What Is Prostate Cancer In Dogs
Prostate cancer in dogs is a tumor that develops when the prostate gland cells start growing without control. In general, prostatic tumors are not common in dogs. However, if it develops, it is usually in the form of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of prostate cancer.
Canine prostatic adenocarcinoma is aggressive prostate cancer with high metastatic rates. According to PetMD, this type of prostate cancer spreads to other organs and lymph nodes in over 85% of the cases. The tumor spreads to other parts of the urinary tract system , lungs, spleen, liver, and bones.
Just like in human men, the incidence of prostate cancer or adenocarcinoma is higher in older dogs . Prostatic carcinoma or adenocarcinoma is more likely to occur in larger breeds.
As lethal prostate cancer, prostatic adenocarcinoma should not be confused with benign prostatic hypertrophy. Namely, just like the human prostate, the dog prostate can become enlarged with age. However, a thorough vet exam is the only way to differentiate between an enlarged prostate and a prostatic tumor. Enlarged prostate is a more common problem than prostate cancer.
What Are The Chances Of Getting Metastatic Prostate Cancer
About 50% of men diagnosed with local prostate cancer will get metastatic cancer during their lifetime. Finding cancer early and treating it can lower that rate.
A small percentage of men aren’t diagnosed with prostate cancer until it has become metastatic. Doctors can find out if it’s metastatic cancer when they take a small sample of the tissue and study the cells.
Medical Treatment Of Prostatic Hyperplasia How Does Prostate Medicines Act
There are some medicines which are used for treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia .
Alpha receptor blockers, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors are prostate medicines used to treat BPH. Although they vary in terms of mechanism of action, they may, sometimes, be combined.
However, as is the case with all drugs, the medicines used for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia have some side effects.
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Treatment Of Prostate Cancer
Treatment options may vary depending on stage and severity of the disease. Treatment methods may be used alone, in combination, consecutively or alternatively, depending on condition of patient or stage of disease. Treatment-free follow-up can be an option for some patients.
One of following treatment options is started in most patients following necessary diagnostic tests:
- Surgical treatment
- Radiation treatment
- Medication treatment .
Prostate Cancer: Examinations And Diagnosis
The earlier prostate cancer is detected, the easier it is to treat. However, many of those affected only become aware of the malignant tumor when it is already more advanced before that, in many cases, it does not cause any symptoms. That is why men should definitely have regular prostate cancer screening: From the age of 45, every man with health insurance is entitled to a free palpation of the prostate through the rectum once a year.
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What Can Be Done For A Dog With Prostate Cancer
The treatment for prostate cancer in dogs is complex and depends on several factors. There is no such thing as the best cancer in dogs treatment it varies among individuals, and sometimes, it can be a mix of different approaches.
Here are some of the treatment options for prostate cancer in dogs.
Surgical Treatment. The surgical treatment of prostate cancer is removing the canine prostate gland . This is a high-risk procedure, and its effectiveness depends on whether the prostate cancer has spread to other organs. Also, there is the anesthesia risk associated with older dogs.
Radiation Therapy. Targeted radiation therapy can be used alone or combined with surgery. Radiation is recommended for dogs with urinary obstruction due to large and compressing prostate tumors.
Chemotherapy. Another possibility for canine prostate cancer is chemotherapy. The treatment is considered in dogs with metastasis. However, it is not very clear whether chemotherapy is an effective treatment for prostatic cancer.
Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. Piroxicam and carprofen are helpful in the management of prostate cancer in dogs. They are not a treatment but may help with the symptoms.
Bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates are a group of medications initially developed for managing osteoporosis in people. These meds are recommended in case of metastatic changes in the lumbar vertebrae and pelvic bone.
How Are Bacterial Forms Of Prostatitis Managed Or Treated
Antibiotics can kill bacteria that cause bacterial types of prostatitis. Men with acute bacterial prostatitis may need 14 to 30 days of antibiotics, starting with IV antibiotics in the hospital. Rarely, men need surgery to drain an abscess on the prostate.
Treating chronic bacterial prostatitis is challenging. You may need up to three months of antibiotics to sterilize the prostate. If the prostate cant be sterilized, low-dose antibiotics can be used long term to prevent recurrences. Some men need surgery to remove prostate stones or scar tissue in the urethra. Rarely, surgeons remove part or all of the prostate gland .
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So What Did I Do Next
As you all know, I am a General Medical Practitioner-I could have still treated myself- but I still consulted my Urologist colleague and started the treatment. With this treatment, I am doing fine to-date.
This experience and an ever-increasing number of patients visiting my Clinic gave me the idea that I should teach my patients about Prostate Problems.
Reading this article will give you sufficient knowledge of its disease so that you can discuss it with your Doctor while seeking treatment.
After reading this article, kindly bookmark it for future reference.
Why Am I Writing This Article
Exactly one and a half years ago, I had problems with urination. I am now 65 years old and the symptoms like frequent and scanty urination suggested to me that I may be going in for Prostate disease.
After ruling out urinary tract infection, I got my Ultrasonography Scan done, and lo!-it suggested I had mild enlargement of prostate gland.
