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What Does Stage 2 Prostate Cancer Mean

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Gleason Score For Grading Prostate Cancer

What are the Treatment Options for Stage 2 Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is also given a grade called a Gleason score. This score is based on how much the cancer looks like healthy tissue when viewed under a microscope. Less aggressive tumors generally look more like healthy tissue. Tumors that are more aggressive are likely to grow and spread to other parts of the body. They look less like healthy tissue.

The Gleason scoring system is the most common prostate cancer grading system used. The pathologist looks at how the cancer cells are arranged in the prostate and assigns a score on a scale of 3 to 5 from 2 different locations. Cancer cells that look similar to healthy cells receive a low score. Cancer cells that look less like healthy cells or look more aggressive receive a higher score. To assign the numbers, the pathologist determines the main pattern of cell growth, which is the area where the cancer is most obvious, and then looks for another area of growth. The doctor then gives each area a score from 3 to 5. The scores are added together to come up with an overall score between 6 and 10.

Gleason scores of 5 or lower are not used. The lowest Gleason score is 6, which is a low-grade cancer. A Gleason score of 7 is a medium-grade cancer, and a score of 8, 9, or 10 is a high-grade cancer. A lower-grade cancer grows more slowly and is less likely to spread than a high-grade cancer.

Clinical Stage T2 Of Prostate Cancer

Stage T2 is a component of the clinical staging for prostate cancer established by the American Joint Committee on Cancer . The T2 stage is divided into 3 smaller stages which are denoted by the use of the letters a, b, and c. In the T2 stage, the prostate cancer is visible on the diagnostic imaging tests and the tumor can be palpated during the digital rectal exam. In the T2a stage, the prostate cancer is confined to of one lobe or less. In the T2b stage, the prostate cancer has spread to more than of one lobe but does not involve both lobes. In T2c stage, the prostate cancer is confined to the organ but has spread to both lobes.

How Will My Cancer Be Monitored

Your doctor will talk to you about how often you should have check-ups. At some hospitals, you may not have many appointments at the hospital itself. Instead, you may talk to your doctor or nurse over the telephone. You might hear this called self-management.

You will have regular PSA tests. This is often a useful way to check how well your treatment is working. Youll also have regular blood tests to see whether your cancer is affecting other parts of your body, such as your liver, kidneys or bones.

You might have more scans to see how your cancer is responding to treatment and whether your cancer is spreading.

Your doctor or nurse will also ask you how youre feeling and if you have any symptoms, such as pain or tiredness. This will help them understand how youre responding to treatment and how to manage any symptoms. Let them know if you have any side effects from your treatment. There are usually ways to manage these.

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Stage : Prostate Cancer Involves More Of The Prostate And A Lump Is Detectable In An Exam

This category is divided into two stages: stage 2A and stage 2B.

In stage 2A, features are like stage 1, with these changes:

  • PSA is at least 10, but less than 20.
  • Gleason score is 6 but can be lower if diagnosis was by needle biopsy for conditions other than cancer.
  • Cancer can be found in one half or less of the prostate lobe or more than one lobe.

Stage 2B cancer means that:

  • The prostate cancer is more extensive, extending to opposite sides of the prostate. It might be detectable with a digital rectal exam. In this instance, the PSA lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7, according to the National Cancer Institute.
  • Alternatively, cancer remains undetectable in the digital rectal exam and imaging tests. PSA is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7.
  • Yet another way this can manifest is with a Gleason score of 8 or more, PSA at any level, but imaging and DRE do not pinpoint the cancer.

Treatment Options For Stage 3 Cancer

PPT

In general, regimens for stage 3 cancers typically start with either surgery or treatment to shrink the tumor before surgery, such as chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination of both.

Stage 3 breast cancer treatment: The first step is typically either chemotherapy or surgery.

Called neoadjuvant chemotherapy, because its given before other treatment, this may help shrink a tumor enough that breast-conserving surgery is possible. If it doesnt shrink enough, the patient may need a mastectomy instead. HER2-positive cancers may also be treated with targeted drugs before surgery.

After surgery, depending on the type of breast cancer, your treatment may continue with radiation. Chemotherapy and/or targeted drugs may be part of your treatment plan after surgery as well.

Stage 3 lung cancer treatment: This is highly dependent on how large the tumor is and which lymph nodes are affected. Generally, treatment begins with chemotherapy and/or radiation. You may have chemotherapy and radiation at the same time, or you may have them one after another. Surgery may follow this treatment if your care team thinks the remaining cancer may be successfully removed. After surgery, additional chemotherapy and/or radiation may be part of your treatment plan.

If chemotherapy, radiation or surgery arent appropriate options, immunotherapy drugs may be.

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What Does Staging And Grading Mean For Treatment

These two numbers are the most important for determining your future course of treatment. Some treatments are only effective for Stages I and II, where the cancer is still confined to the prostate. Some other treatments only become necessary at Stages III and IV, where the cancer has spread outside the prostate.

