used alone or in combination to screen for breast cancer. In general, more intensive screening detects more disease. Screening intensity can be increased by combining multiple screening methods, extending screening over a wider age range, or repeating the screening test more frequently. However, more frequent use of the same screening test typically is associated with diminishing returns and an increased rate of screening-related harms. Determining the appropriate combination of screening methods, the age to start screening, the age to stop screening, and how frequently to repeat the screening tests require finding the appropriate balance of benefits and harms. Determining this balance can be difficult because some issues, particularly the importance of harms, are subjective and valued differently from patient to patient. This balance can depend on other factors, particularly the characteristics of the screening tests in different populations and at different ages.
Characteristics Of The Sampling Method
Before starting the study, addresses of male participants aged 50 years or over were obtained from their medical files, and 120 participants were assigned to the study. Then 7 participants were excluded from the study for reasons as inability to make a contact with the participant, withdrawal from the study, and non-compliance with inclusion criteria of the investigation. As a consequence, the study was completed with 113 male participants. Among them 58 participants comprised experimental group , and 55 participants constituted the control group . Experimental or control groups were designated by casting lots. Literate individuals who volunteered to participate in the study, those without prostate cancer, and communication problem were included in the study.
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Risk Factors In Aggressive Vs Slow
In the past few years, weve learned that prostate cancer really is several diseases with different causes. More aggressive and fatal cancers likely have different underlying causes than slow-growing tumors.
For example, while smoking has not been thought to be a risk factor for low-risk prostate cancer, it may be a risk factor for aggressive prostate cancer. Likewise, lack of vegetables in the diet is linked to a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer, but not to low-risk prostate cancer.
Body mass index, a measure of obesity, is not linked to being diagnosed with prostate cancer overall. In fact, obese men may have a relatively lower PSA levels than non-obese men due to dilution of the PSA in a larger blood volume. However, obese men are more likely to have aggressive disease.
Other risk factors for aggressive prostate cancer include:
- Tall height
- Lack of exercise and a sedentary lifestyle
- High calcium intake
- Agent Orange exposure
Research in the past few years has shown that diet modification might decrease the chances of developing prostate cancer, reduce the likelihood of having a prostate cancer recurrence, or help slow the progression of the disease. You can learn more about how dietary and lifestyle changes can affect the risk of prostate cancer development and progression in PCFs Health and Wellness: Living with Prostate Cancer guide.
Considerations For Patients With Prostate Cancer
In the past, erectile dysfunction was often a silent condition, with many men being too embarrassed or ashamed to discuss the issue with their physicians. Today, there are many treatment options available to manage erectile dysfunction, including oral drug therapy, injection medications, suppositories or pellets that are deposited in the urethra of the penis, and surgery to insert penile implants or prostheses . The most common approach is oral medication therapy with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor , with one guideline recommending initiation of therapy early in the course of recovering . However, it is unclear how many post-treatment patients will benefit from the use of these medications . In one study, only 38% of patients who had received either definitive radiotherapy or prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer reported improvements in sexual functions as the result of medication interventions . If pharmacotherapy in unsuccessful, referral to a urologist or sexual health specialist warranted .
|All of the above|
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Screening For Prostate Cancer In Men With A Family History
The introduction of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer has substantially altered the epidemiologic data for prostate cancer, greatly increasing the number of men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer and thus also the number of men with a father, brother, or son with a history of prostate cancer.
It is generally accepted that men with a family history of prostate cancer are more likely to develop prostate cancer. A study of twins in Scandinavia estimated that genetic factors may account for up to 42% of prostate cancer risk.18 An analysis from the Finnish site of the ERSPC trial concluded that men with at least 1 first-degree relative with prostate cancer were 30% more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer than men without a family history.19 Men with 3 first-degree relatives with prostate cancer or 2 close relatives on the same side of the family with prostate cancer diagnosed before age 55 years may have an inheritable form of prostate cancer associated with genetic changes passed down from one generation to the next. This type of prostate cancer is thought to account for less than 10% of all prostate cancer cases.20
The USPSTF searched for evidence about the potential benefits and harms of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer in men with a family history of prostate cancer.
Advising Men With a Family History of Prostate Cancer
Screening For Prostate Cancer In African American Men
In the United States, African American men are more likely to develop prostate cancer than white men . African American men are also more than twice as likely as white men to die of prostate cancer .1 The higher death rate is attributable in part to an earlier age at cancer onset, more advanced cancer stage at diagnosis, and higher rates of more aggressive cancer . These differences in death from prostate cancer may also reflect that African American men have lower rates of receiving high-quality care.
The USPSTF searched for evidence about the potential benefits and harms of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer in African American men.
The PLCO trial enrolled 4% African American men, which is not enough to determine whether the overall trial results differed for African American men.17 The ERSPC trial did not record or report any race-specific subgroup information. The low proportion of persons of African descent in European countries during the study period makes it likely that these groups were not well represented.
An analysis from the PLCO trial found that African American men were significantly more likely to have major infections after prostate biopsy than white men .13 Evidence is insufficient to compare the risk of false-positive results, potential for overdiagnosis, and magnitude of harms from prostate cancer treatment in African American vs other men.
Advising African American Men
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Breast Cancer Risk Factors
Family history of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or other hereditary breast and ovarian syndrome- associated cancer
Known deleterious gene mutation
Prior breast biopsy with specific pathology
Lobular carcinoma in situ
Prolonged interval between menarche and first pregnancy
Menopausal hormone therapy with estrogen and progestin
Higher body mass index
Prior exposure to high-dose therapeutic chest irradiation in young women
Clinical Considerations And Recommendations
How should individual breast cancer risk be assessed?
Health care providers periodically should assess breast cancer risk by reviewing the patients history. Breast cancer risk assessment is based on a combination of the various factors that can affect risk Box 1610111213. Initial assessment should elicit information about reproductive risk factors, results of prior biopsies, ionizing radiation exposure, and family history of cancer. Health care providers should identify cases of breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, pancreatic, and other types of germline mutation-associated cancer in first-degree, second-degree, and possibly third-degree relatives as well as the age of diagnosis. Women with a potentially increased risk of breast cancer based on initial history should have further risk assessment. Assessments can be conducted with one of the validated assessment tools available online, such as the Gail, BRCAPRO, Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm, International Breast Cancer Intervention Studies , or the Claus model 34.
Is screening breast self-examination recommended in women at average risk of breast cancer, and what should women do if they notice a change in one of their breasts?
Should practitioners perform routine screening clinical breast examinations in average-risk women?
When should screening mammography begin in average-risk women?
How frequently should screening mammography be performed in average-risk women?
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Risk And Other Prostate Conditions
The most common misconception is that the presence of non-cancerous conditions of the prostate will increase the risk of prostate cancer.
While these conditions can cause symptoms similar to those of prostate cancer and should be evaluated by a physician, there is no evidence to suggest that having either of the following conditions will increase a mans risk for developing prostate cancer.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate. Because the Urethra runs directly through the prostate, enlargement of the prostate in BPH squeezes the urethra, making it difficult and often painful for men to urinate. Learn more about BPH.
Prostatitis, an infection in the prostate, is the most common cause of urinary tract infections in men. Most treatment strategies are designed to relieve the symptoms of prostatitis, which include fever, chills, burning during urination, or difficulty urinating. There have been links between inflammation of the prostate cancer and prostate cancer in several studies. This may be a result of being screened for cancer just by having prostate-related symptoms, and currently, this is an area of controversy. Learn more about prostatitis.