Now, if you like to hear about than read, listen to this audio clip that I made for you-
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International Prostate Symptom Score
You’ll be asked to complete a questionnaire to assess your symptoms. Each question has five possible answers that carry a score, and your overall score is used to assess the severity of your symptoms.
The checklist includes the following questions.
Over the past month:
- How often have you had the sensation of not completely emptying your bladder after urinating?
- How often have you had to urinate again less than two hours after finishing urinating?
- How often have you found that you stopped and started again when urinating?
- How often have you found it difficult to postpone urination?
- How often have you had a weak stream of urine?
- How often have you had to push or strain to begin urinating during the course of one night?
- How often have you had to get up during the night to urinate?
After your GP has assessed the severity your symptoms, they’ll aim to rule out other conditions with similar symptoms using certain tests.
How Are Prostate Conditions Diagnosed
Your GP or doctor may also order some of the following tests, depending on what they think is causing your problem:
- A blood test called prostate specific antigen PSA is a protein made by your prostate. Higher than normal levels can occur when there is a problem with your prostate, such as an infection, an enlarged prostate or prostate cancer.
- A urine test this is done to check for possible infection.
- Biopsy this is a procedure in which a small sample of your prostate gland cells are taken for examination to check for cancer.
Your doctor will let you know if you need these tests to diagnose your condition. Talk to your doctor if you have any concerns or questions related to these tests.
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Quick Realities On Prostate Cancer:
Here are some key focuses about the prostate cancer:
- The prostate organ is a piece of the male regenerative framework.
- Prostate cancer is the most widely recognized disease in men.
- It is treatable whenever analyzed right on time, before it spreads.
- On the off chance that side effects show up, they incorporate issues with pee.
- Ordinary screening Is the most ideal approach to recognize it in great time.
What Else Do People Living With Metastatic Prostate Cancer Need To Know About Their Treatment Options
I cannot stress enough the importance of picking the righttreatment for each individual. Side effects and the expectations for diseaseresponse should be clearly discussed and understood.
Statistically, about one-third of people with metastatic prostate cancer will live more than 5 years. Understanding where your disease is on that continuum can be important for both treatment and lifestyle decisions.
That said, I am consistently amazed by what we as a medical and scientific community can do together. The huge efforts being applied to prostate cancer research hold significant promise for new and better treatment options in the near future.
Dr. Joseph Brito provides general urologic care with a special focus on minimally invasive surgical techniques and urologic oncology. Dr. Brito received his MD from George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dr. Brito completed a residency in urology at Rhode Island Hospital and Alpert Medical School of Brown University and trained at Yale School of Medicine in clinical oncology. Dr. Brito is a member of the American Urological Association.
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Recurrent Prostate Cancer Symptoms
Prostate cancer that returns after treatment is considered recurrent. When it returns to the area around the prostate, the disease is classified as a local recurrence. If the cancer is found in another part of the body, the recurrent cancer is considered metastatic. If the cancer metastasizes outside the prostate, it most likely develops in bones first. Metastatic prostate cancer most often spreads to the liver, bones and lungs.
After initial treatment for prostate cancer, PSA levels are expected to drop dramatically. The first sign of recurrent prostate cancer may be a rise in the PSA level. Other symptoms of recurrent cancer may depend on whether and where the cancer has spread. Symptoms include:
- Blood in the urine
- Difficulty breathing
Patients should discuss any symptoms with their doctor and ask about scheduling regular PSA tests after treatment.
How Can I Prevent Prostate Problems
In some ways, prostate problems, particularly BPH, are a natural part of growing older. Still, there are specific steps you can take to keep your prostate healthy.
- A diet low in saturated fat and high in fruits and vegetables may lower your risk of developing BPH. Research is ongoing to identify who might benefit from early treatment to prevent BPH.
- According to the American Cancer Society, most cases of prostate cancer can’t be prevented. This is because prostate cancer’s causes are still unknown. As with BPH, however, experts recommend eating a healthy diet with lots of fruits and vegetables.
- No herbal supplements have been proven to prevent prostate cancer. Studies of selenium, a mineral, have had mixed results, but the majority of the evidence shows no real benefit. Trials for drugs to prevent prostate cancer are also ongoing.
- No activity or drug is known to prevent prostatitis. Experts recommend good hygiene, including keeping the clean. Most men will never develop prostatitis.
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Chronic Prostatitis/chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome
CP/CPPS is responsible for 90 to 95 percent of prostatitis cases, but in many men no cause is found. CP/CPPS describes a syndrome or group of symptoms rather than a specific disease.
The cause of CP/CPPS is not fully understood and likely varies between individuals. Frustratingly, in many men, no cause is found. It is most likely caused by a combination of factors or a cascade of events.
Patients present with mild symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis, without the flu-like symptoms, is a common sign of the condition. Symptoms tend to persist for weeks, months, and even years.
CP/CPPS, like other causes of chronic pain, can lead to debilitating complications and seriously affect quality of life and ability to function at work and at home. Depression, anxiety, chronic stress, and sleep problems are common, and in turn can lead to other psychiatric, behavioral, relationship, and social difficulties.