Grading is especially useful in early-stage disease. If the tumor shows signs of being aggressive, it may make sense to go forward with treatment. If the tumor does not seem aggressive, it may make sense to go forward with active surveillance and avoid side effects.

In any case, the stage and grade should be a vital component of any discussion with your doctor.

Diagnosis With The Whitmore

The Whitmore-Jewett System is an older system. It differs from the TNM system in that the stage and sub-stage is determined by whether the tumor can be felt by a physical examination* and by the PSA score.*a digital rectal examination

  • Stage B – a tumor is not detected but PSA levels are very high.
  • Stage B1 – a tumor can be felt. It is confined to one lobe.
  • Stage B2 – a tumor can be felt. It is found in both lobes.

The TNM system when used in conjunction with PSA and Gleason scores is generally favored over the Whitmore-Jewett system it is thought to give a more accurate diagnosis.

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Treatments May Have Side Effects

The treatment options for early-stage prostate cancer fall into three broad categories: surgery, radiation therapy, and active surveillance. Your doctor will make a treatment recommendation based on your numbers as well as a mathematical tool known as a nomogram, which can help you and your doctor better assess how extensive your cancer is likely to be and whether it is likely to become active in the future.

Yet clinical studies have not provided any evidence that one treatment is better than another or that any treatment at all actually prolongs life: The average 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates are virtually the same for all treatment options in early-stage prostate cancer, including active surveillance. Its also important to understand that no mathematical model is foolproof, and some men diagnosed with early-stage, locally confined disease will later find out that their cancer was more extensive than originally believed.

If you are diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer, you have a number of treatments to choose from. A brief comparison is listed in Table 2.

The Ajcc Tnm Staging System

The Five Stages of Prostate Cancer | Prostate Cancer Staging Guide

A staging system is a standard way for the cancer care team to describe how far a cancer has spread. The most widely used staging system for prostate cancer is the AJCC TNM system, which was most recently updated in 2018.

The TNM system for prostate cancer is based on 5 key pieces of information:

  • The extent of the main tumor *
  • Whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes
  • Whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body
  • The PSA level at the time of diagnosis
  • The Grade Group , which is a measure of how likely the cancer is to grow and spread quickly. This is determined by the results of the prostate biopsy .

*There are 2 types of T categories for prostate cancer:

  • The clinical T category is your doctors best estimate of the extent of your disease, based on the results of the physical exam and prostate biopsy, and any imaging tests you have had.
  • If you have surgery to remove your prostate, your doctors can also determine the pathologic T category . The pathologic T is likely to be more accurate than the clinical T, as it is done after all of your prostate has been examined in the lab.

Numbers or letters after T, N, and M provide more details about each of these factors. Higher numbers mean the cancer is more advanced. Once the T, N, and M categories have been determined, this information is combined in a process called stage grouping to get the overall stage of the cancer.

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Stage Iv Prostate Cancer Prognosis

Prostate cancers detected at the distant stage have an average five-year survival rate of 28 percent, which is much lower than local and regional cancers of the prostate. This average survival rate represents stage IV prostate cancers that have metastasized beyond nearby areas to lymph nodes, organs or bones in other parts of the body.

How We Treat Prostate Cancer

The prognosis for metastatic prostate cancer can be discouraging, but some treatment centerslike the Johns Hopkins Precision Medicine Center of Excellence for Prostate Cancerspecialize in innovative, individualized therapy with the potential to improve outcomes.

How Important Is The Gleason Score

The Gleason Score is very useful for predicting the behavior of a prostate cancer. However, other factors also contribute to determining the stage of prostate cancer, including:

  • The PSA level
  • Findings from a rectal exam
  • The number of biopsy core samples that contain cancer
  • The percentage of cancer making up each biopsy core sample
  • If cancer is found in one or both sides of the prostate
  • If the cancer has spread outside the prostate

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Understanding Prostate Cancers Progression

To determine the appropriate treatment, doctors need to know how far the cancer has progressed, or its stage. A pathologist, the doctor trained in analyzing cells taken during a prostate biopsy, will provide two starting pointsthe cancers grade and Gleason score.

  • Cancer grade: When the pathologist looks at prostate cancer cells, the most common type of cells will get a grade of 3 to 5. The area of cancer cells in the prostate will also be graded. The higher the grade, the more abnormal the cells.
  • Gleason score: The two grades will be added together to get a Gleason score. This score tells doctors how likely the cancer is to grow and spread.

