Diagnosis Of An Enlarged Prostate
In order to establish the possible underlying causes for an enlarged prostate, doctors will perform a variety of tests.
Tests which are commonly used to find the cause of an enlarged prostate include:
- A digital rectal exam. A physician or nurse will insert a gloved finger into the patientÃ¢s rectum to digitally examine the prostate for swelling and/or enlargement.
- Swab tests for urethral discharge or urine. To determine underlying conditions such as STIs/STDs and urinary tract infections. A swab of discharge or urine is taken and sent to a medical laboratory for culturing, so that any microorganisms are identified.
- Urinalysis. A urine sample is sent to a medical laboratory for analysis and may be tested for urea nitrogen or creatinine, among other things.
- Blood tests. A sample of blood is sent to a medical laboratory for analysis, which may include tests for creatinine or blood urea nitrogen, as well as antibodies and infectious agents.
- Prostate-specific antigen test. A blood sample is sent to a medical laboratory to be tested for prostate-specific antigen , an enzyme produced by cells in the prostate. A change in PSA levels can indicate that there is a problem with the prostate.
If patients are referred to a urologist, they may have further tests, including:
Before referring the patient for tests, the physician may also ask questions in order to determine the possible causes of the discomfort, their severity, and their duration. Such questions may cover:
What Is The Difference Between Prostatitis And A Uti
This is another situation where symptoms are very similar.
Where cystitis is the inflammation of the bladder, prostatitis is simply the inflammation of the prostate gland. And, like cystitis, the most common cause of this is an infection.
Interestingly, the source of this infection is often a UTI, as the bacteria from the bladder can make their way into the prostate. So, where an enlarged prostate can cause UTIs, prostatitis can be a result of a UTI, and they symptoms of all three can overlap. You can see how they can easily get mixed up!
Prostatitis can have very similar symptoms to both UTIs and an enlarged prostate, including pain when urinating, frequent and urgent urination, using the toilet during the night and difficulty starting. However, a few key differences are that it can also cause general pain in the pelvic area, can affect sexual function and can occur in men of all ages. Its particularly common in men aged between 20 and 40.
Prostatitis Vs Bph Quick Comparison Of Differences And Similarities
- Both BPH and prostatitis are problems with the prostate gland, a gland surrounding the neck of the bladder in males. The prostate gland is responsible for releasing prostatic fluid that helps make up part of the semen.
- The normal prostate gland is about the size of a walnut. As it increases in size, for whatever reason, it can press on the urethra and cause urinary problems.
- Both prostatitis and BPH can result in an enlarged prostate.
- Most men over 50 years old have some prostate enlargement with no symptoms, while bacterial prostatitis usually occurs in men younger than 35 years old and non-infectious prostatitis occurs in older men.
- You can have either BPH or prostatitis, and have no signs or symptoms. Nevertheless, both can cause pain .
- Prostatitis is caused by infections or other related health problems, while doctors dont know exactly what causes an enlarged prostate, but they think it may be related to hormones.
- BPH can be treated but not cured, but prostatitis is curable in many patients. The large majority of men with prostatitis have an infection of the prostate gland, while those with BPH do not have an infection.
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How Are Bacterial Forms Of Prostatitis Managed Or Treated
Antibiotics can kill bacteria that cause bacterial types of prostatitis. Men with acute bacterial prostatitis may need 14 to 30 days of antibiotics, starting with IV antibiotics in the hospital. Rarely, men need surgery to drain an abscess on the prostate.
Treating chronic bacterial prostatitis is challenging. You may need up to three months of antibiotics to sterilize the prostate. If the prostate cant be sterilized, low-dose antibiotics can be used long term to prevent recurrences. Some men need surgery to remove prostate stones or scar tissue in the urethra. Rarely, surgeons remove part or all of the prostate gland .
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What Aggravates An Enlarged Prostate
Some foods to avoid include: Red meat: Research suggests that going red meat-free may help improve prostate health. In fact, daily meat consumption is believed to triple the risk of prostate enlargement. Dairy: Similarly to meat, regular consumption of dairy has been linked to an increased risk of BPH.
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How Is Acute Prostatitis Treated
Your doctor will likely prescribe antibiotics for four to six weeks to treat acute bacterial prostatitis. Your treatment may last longer if you have recurrent episodes. The specific type of antibiotic will depend on the bacteria causing your condition.
Your doctor may also prescribe alpha-blockers to help relieve symptoms. These drugs relax your bladder muscles. They can help decrease urinary discomfort. Examples include doxazosin, terazosin, and tamsulosin. Your doctor may also recommend over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen.