Long-term use of pain-relief medications can cause further issues such as stomach problems in the case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or addiction and misuse .
CP/CPPS is a diagnosis that is made only after other causes are excluded. Several diseases may mimic CP/CPPS, among them the following:
How Do Doctors Find Metastatic Prostate Cancer
When you are diagnosed with prostate cancer, your doctor will order tests such as:
These tests may focus on your skeleton and in your belly and pelvic areas. That way doctors can check for signs that the cancer has spread.
If you have symptoms such as bone pain and broken bones for no reason, your doctor may order a bone scan. It can show if you have signs of cancer spreading to your bones.
Your doctor will also ask for blood tests, including a check of PSA levels, to look for other signs that the cancer is spreading.
PSA is a protein made by the prostate gland. A rise in PSA is one of the first signs your cancer may be growing. But PSA levels can also be high without there being cancer, such as if you have an enlarged prostate, a prostate infection, trauma to the perineum, or sexual activity.
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Symptoms Of Enlarged Prostate Vs Prostate Cancer
The symptoms of an enlarged prostate are similar to the symptoms associated with prostate cancer. This is why its important to look out for signs and symptoms, and seek medical advice if you experience any of the following:
- finding it difficult to start peeing
- having a weak flow of urine
- “stop-start” peeing
- needing to pee urgently and/or more regularly than usual
- needing to get up frequently in the night to pee
- accidentally leaking urine
Not everyone with an enlarged prostate will experience symptoms, and some peoples symptoms will be so mild that they dont affect their life. The important thing is to be aware of the symptoms and if you are experiencing any, seek medical advice.
Causes Of Benign Prostate Enlargement
The exact cause of benign prostate enlargement is unknown, but research suggests that hormones probably play an important role in the condition’s development.
Hormones are powerful chemicals that can have a wide range of effects on the cells of the body.
One theory is that as some men and anyone with a prostate gets older, the levels of a type of hormone called dihydrotestosterone increases, which may stimulate the growth of the prostate.
Another theory suggests that two hormones, testosterone and oestrogen, play a role. Younger men and anyone with a prostate produce high levels of testosterone and much smaller levels of oestrogen. But as they get older, levels of testosterone decrease, which means they then have a higher proportion of oestrogen in their body. It’s been suggested that the relative increase in oestrogen may stimulate prostate growth.
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What Are The Complications Of Prostatitis
Men with acute bacterial prostatitis may develop . This widespread inflammation can be life-threatening. It requires immediate medical treatment.
Antibiotics can cause an upset stomach. Men with chronic bacterial prostatitis may need lots of antibiotics to treat recurring infections. Some people develop antibiotic resistance, making treatment ineffective.
Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis can lower sperm count, affecting fertility.
What Are The Common Conditions That Can Affect Your Prostate
Your prostate tends to get bigger as you get older. Sometimes it can also become swollen and enlarged. This can cause the following conditions:
- Prostatitis the swelling and inflammation of the prostate due to any cause.
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia the gradual enlargement of the prostate as men age. This often causes urinary problems but this is not due to cancer.
- Prostate cancer this can be life-threatening, particularly if it spreads beyond your prostate. However, in older men prostate cancer is often slow-growing and may not require treatment.
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What Types Of Prostate Problems Are There
There are 3 main conditions that can affect your prostate. They are:
- prostate enlargement
- prostate cancer
Prostate enlargement and prostate cancer usually only affect men over the age of 50 and about half of men over this age will have some prostate enlargement. Prostatitis is caused by bacteria and can affect men of any age. It is important for men, no matter what their age, to discuss prostate health with their doctor, and it can be talked about no matter what the reason for your visit to the doctor is.
What Is Prostate Massage
Additional treatments can be recommended for patients with long-standing prostate inflammation. One of these is prostate massage. Although there is no strong scientific evidence, it is known that these treatments help some patients.
Prostate massage can be done by doctor or patient. Prostate massage aims drainage of secretions in prostate tissue to regress edema and inflammation.
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Treatment Of Local Events
Both the disease and its treatment can give rise to troublesome and serious consequences it is important to take these into account and to inform the patient about them early on.
Skeletal pain can be treated with palliative radiation therapy, steroids and opiates. An MRI examination should be performed promptly upon suspicion of impending spinal cord injury. If confirmed, treatment consists of immediate administration of high dose steroids combined with surgery and/or radiation therapy .
Skeletal-related events may be prevented with zoledronic acid or denosumab . Dosing intervals and when to initiate treatment are poorly defined, but common practice is to administer treatment every three months, beginning when symptomatic skeletal metastases are present. The patient should be examined by a dentist prior to use of zoledronic acid or denosumab, as there is a risk of osteonecrosis in the jaw bone . Calcium and vitamin D supplements should be taken during treatment .
Obstruction of the urinary tract or bowel may be relieved by palliative surgery, drainage or radiation therapy. Surgery, radiation therapy or embolisation may be appropriate in the event of haemorrhage.
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