After a biopsy confirms prostate cancer, the patient may undergo additional tests to see whether it has spread through the blood or lymph nodes to other parts of the body. These tests are usually imaging studies and may include a bone scan, positron emission tomography scan or computed tomography scan.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor

Staging and Grading

To help understand the progression of prostate cancer, discuss these questions with your doctors:

  • What is my Gleason score?
  • Has the cancer spread outside my prostate?
  • Whats my prostate cancer stage?
  • Are other tests needed to determine my cancer stage?
  • What are the treatment options for my stage of cancer?
  • Can I avoid treatment right now and go on active surveillance?

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Prostate Cancer Stages And Other Ways To Assess Risk

After a man is diagnosed with prostate cancer, doctors will try to figure out if it has spread, and if so, how far. This process is called staging. The stage of a prostate cancer describes how much cancer is in the body. It helps determine how serious the cancer is and how best to treat it. Doctors also use a cancer’s stage when talking about survival statistics.

The stage is based on tests described in Tests to Diagnose and Stage Prostate Cancer, including the blood PSA level and prostate biopsy results.

Diagnosing Stage 2 Prostate Cancer

A stage 2 prostate cancer diagnosis can only be made after a number of tests have been given. Such tests may include:

A Needle Biopsy : a needle is inserted into the seminal vesicles, which are glands connected to the prostate, and a sample of fluid is taken. This sample is then analyzed using a microscope. If a certain level of cancerous cells are found and the cancer is still localized to the prostate, a diagnosis of second stage prostate cancer may be made.

Imaging Tests: MRI or CT scans determine whether tumors are present and the cancer has spread.

Digital Rectal Examination: a finger is inserted in the rectum to feel for any abnormalities of the prostate area.

PSA Test: prostate-specific antigen is a protein created in the prostate gland and found in the blood. Higher levels of PSA may indicate prostate cancer .

Gleason Test: the Gleason grading system assesses how aggressive a cancer is. The arrangement of cancer cells are examined underneath a microscope and patterns of cells are graded.

After the relevant tests have been taken, prostate cancer can be staged using a four stage system.

Currently, there are two main systems used to stage prostate cancer. The TNM system uses four categories 1-4 and the Whitmore-Jewett system uses four categories: A-D.

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Survival For All Stages Of Prostate Cancer

Generally for men with prostate cancer in England:

  • more than 95 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 1 year or more
  • more than 85 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 5 years or more
  • almost 80 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 10 years or more

Survival for prostate cancer is also reported in Scotland and Northern Ireland. But it is difficult to compare survival between these countries because of differences in the way the information is collected.

Cancer survival by stage at diagnosis for England, 2019Office for National Statistics

These statistics are for net survival. Net survival estimates the number of people who survive their cancer rather than calculating the number of people diagnosed with cancer who are still alive. In other words, it is the survival of cancer patients after taking into account the background mortality that they would have experienced if they had not had cancer.

What Do Cancer Stages And Grades Mean

Understanding Prostate Cancer

The stage of a cancer describes the size of a tumour and how far it has spread from where it originated. The grade describes the appearance of the cancerous cells.

If youre diagnosed with cancer, you may have more tests to help determine how far it has progressed. Staging and grading the cancer will allow the doctors to determine its size, whether it has spread and the best treatment options.

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Stage 4 Prostate Cancer

Stage 4 prostate cancer is the most advanced stage and means that the cancer has spread from the prostate to lymph nodes and/or distant sites like bones, lungs, liver, or brain. Prostate cancers with distant metastases have an overall survival rate of about 30%. Stage 4 is further divided into subgroups based on how far away the cancer has spread :

  • Stage 4ACancer has infiltrated the nearby lymph nodes it has not spread to distant sites and the cancer cells are any Gleason grade group any PSA level
  • Stage 4BCancer has infiltrated the distant lymph nodes and/or sites like the bones, lungs, or brain cancer cells are any Gleason grade group any PSA level

What To Expect During A Prostate Exam

While examining the tumor cells, the pathologist looks at the two most common tumor cell patterns, referred to as the primary and secondary patterns. Each of these patterns is then graded based on how closely they resemble normal prostate tissue .

Grade 1 cells look like normal prostate cells. Grade 5 cells are very abnormal appearing cells. Grades 24 are in between the higher the number, the less the cells look like normal prostate tissue. Almost all prostate cancers have grade 3 cells or higher.

Once the pathologist has assigned a grade to the primary and secondary cell patterns, these two numbers are added together to get a total Gleason score. The higher the Gleason score, the more likely the tumor is going to grow or spread to other parts of the body.

Since the lowest grade a cancer cell can have is grade 3 , the lowest Gleason score for a cancer is grade 6 and is considered low-grade prostate cancer.

Many experts use the Gleason score to categorize prostate cancers into Grade Groupsthese are also assigned a number, ranging from 1 to 5, with 1 being the least likely to grow and 5 being the most likely to grow. For example, if your primary Gleason score is 3 and your secondary score is 4, then you are a Grade Group 2. Alternatively, if the primary pattern is a Gleason score 4 and the secondary pattern is a 3, then you are Grade Group 3 .

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