Anatomy And Function Of The Prostate
The prostate is a gland located in the man’s pelvic cavity, behind the pubis. It is in front of the rectum and under the bladder. It wraps and surrounds the first segment of the urethra just below the bladder neck .
Figure 1. Schematic representation of the location of the prostate in the male urogenital system. It is an organ of fibro-muscular and glandular nature and has the shape of an inverted pyramid. Four zones can be distinguished in the prostate: The anterior zone or fibromuscular stroma, the peripheral zone, the central zone, and the transitional zone. The anterior zone is of fibromuscular nature, a thick sheet of compact connective and muscular tissue that covers the entire anterior surface of the prostate. It surrounds the proximal urethra at the level of the bladder neck, where it joins the internal sphincter and detrusor muscle in which it originates. It occupies almost a third of the total volume of the prostate and does not contain glands. It does not participate in any pathology of the prostate. The peripheral zone is of endodermal origin and is the largest anatomical region of the glandular prostate. The central zone is the smallest of the regions of the glandular prostate. It represents between 20 and 25% of its mass and is crossed by the ejaculatory ducts. The fourth zone, the transitional zone, has a mesodermal origin, formed by a small group of ducts closely related to the proximal urethra. These ducts represent 5% of the glandular prostate mass.
Too Much Zinc Linked To Prostate Cancer
Zinc Supplements May Double Risk of Advanced Prostate Cancer
July 1, 2003 — Men who take too many zinc supplements may be increasing their risk of advanced prostate cancer. A new study shows that men who consumed more than 100 mg per day of the mineral were more than twice as likely to develop advanced prostate cancer than those who don’t take zinc .
According to researchers, about 15% of the U.S. population uses dietary supplements that contain zinc. About 10% of men who take the have an average daily zinc intake that is 2-3 times higher than the recommended daily allowance of 11 mg per day. Dietary sources of zinc include beef, cereals, and seafood.
Researchers say zinc is found in higher concentrations in the than in any other soft tissue in the body, but previous studies on zinc and prostate cancer risk have produced conflicting results. Some have suggested that zinc suppresses prostate cancer cell growth, while others say high zinc levels may increase prostate cancer risk.
In this study, researchers used information from the Health Professionals Follow-Up study of 46,974 men from 1986 to 2001 to examine the link between zinc supplements and prostate risk.
Their results appear in the Journal of the National Institute.
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Zinc Transporter And Prostate Cancer
Zinc homeostasis is likely maintained by the activities of a group of zinc transporters in the cell plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. At least ten ZnT and fourteen Zip family members have been identified in mammals, and their tissue expression, cellular localization and regulation are very different .
Low Zinc Levels In Prostate Cancer Cells
Zinc is a powerful tumor suppressor. Researchers have discovered a specialized transporter protein that enables peak levels of zinc to bemaintained in prostate tissue.7,10
To fully understand how zinc functions to prevent prostate cancer, we need to review the function of the prostate gland itself. Remember that the prostategland is important in male reproductive function; specifically, the prostate secretes a fluid which, at the time of ejaculation, is mixed with sperm fromthe testes and secretions from the seminal vesicles. Prostatic fluid makes up about 30% of the volume of semen; its role is to slightlyalkalinize seminal fluid in order to counteract the acidic pH of the vaginal tract, allowing sperm to survive long enough to enter the uterus.11,12
The bulk of prostatic fluid is created in and secreted from the outermost region of the prostate gland, the so-called peripheral zone, which is also thesource of most prostate cancer development and progression.8 Cells in the peripheral zone are highly specialized to accumulate zinc, with theresult that prostate tissue contains zinc at levels 10 to 15 times that of other tissues.8
To accumulate such high levels of zinc, prostate peripheral zone cells are endowed with a specialized zinc transporter protein called ZIP1.13ZIP1 pulls in high levels of zinc from the blood, which is then used in prostate cells to block oxidation of citrate.6,7,10,14
What you need to know
Viability Of Prostate Cancer May Require Exclusion Of Zinc
Prostate epithelium is characterized by high intracellular levels of zinc, particularly within the mitochondria. This intra-mitochondrial zinc is believed to promote the proper function of prostate epithelium by inhibiting aconitase activity, thereby causing an accumulation of citrate in the Krebs cycle. Much of this citrate is exported into the seminal fluid, where it serves as an energy substrate for spermatozoa.
