Treating Advanced Prostate Cancer
If the cancer has reached an advanced stage, it is no longer possible to cure it. However, it may be possible to slow its progression, prolong your life and relieve symptoms.
Treatment options include:
- hormone treatment
If the cancer has spread to your bones, medicines called bisphosphonates may be used. Bisphosphonates help reduce bone pain and bone loss.
Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Though early warning signs of prostate cancer are rare, sometimes men experience symptoms before they are diagnosed. The severity of symptoms may depend on where the cancer is located in the prostate and how advanced it has become. However, having any of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that you have prostate cancer or that the disease has progressed beyond its early stages.
Diagnosis And Treatment Of Hemangiosarcoma In Dogs
Diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma can sometimes be difficult. It starts with a physical examination of the dog, checking for pale gums and abdominal swelling, among other things. The next step is performing x-rays of the abdominal region and checking for tumorous masses to see if any other organs are affected by the tumor. Blood tests, urinalysis, thoracic radiography, and ultrasonography may also be required. A definitive diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma is done by biopsy.
The treatment of hemangiosarcoma depends on the location of the tumor. If the tumor is located in the skin, surgical removal is the best treatment. If the surgeon was not able to remove the tumor completely, or if he suspects that some cancerous cells have spread to the nearby area, chemotherapy may be required. If the tumor is located in the internal organs of the dog, the standard treatment becomes a combination of surgery and chemotherapy.
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Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series
We are proud to announce a new podcast series geared toward helping give support, hope and guidance to prostate cancer caregivers. The goal of this Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series is to help others connect with a diverse group of people who have felt the impact of prostate cancer in their lives and empower them on their journey.
Why Is The Psas Role In Detecting Early
Most men detect prostate cancer in the early stages during annual check-ups at their doctors, when they get their annual PSA screening or digital rectal exam.Spotted in its early stages, prostate cancer can be cured.
Its especially important to start testing your PSA level starting at your 40s, especially if you check one or more of the risk factors:
- you are a male over the age of 50
- there is prostate cancer history in your family
- statistics of World Cancer Research Fund, shows that prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. you are African American .
The signs of prostate cancer generally become more noticeable in the advanced stages of the disease. Prostate cancer symptoms are not usually caused by cancer itself, but rather as a result of blockage caused by the increased growth of the prostate gland. Prostate cancer is associated with urinary dysfunction as the prostate gland surrounds the prostatic urethra. Changes within the gland directly affect urinary function.
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Indications Of Stage 4 Prostate Cancer
A diagnosis of stage 4 prostate cancer means that the cells have spread outside the prostate to the bones, lymph nodes, or other organs in the body. Once you reach stage 4, the condition is not curable, and this diagnosis is one of the signs you are dying of prostate cancer.
Signs that you may be in stage 4 might include unexplained weight loss, bone pain, as well as serious enlarged prostate symptoms like blocked urine passage, leakage, or frequent nighttime urination.
These could be signs you are dying of prostate cancer, but the only way to determine for certain is through a series of tests, including a biopsy and possibly a transrectal ultrasound, MRI and CT scan to track spreading, and a PSA test measuring the prostate-specific antigens in your blood.
Are There Complications Of Prostate Cancer And Treatment
Treatments can cause side effects, including:
- Erectile dysfunction: More than 3 in every 4 men have problems with getting and keeping an erection after surgery. However, this can be minimised using nerve-sparing surgery techniques. Erectile dysfunction is also common after radiation therapy and ADT. There are effective treatments for erection problems.
- Poor bladder control : 5% to 10% of men have problems with urine leakage within one year after prostate removal.
- Urinary urgency: Radiation therapy can cause damage around the prostate, making you feel like going to the toilet more often.
Men who take ADT may also experience a reduced sex drive and hormone-related effects such as hot flushes, tiredness and sweating, loss of body hair and osteoporosis. ADT can also result in reduced muscle strength, an increased risk of getting heart disease and memory loss.
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Genetic Testing For Prostate Cancer
You may hear a lot about genetics or genomics. Both terms are related to genes and cell DNA, but they are different. These tests are being used to learn more about the DNA of cancer cells, and link DNA mutations with treatments. In the future, genetic testing may be the first step doctors take when diagnosing prostate cancer.
Changes You Shouldnt Ignore
Early-stage prostate cancer rarely causes symptoms but as the disease progresses, you may experience certain warning signs. Knowing the signs of prostate cancer will help you keep an eye out for any concerning changes to your health.
Keep in mind, though, these symptoms dont indicate trouble with your prostate, Dr. Weight says. In fact, almost all of them come standard with aging. But if you experience several symptoms or have other concerns, it may be a good idea to visit a urologist.
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Most Read In Mens Health
While these are the main signs – they might not always mean you have prostate cancer, and if you’re worried you should speak to your GP.
With prostate cancer, it’s not always obvious that you have the illness until it has spread.
The NHS says that signs the cancer has spread include unintentional weight loss, bone or back pain, a loss of appetite and a pain in the testicles.
In the UK there is currently no screening for prostate cancer as the NHS says it’s not clear if the benefits would outweigh the risks.
While it’s one of the most common cancers – there isn’t the equivalent to regular screening – as there currently is with breast cancer screening and mammograms in the UK.
What Is Prostate Cancer
Growth in the prostate can be of two types:
- Benign growths: These are noncancerous growths and rarely a threat to life e.g., benign prostatic hyperplasia.
- Malignant growths: These are cancerous growths that can be life-threatening.