Your doctor may advise you to adjust your daily habits to help relieve symptoms. For example, they may encourage you to:
- avoid bicycling or wear padded shorts to decrease pressure on your prostate
- avoid alcohol, caffeine, and foods that are spicy and acidic
- sit on a pillow or donut cushion
- take warm baths
What Are The Different Types Of Prostatitis
In an effort to standardize terminology, the National Institutes of Health proposes dividing prostatitis into four main categories: Acute bacterial prostatitis chronic bacterial prostatitis chronic bacterial prostatitis , which is subdivided into inflammatory and non-inflammatory prostatitis and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis . Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland.
- Acute infectious prostatitis: This may be caused by a bacteria or virus. The symptoms come on suddenly and may be severe. They include fever and chills, low back pain, frequent and painful urination, decreasing or less forceful urinary stream and urinary retention .
- Chronic infectious prostatitis: This also may be caused by bacteria. Stress, caffeine, nicotine, or alcohol may worsen the condition. Symptoms may include repeat bladder infections, frequent urination, and pain in the lower abdomen or low back.
- Noninfectious prostatitis: This form of prostatitis is not caused by bacteria and therefore antibiotics are not helpful. This is the most common type of prostatitis. It may be exacerbated by stress and/or irregular sexual activity. Stress may cause the pelvis muscles to tighten and cause pain. Increased pressure during voiding may cause urine to back up into the ducts resulting in a form of chemical prostatitis. The prostate gland produces fluid for semen and infrequent ejaculation may cause the ducts to become clogged with secretions.
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Diagnosis Of Enlarged Prostate Gland And Urinary Problems
If you are troubled by urination problems, see a doctor no matter what your age. If your doctor agrees that your symptoms need further evaluation and treatment, you may need to undergo a few tests.These may include:
- general examination medical history and review of any health conditions including obesity, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnoea, depression and erectile dysfunction. A rectal examination may be done to check the size and shape of your prostate gland
- a urine check to ensure the prostate is not infected
- a flow-rate check to estimate the speed with which you pass urine
- an ultrasound examination to assess if the bladder is emptying completely and to examine your kidneys
- urodynamics a series of tests on the bladder to see how your urinary system is functioning may be recommended in some circumstances.
Uti Diagnosis And Treatment Options Will Vary
A doctor will likely start the analysis of the problem by taking a urine specimen and send it out to be cultured. This is a very important step, because it will immediately show whether the symptoms are being caused by a bacterial infection or something else. If the underlying cause of the urinary tract symptoms is not bacterial , other tests will be conducted to assess the best solution.
If a UTI is diagnosed, the treatment plan usually includes antibiotics, but these medications are proving less and less effective. Due to years of overprescribing, the bacteria have learned how to out-smart the antibiotics they hide, grow and mutate until the antibiotic is no longer present in the urinary tract and then they begin to grow again. Many of the traditional antibiotics that doctors have relied on for decades are no longer reliable for treatment of UTIs.
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What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Prostatitis
Antibiotics can cure acute bacterial prostatitis. These medications also ease chronic bacterial prostatitis symptoms in approximately 30% to 60% of men. Up to 80% of men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome feel better after receiving appropriate treatments for their symptoms using the UPOINT system. Men with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis dont need treatment.
Treatment For Urinary Problems
If your urinary problems are caused by infection or enlargement of the prostate gland, treatment may include:
- a long course of antibacterial medication because infection is difficult to get rid of, the antibacterial medication will need to be taken for many weeks
- medication to improve urine flow and other symptoms
- surgical procedures the type of surgery required depends on the size of the prostate and the condition of the urethra. Types of procedures include:
- transurethral resection of the prostate
- transurethral incision of the prostate
- laser resection of the prostate
- open surgery prostatectomy
- removal of prostate tissue using water jets or steam
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How Do I Know If My Prostate Is Enlarged
If your prostate is enlarged, it may not be a sign of cancer, but it is something that you should discuss with your doctor. Many of the symptoms of an enlarged prostate tend to relate to urination. If you are concerned about an enlarged prostate, here are 7 symptoms to look for:
How Can Prostatitis Affect My Life
Prostatitis can be very painful. If youre unsure about whether the condition can be treated, this can lead to feelings of depression and hopelessness. Prostatitis can also lower your sex drive, because the pain can make it hard to enjoy sexual activity.