However, malignantly transformed prostate epithelium is far lower in intracellular zinc, reflected greatly diminished expression or activity of transporter proteins – ZIP1, ZIP2, and ZIP3 – that import zinc. This loss of intracellular zinc appears to be essential to the viability of the transformed cells, as measures which restore high intracellular zinc levels – exposure to high extracellular zinc, or treatment with zinc ionophores such as pyrithione or clioquinol – slows their proliferation and up-regulates cell death. In vivo, continual intravenous infusion of zinc, injection of zinc acetate directly into tumors, or parenteral administration of the zinc ionophore clioquinol has notably slowed the growth of human prostate cancers in nude mice. In particular, administration of clioquinol was associated with an 85% growth retardation of a ZIP-1- deficient human prostate cancer.
Potential Side Effects Of Zinc
Compared to other metal ions, zinc is relatively harmless. Only exposure to excessive amounts of zinc will result in toxicity. Zinc intoxication is an extremely rare event.
The human body usually contains anywhere between 2 to 3 grams of zinc, 90% of which is found in the muscles and bones. When zinc is ingested, it travels to the small intestine where it is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream.
Zinc toxicity interferes with the absorption of copper as well, leading to signs and symptoms of copper deficiency. These are the signs and symptoms of zinc toxicity:
There are three main ways in which zinc can enter the human body. These are:
- Through the Skin
- Oral Ingestion
Inhalation of zinc is typically only experienced by industrial workers, such as those in manufacturing. Inhalation of zinc causes metal fume fever, which causes fever, muscle aches, fatigue, chest pain, cough, and shortness of breath.
Another unconventional way in which zinc is absorbed is through the skin. Zinc is a well-known supplement that has been used to treat wounds topically, as it promotes wound healing. However, the concentrations of zinc in these supplements are not significant enough for skin absorption to be considerable.
Because zinc is a trace element, oral intake of sufficient quantities is essential for survival. The recommended dietary allowance of zinc is 11mg/day for men and 8mg/day for women. There are several naturally occurring sources of zinc :
Why A Supplement Can Help Support A Healthy Prostate
Supplements are called that for a reason. In todays fast-paced world, we may try to make healthy choices, but overall, we cant get all we need from the foods we eat, as demonstrated above. And chances are your aging prostate is hungry for the nutrients our modern diet has eliminated from our daily food intake.
URINOZINC® Plus provides you with Zinc, Saw Palmetto Extract, Beta-sitosterol, and key nutrients like Vitamin B12, Folic Acid, Selenium, Vitamin E, Lycopene, Vitamin D, Calcium, and Magnesium to support healthy prostate function, promote healthy flow and frequency, normal bladder emptying, and restful sleep.
Eating well is important, and so is getting the essential nutrients our bodies need. URINOZINC® Plus helps feed your prostate in a safe and drug-free way.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
New Chapter Prostate 5lx
New Chapter has a prostate supplement that provides a more focused dosage of a small number of proven ingredients
The only trace element present is selenium, but theres a bit more variety with the herbal supplements. Its an okay choice, but it would be nice to see a broader variety of trace elements included to shore up any potential deficits, which are common among older men.
The Importance Of Zinc In Prostate Health
- Prostate cancer remains the second most common malignancy in men, after skin cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer death, after lung cancer.
- The trace metal zinc plays a unique role in prostate health; the prostate gland accumulates zinc at 10 to 15 times higher concentration than other body tissues.
- Zinc helps prostate cells resist malignant transformation by creating an intracellular environment toxic to cancerous cells; normal prostate cells have evolved powerful mechanisms to protect themselves against zinc toxicity.
