Family History And Genetics
Your family history is information about any health problems that have affected your family. Families have many common factors, such as their genes, environment and lifestyle. Together, these factors can help suggest if you are more likely to get some health conditions.
Inside every cell in our body is a set of instructions called genes. These are passed down from our parents. Genes control how the body grows, works and what it looks like. If something goes wrong with one or more genes , it can sometimes cause cancer.
Is prostate cancer hereditary?
If people in your family have prostate cancer or breast cancer, it might increase your own risk of getting prostate cancer. This is because you may have inherited the same faulty genes.
My father had prostate cancer. What are my risks?
- You are two and a half times more likely to get prostate cancer if your father or brother has had it, compared to a man who has no relatives with prostate cancer.
- Your chance of getting prostate cancer may be even greater if your father or brother was under 60 when he was diagnosed, or if you have more than one close relative with prostate cancer.
- Your risk of getting prostate cancer may also be higher if your mother or sister has had breast cancer.
Do you have a family history of prostate cancer?
If you’re over 45 and your father or brother has had prostate cancer, you may want to talk to your GP. Our Specialist Nurses can also help you understand your hereditary risk of prostate cancer.
What Causes Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer forms when the DNA in prostate cells develops mutations that may disable their ability to control cell growth and division. In many cases, these mutated cells die or are attacked by the immune system. However, some mutated cells may escape the immune system and grow out of control, forming a prostate tumor.
Understanding the risk factors may help men take preventive measures to reduce the likelihood of developing this disease.
What Are Some Of The Limitations And Potential Harms Of The Psa Test For Prostate Cancer Screening
Detecting prostate cancer early may not reduce the chance of dying from prostate cancer. When used in screening, the PSA test can help detect small tumors that do not cause symptoms. Finding a small tumor, however, may not necessarily reduce a mans chance of dying from prostate cancer. Many tumors found through PSA testing grow so slowly that they are unlikely to threaten a mans life. Detecting tumors that are not life-threatening
that requires treatment.
Recommended Reading: Prostate Cancer Perineural Invasion Radical Prostatectomy
Psa Level Risk Analysis
- 15% of men with a PSA level less than 4 ng/ml go on to develop prostate cancer.
- 31% of men with PSA levels between 4 10 ng/ml have shown to develop prostate cancer.
- 50% 65% of men with psa scores over 10 ng/ml develop prostate cancer.
An important part of the your results is finding both the
1. Total amount of PSA in your blood.
2. Ratio of free vs bound PSA.
Prostate Cancer: A Guide For Aging Men
Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in the world, despite it only being diagnosed in males . In fact, more than 70 percent of men over the age of 80 have some quantity of cancer cells in their prostate.
Its so common that it sometimes doesnt go diagnosed until autopsies are performed, though that doesnt mean the cancer is the cause of death. On the contrary, the overall prognosis for men diagnosed with prostate cancer is as positive as you can get when talking about the dreaded c word. The five-year survival rates for the disease are close to 100 percent, especially when talking about prostate cancer that is caught early on in the processbefore it spreads.
The five-year survival rates for the disease are close to 100 percent, especially when talking about prostate cancer that is caught early on in the processbefore it spreads.
Nevertheless, prostate cancer is serious business, and the best way to handle a diagnosis is to be informed. Lets take a look at the frequency at which its diagnosed, how youre tested for it, how it can affect your daily life, and what we can do to try and prevent the disease.
Average Age of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis
Read Also: Testicular Cancer Awareness Color
What Can I Do If My Doctor Wont Give Me A Test
If your GP doesnt agree to give you a PSA test, you can ask to see another GP or practice nurse, or make a complaint. Read more about what you can do.
If youre a black man aged 45-49, you arent entitled to a PSA test until youre 50. But, because youre at higher risk, many health professionals believe that you should be able to have tests from the age of 45 if youve thought about the advantages and disadvantages. We have guidelines for health professionals that explain this. It might help to show these to your GP or practice nurse. Or ask to see another GP or practice nurse.
If youre a black man aged 40-44, you arent entitled to a PSA test until youre 50. But some health professionals believe that you should think about asking for a baseline PSA test. This might help to work out your risk of getting prostate cancer in future. We have guidelines for health professionals that explain this. It might help to show these to your GP or practice nurse. Or ask to see another GP or practice nurse.
If youre a black man under 40, you could consider asking for a baseline test when you are 40.
Four Questions On The Implications Of Age In Developing Prostate Cancer
Ageing is the highest risk factor in developing prostate cancer, and its commonly accepted inevitability is often encapsulated in the comment you dont die of it, you die with it.
So entrenched is this mentality that it drives attitudes, behaviours and practices around the management of prostate cancer, to the point where we have seen blatant age discrimination in patient care.