Reaching out to family and partners for support can help in dealing with ongoing prostatitis. Although it can be an unpleasant condition, there are treatments that can help with the symptoms.
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When Is A Boy At Risk For An Uti
Boys are at increased risk of UTI if younger than six months, or if younger than 12 months and uncircumcised. Girls are generally at an increased risk of UTI, particularly if younger than one year. 3 Physical examination findings can be nonspecific but may include suprapubic tenderness or costovertebral angle tenderness.
How Is Bph Treated
In some cases, in particular where symptoms are mild, BPH requires no treatment. At the opposite extreme, some men require immediate intervention if they cannot urinate at all or if kidney/bladder damage has occurred. When treatment is necessary, many men will simply require daily medication. If this fails to completely treat the symptoms, or if there are signs of damage from BPH, the doctor may recommend minimally invasive endoscopic surgery . Or, in some cases, traditional surgery may be recommended.
- Drug treatment: The FDA has approved several drugs to relieve common symptoms associated with an enlarged prostate, including drugs that inhibit the production of the hormone DHT and drugs that relax the smooth muscle of the prostate and bladder neck to improve urine flow.
For surgery, there are many procedures to choose from, and the choice depends largely on your specific prostate anatomy, and surgeon preference and training. These procedures all have a common goal of widening the urethral channel as it passes through the prostate. Procedures include the following:
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How Can I Tell The Difference Between Prostatitis And Bph
If you do not have any symptoms of BPH or any of the types of prostatitis, which can be the situation for some men, you may not be able to tell if you have either problem. However, a doctor or other health care professional can detect enlargement of the prostate with a digital rectal exam , even if you dont have any symptoms.
If you do have symptoms, they are related to the increase in size of your prostate gland. When the gland enlarges, it can constrict the urethra and produce one or more of these symptoms.
- The need to urinate frequently during the day or night
- The sudden urgent need to urinate
- Difficulty initiating urinary stream
- Feeling like you still need to urinate even though you recently urinated
- Feeling like you need to push or strain to empty your bladder
- A decrease in the force of the urine stream
- Loss of small amounts of urine
The symptoms of prostatitis depend upon the type of prostatitis.
Acute bacterial prostatitis symptoms
Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis
Some men may have some of these symptoms with both BPH and prostatitis. If you are over age 50, it is more likely BPH than prostatitis, and if you are under age 35, acute bacterial prostatitis is more likely than BPH. In some patients, prostatitis may be recurrent .
What Is The Prostate
The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that is part of the male reproductive system. The main function of the prostate is to make a fluid that goes into semen. Prostate fluid is essential for a mans fertility. The gland surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder. The bladder neck is the area where the urethra joins the bladder. The bladder and urethra are parts of the lower urinary tract. The prostate has two or more lobes, or sections, enclosed by an outer layer of tissue, and it is in front of the rectum, just below the bladder. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. In men, the urethra also carries semen out through the penis.
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Cause Of Urinary Problems As Men Age
Many men experience urinary symptoms as they age, which may be caused by inflammation of the prostate gland . In older men, symptoms may be due to a blockage in the tubes due to a benign enlargement of the prostate gland . The most common symptom is difficulty emptying your bladder. Urinary symptoms may become bothersome enough that they require treatment. Not all urinary symptoms are due to changes to the prostate. Also, some men have enlarged prostates and yet experience few, if any, symptoms.
Inflammation Of The Prostate Gland
Bacteria sometimes cause prostatitis . More commonly, the underlying cause is uncertain. Consult your doctor promptly if you experience:
- pain in the groin
- urgent and frequent urination.
Treatment with antibiotics is essential for acute bacterial prostatitis. Admission to hospital is often necessary and, as with chronic bacterial prostatitis, specific antibacterial drugs are required for a long time.
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Trouble Resisting The Urge To Urinate
- Need to urinate often
- Need to urinate at night
- Severe urgings that lead to urine leakage
Sometimes these emptying problems can lead to a complete stop of urine flow and urinary tract infections that are difficult to treat. The symptoms described above can also be due to other illnesses in the lower urinary system, so you should always consult your doctor before starting any treatment.
You can also find additional information in our enCATHopedia Leaflet.
The Risk Factors For Utis Are More Extensive
- A suppressed immune system- caused by immunosuppressants or illness
- Catheter use after surgery or to empty bladder completely
- Poor hygiene failure to wash often or urinate after sexual encounters
- Blockages kidney stones, enlarged prostate
- Urinary procedure
- Inability to voluntarily control urination
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