- Basic laboratory studies reveal potent effects of prostate cell zinc content on fundamental cancer-promoting properties of cells.
- Men over 40 should consider zinc supplementation for a variety of reasons including maintaining healthy prostate tissue zinc levels.
Supplementing Zinc For Maintaining Adequate Zinc Levels In Older Men: Not All The Sources Of Zinc Are Alike
Taken together, more than 50% of men over 60 suffer from BPH, and also have low zinc status. Thus, there is a strong case for establishing a program of zinc supplementation in men over 50 due to the endogenous and exogenous factors presented above. Several studies showed that the treatment of malignant prostate cells with zinc that will increase cellular zinc levels leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation, promotion of apoptosis, and inhibition of cell migration and invasion . However, there are many options available for supplementation, and choosing the correct supplement may be critical to achieving effects in prostate tissues.
The way of cellular uptake and the protection from sequestering by metallothionines, as well as slower excretion profiles may give organic zinc supplements such as ZnAAs an advantage that could be especially beneficial for older individuals. In particular, because older individuals may have restricted dietary habits with nutrients low in zinc or with high concentrations of uptake antagonists. In addition, medications that are taken and that limit zinc availability may be less disruptive for ZnAAs. Besides, metallic amino acid complexes have been used as human supplements and have a long history of safety and efficacy. They are frequently used as a mineral supplement for animals, where extensive research data shows their effectiveness and advantages over inorganic supplements.
What Is The Cause Of The Decrease In Zinc Accumulation
The elucidation of the cause of the lost ability of the malignant cells to accumulate zinc will be critical in understanding the pathogenesis of PCa. A possible reason is the involvement of ZIP1 since it is now known to be important in the uptake and accumulation of zinc in prostate cells., We recently showed that the downregulation of ZIP1 is accompanied by a decrease in the uptake of zinc by prostate cells. Most importantly, Rishi et al reported that ZIP1 and ZIP2 expression was downregulated in malignant loci of the peripheral zone as compared to its expression in adjacent normal tissue. Moreover, expression of both transporters is lower in normal peripheral zone from black males as compared to white males, which coincides with the race-associated higher incidence of PCa in African-Americans. Correspondingly, we have identified that the level of ZIP1 protein is markedly decreased in the malignant loci of peripheral zone as compared with high ZIP1 level in the adjacent normal glandular epithelium. Consequently, evidence is evolving that downregulation of expression of the ZIP transporters is a cause of decreased zinc uptake and accumulation in malignant cells; and this altered gene expression might be a critical factor in the development of PCa. This leads to the future possibility that restoration of ZIP transporter gene expression could prevent prostate malignancy.
Zinc For Prostate Health
You need a whole variety of minerals in order to enjoy good health.
In many ways one of the most important of minerals that specifically help you with your prostate health.
The prostate is a small gland that is only found in the male body. It is about the size of a walnut and sits just below the bladder, close to the rectum. The prostate itself serves a particularly important role in male sexual health.
This gland secretes a fluid that is important for the protection of sperm. When sperm combines with the fluids from the prostate gland, it is known as semen.
While this is the functionality of the prostate gland in healthy men, certain conditions may affect the prostate.
In turn, problems can develop, ranging from urinary consistency to cancer. Several treatments are available for prostate conditions, but the side-effects cause concern.
Zinc has been suggested as a positive that may be good for promoting a healthier prostate.
It may also have some beneficial effects in cases where an existing condition has developed.
Unlocking Zincs Potential To Fight Cancer
When I first dived into the supplements that could help fight cancer, one of those I came across was Zinc. I found a lot of literature indicating that Zinc would indeed represent an useful tool, but also found literature indicating that cancer cells may actually like Zinc. In line with this, there are holistic doctors and naturophats who are recommending the use of Zinc to their cancer patients, while others are totally against that. As a result, although I ordered some bottles of capsules, I decided not to use them. There are so many potential treatments out there, and it would not make sense to use something as long as we do not understand it and its potential is still debated.