In an attempt to address this age discrimination, we produced a series of podcasts and blogs based on interviews with both patients and clinicians about their experience. In addition, we encourage all men and their loved ones to consider four key questions about age-related implications of developing prostate cancer.
Also Check: Will Prostatitis Go Away On Its Own
Read Also: Cialis For Bph Side Effects
What Happens When Prostate Cancer Is Left Untreated
Doru Paul, MD, is triple board-certified in medical oncology, hematology, and internal medicine. He is an associate professor of clinical medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College and attending physician in the Department of Hematology and Oncology at the New York Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center.
While most men undergo some form of treatment for their prostate cancer, some men today choose to not be treated for their prostate cancer. Instead, they may choose to have their doctors monitor their cancer.
Known as active surveillance, it is common when the cancer is expected to grow slowly based on biopsy results, confined to the prostate, not causing any symptoms, and/or small. In active surveillance, doctors will initiate cancer treatment only if cancer starts growing.
Others men may choose to not undergo cancer treatment because of a short life expectancy or other serious medical problems. They may feel that the risks or side effects of cancer treatment outweigh their potential benefits.
This option is certainly OK and reasonable in the right circumstancesrequiring a careful and thoughtful discussion with your doctor and family.
Living With Prostate Cancer
As prostate cancer usually progresses very slowly, you can live for decades without symptoms or needing treatment.
You may find it beneficial to talk about the condition with your family, friends, a family doctor and other men with prostate cancer.
Financial support is also available if prostate cancer reduces your ability to work.
Also Check: What Is Perineural Invasion In Prostate Cancer
African Americans And Prostate Cancer
African American men are at an increased risk for developing prostate cancer over white men and other men of color. One in seven African American men will develop prostate cancer in his lifetime. Overall, African American men are 1.8 times more likely to be diagnosed withand 2.2 times more likely to die fromprostate cancer than white men. African American men are also slightly more likely than white men to be diagnosed with advanced disease.
Fortunately, the racial divide for prostate cancer outcomes is narrowing. Overall, the five-year relative survival rate for African American men diagnosed with prostate cancer is 97%, which means that if an African American man is diagnosed with prostate cancer today, at any stage, there is a 97% chance he will be alive in five years. When the disease is caught early, this rate increases to nearly 100%.
The Psa Blood Test Explained
PSA is prostate specific antigen, a substance produced by the prostate sometimes but not always in higher quantities in men with prostate cancer. Other causes of a raised PSA blood test include benign prostatic hyperplasia in men with a large prostate gland and infection or inflammation in the prostate . A raised PSA blood test does not mean that you have prostate cancer but that you may have an increased risk of developing the disease. If the PSA is raised, your doctor will talk to you about your options. Men in Ireland are not routinely offered PSA tests to screen for prostate cancer. There are many reasons for this, the most relevant being that although the PSA is prostate specific, it is not cancer specific. In other words the PSA can be raised for reasons other than cancer.
Prostate cancer treatment will depend on:
The type of cancer cells found at the time of diagnosis.
The test results.
The age of the patient.
General health of the patient.
Some of the treatment options include: active surveillance , surgery, radiotherapy , hormone therapy and chemotherapy. Your doctor will discuss your treatment options with you. Some of these treatments may be used alone or together to treat some prostate cancers. It is often useful to have a friend or relative with you when the treatment is explained. Some patients find it helps to write down a list of questions before going to the appointment.
Don’t Miss: Is Zinc Good For Prostate
How Prostate Cancer Is Diagnosed
Tests and investigations to diagnose prostate cancer include digital rectal examination and blood tests by your GP which will be repeated again if you are referred to a urologist . A rectal scan and a biopsy of the prostate may be necessary.
You can read more about the PSA test here.
You can read more about other tests for prostate cancer here.
You May Like: What Is Perineural Invasion In Prostate Cancer
Am I At Risk Of Prostate Cancer
In the UK, about 1 in 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. We don’t know exactly what causes prostate cancer but there are some things that may mean you are more likely to get it these are called risk factors.
There are three main risk factors for getting prostate cancer, which are things you can’t change. These are:
If you have any of these risk factors or if you have any symptoms, speak to your GP. They can talk to you about your risk, and about the tests that are used to diagnose prostate cancer. You can also get in touch with our Specialist Nurses, who can help you understand your risk of prostate cancer.
Don’t Miss: Does Enlarged Prostate Affect Ejaculation
What Is Prostate Cancer
The prostate lies below the bladder and in front of the rectum. In men, the size of the prostate increases with increasing age. In younger men, it is about the size of a walnut. Its primary function is to make fluid to nourish the semen.
Growth in the prostate can be of two types
Prostate cancer starts in the prostate gland and may spread to the nearby areas: lymph nodes, organs, or bones in other parts of the body.