However, latter I did a deeper dive into this subject to better understand it and as a result of that I became enthusiastic regarding the potential of Zinc in cancer. As I will further discuss, based on my current understanding taking Zinc alone will not help. But when combined with another drug, Zinc may have a great potential.
The Zinc level in most of cancer cells seems to be maintained via a down regulation of the transporters responsible for the transport of Zinc across cellular membrane . That means, that we can take as much Zinc supplements as we like, and yet that may never get into the cancer cells at the level required to disrupt their normal function.
So what can we do, if we want to push more Zinc into the cancer cells and disrupt their function?
Other benefits of Zinc:
Prostate Health: Zinc Capsaicin And More
June 1, 2019
Macho American men are not getting enough zinc in their diet, and far too many procrastinate until their prostate is the size of a bowling ball before they visit their family physician for the dreaded one-digit test.
Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in America, affecting one in six men. One new case of prostate cancer occurs every 2.25 minutes and a man dies from prostate cancer every 19 minutes. It is the second most common cause of cancer-related death among American men, and more than half of all men over 50 years of age suffer from an enlarged prostate and its symptoms.
Race and family history are significant as well. African American men are 61% more likely to develop prostate cancer compared with Caucasian men, and are nearly 2.5 times as likely to die from the disease. Every year about 400,000 men have prostate surgery, adding over $3 billion annually to our national health care bill
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignant tumor in men. There are no apparent symptoms in the early stages of the disease. Because your prostate becomes larger as you age does not mean you have cancer.
Genes are responsible for about 5 to 10% of prostate cancers, but a diet insufficient in macro-nutrients from plant foods and animal protein is the main culprit.
Overweight, sedentary men have a greater chance of developing prostate cancer.
A need to urinate frequently, especially at night;
Weak or interrupted flow of urine;
Zinc For Prostate Cancer May Not Be A Good Idea
Nutrition-focused medical practitioners have advised men with prostate cancer to take supplemental zinc for so long that few can still remember where this practice originated. Several papers now suggest zinc may actually be ill advised for these patients to take.
Zinc levels in the prostate gland are higher than in any other soft tissue of the body, so it was easy to assume that zinc is important for prostate function and health. On top of this, zinc levels in healthy prostate tissue are almost 7 times as high as in prostate cancer tissue.1 Several cell culture studies reported that the addition of supplemental zinc inhibited prostate cancer cell growth.
Iguchi reported in 1998 that addition of zinc triggers necrosis in prostate cancer cells.2 Liang reported in 1999 that zinc inhibits human prostatic carcinoma cell growth, possibly due to induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. There now exists strong evidence that the loss of a unique capability to retain high levels of zinc is an important factor in the development and progression of malignant prostate cells.3 Zinc was reported to inhibit prostate cancer invasion.4 It was not unreasonable to think that taking zinc might have similar actions on prostate cancer in men as it does on prostate cancer cells in petri dishes. And so men started to take zinc supplements. Lots of zinc supplements.
Who Should Buy A Prostate Supplement
Prostate supplements are specially formulated for older men who are having problems associated with their prostate, like poor urinary flow and frequent nighttime urination.
These problems become far more common among men who are over age 50, though they arent unheard of in younger men too. Still, older men are affected by far the most. Medication like Flomax and other so-called alpha blockers are commonly prescribed for benign prostate hyperplasia, but research on prostate supplements suggests that, in some cases, supplements like saw palmetto or beta sitosterol can be effective too.
If you are considering a prostate supplement, you should talk with your doctor about the potential benefits of using a supplement in addition to or instead of a prescription medication.
With any supplementation regimen, its always a good idea to talk with your doctor about potential prescription medication interactions and possible side effects, both from a supplement or from a medication. If the side effects from prescription medication for prostate problems is causing problems, youre a good candidate to talk to your doctor about whether a prostate supplement would be a good alternative.