Can I Take Supplements To Lower My Risk
Some people take supplements to try to lower their risk of cancer, but studies suggest this isnt likely to work. In fact, some supplements may even be harmful.
The best way to get all the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients your body needs is to eat a healthy, balanced diet, including plenty of fruit and vegetables.
Speak to your doctor before taking any supplements and dont take more than the recommended daily allowance.
You May Like: Does Prostatitis Go Away On Its Own
Read Also: Prostatitis Viagra
What You Can Do Now
Sexual side effects from prostate cancer treatment are often temporary, especially if your doctor used nerve-sparing surgery. While your body recovers, you can try a few things to maintain your sex life:
- Let your doctor know about any sexual problems youre having right away. Although it can be hard to talk about sex, being open and honest will help you get the treatment you need.
- See a therapist. Couples therapy can help you and your partner understand and deal with sexual issues.
- Take care of yourself by exercising, eating a well-balanced diet, reducing stress, and getting enough sleep. Looking and feeling your best will give your self-esteem and mood a boost.
Risk Factors Of Ovarian Cancer
- Using fertility treatment– IVF, which is a fertility treatment, has been observed to increase the risk of borderline a type of ovarian tumor.
Having had breast cancer– If you have breast cancer, you have a higher chance of getting ovarian cancer. It has been observed that women with a family history of breast cancer had higher chances of developing ovarian cancer.
Smoking– Smoking does not only affect your lungs, it increases the risk of cancer in general, which includes ovarian cancer since it is associated with acceleration of mutational tendency.
Age– Similar to prostate cancer, the risk of ovarian cancer also increases as you age. In majority of cases, cancer develops after the menopause. Over 50% of ovarian cancer cases were found in women over 63.
History of ovarian cancer– If someone in your family had ovarian cancer, there is a higher chance that you might develop cancer as well.
You May Like: Does Enlarged Prostate Affect Ejaculation
How Is Prostate Cancer Treated
For many men with prostate cancer, treatment is not immediately necessary.
If the cancer is at an early stage and not causing symptoms, your doctor may suggest either “watchful waiting” or “active surveillance”.
The best option depends on your age and overall health. Both options involve carefully monitoring your condition.
Some cases of prostate cancer can be cured if treated in the early stages.
- radiotherapy either on its own or alongside hormone therapy
Some cases are only diagnosed at a later stage, when the cancer has spread.
If the cancer spreads to other parts of the body and cannot be cured, treatment is focused on prolonging life and relieving symptoms.
All treatment options carry the risk of significant side effects, including erectile dysfunction and urinary symptoms, such as needing to use the toilet more urgently or more often.
For this reason, some men choose to delay treatment until there’s a risk the cancer might spread.
Newer treatments, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound and cryotherapy, aim to reduce these side effects.
Some hospitals may offer them as an alternative to surgery, radiotherapy or hormone therapy.
But the long-term effectiveness of these treatments is not known yet.
Your Risk For Prostate Cancer
The greatest risk factors for developing prostate cancer are increasing age, family history, ethnicity, and diet. Do any of the following describe you?
- I am older than 50
- I have a family history of prostate cancer
- I am African-American
If you answered yes to any of these, then you may be at higher risk of prostate cancer. However, not having any of these risk factors does not mean you are immune. Unfortunately, all men are at risk for prostate cancer. Keep reading to learn more about your risk and what steps you can take.
Also Check: Do Females Have Prostate Cancer
Surprising Prostate Cancer Statistics
2020-07-3030 July 2020
Prostate cancer is common, but did you know that its the second most common cancer diagnosed in American men? Here are eight other surprising prostate cancer statistics, according to the American Cancer Society:
- Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in American men.
- 1 in 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer.
- Prostate cancer has race-related risk factors and is diagnosed more frequently in African American men.
- Men under 40 are rarely diagnosed with prostate cancer.
- More than half of prostate cancer diagnoses are men who are 65 or older.
- The average age of diagnoses is 66.
- This year, 200,000 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed.
- 34,000 men will die from prostate cancer this year.
Clinical Contributors To This Story
contributes to topics such as Cancer Care, Men’s Health.
About one man in eight will be diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point during his life. Its the most common cancer among men after skin cancer and the second-leading cause of cancer-related death in men after lung cancer.
These numbers may seem scary, but the good news is it can often be treated successfully.
While prostate cancer is very common, and while there are people who pass away from it, the therapies and treatments we have are phenomenal for prostate cancer, says , medical director of urologic oncology, Jersey Shore University Medical Center and Ocean Medical Center.
If you or someone you love has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, you might wonder why or what caused it. Unfortunately, this is something researchers and doctors are still trying to understand.
Don’t Miss: Does Flomax Affect Ejaculation