Most Important Get Screened
Most prostate cancers are silent, meaning they don’t have symptoms until they’re more advanced. So even if you don’t experience symptoms of prostate problems, it’s crucial to have regular physical exams and screenings to check for prostate cancer.
According to Coogan, men with a family history of prostate cancer should start being screened at 40 years old. Black men are also at higher risk and should begin being screened at 40, while white men with no family history of prostate cancer should begin screening at age 50.
“The single most important thing I tell my patients is to get regular screenings,” Coogan says. “We want to catch the cancer at the earliest, most treatable stage.”
Now Clinical Strength Prostate Health
Now offers a pretty boilerplate prostate health supplement that provides the mineral benefits of zinc and selenium alongside the herbal extracts saw palmetto, beta-sitosterol, stinging nettle, and pumpkin seed oil.
Several of these have solid evidence behind their use for prostate health, and while the dosage isnt anything special, its a reliable way to get an array of potentially helpful aids for urinary issues.
Ranking The Best Prostate Supplements Of 2021
Prostate supplements work to shrink the size of the prostate, a part of the male reproductive system that has a tendency to increase in size as men get older.
This increase in prostate size can cause embarrassing problems like frequent urination, leaking of urine, and a weak urinary stream.
A range of medical treatments exist to shrink the prostate, but could supplements help too? Our research team dug into the science to come up with the best supplements on the market for older men with prostate problems.
Why live with uncomfortable symptoms of aging if you dont have to?
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The herbal extracts in this powerful supplement are designed to get the prostate in peak health, so you wont suffer the embarrassing side effects of an aging prostate.
Saw palmetto has been recognized for its support of the prostate for centuries. Add to it a wide range of supplements including Vitamins B6 and E, green tea, cats claw, nettle, and moreand you should be able to stop those nighttime trips to the bathroom and start urinating with ease.
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What Is The Best Form Of Zinc For Prostate Health
When it comes to increasing the intake of zinc one of the first thoughts is to buy a zinc supplement.
While it is possible to get dietary zinc, the use of a supplement may provide a person with that extra peace of mind. Especially when concerned about conditions like prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia.
There are different forms of zinc available in supplement form. This can be quite confusing for the average man who is looking to take a tablet that will benefit his prostate.
Understanding the differences between these forms of zinc is important, as some of them are absorbed into the body more effectively than others.
The lower-priced zinc supplements usually tend to include a form of the nutrient known as Zinc Gluconate. This is a common zinc supplement that can be found over-the-counter. Zinc Gluconate is often used in cold medicines.
For those who want a budget-friendly zinc supplement, an alternative option would be Zinc Citrate. The taste of this alternative option is considered an improvement by most people, and the absorption rate is not affected.
When a person is at risk of zinc deficiency, they may be provided with a form of the supplement known as Zinc Sulfate. This particular supplement is also often offered to people with acne.
Is Zinc Good For An Enlarged Prostate
We have already noted that zinc plays a role in the immune system. We also cited a study that showed how zinc modulated certain transcription factors and, in turn, has a role in inflammatory responses.
Another study, published in the Journal of Inflammopharmacology, looked at how zinc affected inflammatory responses throughout the entire human body.
The researchers behind the study explain that the mineral zinc influences the specific immune responses that are involved in inflammation. Appropriate levels of the zinc mineral in the human body seem to exhibit an anti-inflammatory effect.
Since it has been established that zinc does play a role in the regulation of inflammatory responses, we can proceed to look at what an enlarged prostate is.
While the cause behind this condition still remains a mystery in many cases, researchers do know that an enlarged prostate means there is inflammation affecting this particular gland.
A clinical trial, published in the Indian Journal of Urology, looked at the zinc status of patients who had previously been diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia . There was also a group of patients with prostate carcinoma involved in the study the same tests were performed on participants in this group.
Levels of zinc were measured in prostate tissue. Researchers also tested the zinc/creatinine ratio in the urine of all participants who were part of the study.