Diagnosis And Treatment Of Breast Cancer In Dogs
The diagnosis of breast cancer is fairly simple. With firm nodular tumors, another examination is required to determine whether they are benign or malignant. A veterinarian may use fine-needle aspiration and evaluate the content under a microscope. In some cases, the whole tumor needs to be taken out and examined by a veterinary pathologist.
Treatment for benign breast tumors is usually just surgical removal, but for malignant cases that may have spread to other areas, other treatments, such as chemotherapy, may be required.
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When Should I See My Doctor
See your doctor if you notice any unusual or ongoing changes in your toilet habits . Most often, these wont mean you have cancer, but finding cancer early improves the odds of treating it successfully.
If you dont have any symptoms but are concerned about your risk, your doctor can also explain the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening, such as having a PSA test.
Care During The Final Hours Of Life
The recognition of impending death is also an opportunity to encourage family members to notify individuals close to the patient who may want an opportunity to say goodbye. In the final hours of life, care should be directed toward the patient and the patients loved ones. In addition to continuing a careful and thoughtful approach to any symptoms a patient is experiencing , preparing family and friends for a patients death is critical. Preparations include the following:
- Acknowledging the symptoms that are likely to occur.
- Articulating a plan to respond to the symptoms.
- Eliciting fears or concerns of family members.
- Assuring that respectfully allowing life to end is appropriate at this point in the patients life.
Encouraging family members who desire to do something to participate in the care of the patient may be helpful. In the final days to hours of life, patients often have limited, transitory moments of lucidity. Family members should be prepared for this and educated that this is a natural aspect of the dying process and not necessarily a result of medications being administered for symptoms or a sign that the patient is doing better than predicted. Despite their limited ability to interact, patients may be aware of the presence of others thus, loved ones can be encouraged to speak to the patient as if he or she can hear them.
Staging Of Prostate Cancer
Doctors will use the results of your prostate examination, biopsy and scans to identify the ‘stage’ of your prostate cancer . The stage of the cancer will determine which types of treatments will be necessary.
A widely used method of staging is a number staging system. The stages are:
- stage 1 the cancer is very small and completely within the prostate gland
- stage 2 the cancer is within the prostate gland, but is larger
- stage 4 the cancer has spread into the lymph nodes or another part of the body, including the bladder, rectum or bones about 20 to 30% of cases are diagnosed at this stage
If prostate cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, the chances of survival are generally good.
Read further information:
- Cancer Research UK: the stages of prostate cancer
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Why Does Prostate Cancer Happen
The causes of prostate cancer are largely unknown. However, certain things can increase your risk of developing the condition.
The chances of developing prostate cancer increase as you get older. Most cases develop in men and anyone with a prostate aged 50 or older.
For reasons not yet understood, prostate cancer is more common in men and anyone with a prostate of African-Caribbean African descent. It’s less common in men and anyone with a prostate of Asian descent.
Men and anyone with a prostate who have first-degree male relatives affected by prostate cancer are also at a slightly increased risk.
Read more about the causes of prostate cancer
Diagnosing Enlarged Prostates In Dogs
Though it does require more diagnostics to confirm the cause, an enlarged prostate in dogs is most commonly found during a rectal exam. An X-ray can also be used to diagnose an enlarged prostate.
An abdominal ultrasound may be recommended, as it can confirm that the internal architecture of the prostate is preserved, even when the gland is enlarged. Urinalysis and urine culture may be performed to rule out a urinary tract infection.
Rarely, a biopsy is needed to distinguish benign prostatic hyperplasia in dogs from other causes of prostatic disease, such as an infection or cancer.
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Other Conditions That Can Cause Urinary Symptoms
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH is when the prostate gland grows larger. BPH is common in middle-aged and elderly men because the prostate gland often gets bigger as you get older. BPH is not cancerous but it may cause prostate urinary symptoms.
- ProstatitisProstatitis means that the prostate gland has become inflamed. It can be caused by an infection in the prostate gland. It is not a form of prostate cancer. Symptoms can include pain in your testicles, pain when passing urine or an uncomfortable feeling when sitting down.
What Are The 5 Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer
Each year, almost 250,000 men in the United States are diagnosed with prostate cancer. As with other forms of cancer, this is a dangerous disease that is more easily treated if detected early. Let’s discuss what may cause prostate cancer, the 5 common warning signs associated with it, and what to do if you suspect that you have it.
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So What Are The Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer
Unfortunately, there usually arent any early warning signs for prostate cancer. The growing tumor does not push against anything to cause pain, so for many years the disease may be silent. Thats why screening for prostate cancer is such an important topic for all men and their families.
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In rare cases, prostate cancer can cause symptoms. Contact your doctor for an evaluation if you experience any of the following:
- A need to urinate frequently, especially at night, some- times urgently
- Difficulty starting or holding back urination
- Weak, dribbling, or interrupted flow of urine
- Painful or burning urination
- Difficulty in having an erection
- A decrease in the amount of fluid ejaculated
- Pressure or pain in the rectum
- Pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips, pelvis, or thighs
What about difficulty in having an erection? Again, this is most likely not caused by cancer but by other factors such as diabetes, smoking, cardiovascular disease, or just plain getting older.
That said: Symptoms are symptoms, and no matter whats most likely to be causing them, you should get them checked out by a doctor.
Download or order your free copy of the Prostate Cancer Patient Guide now with COVID-19 Appendix.
Tips For Managing Cancer End
Even if not medically-trained, a family caregiver can provide comfort and care to their loved one as they begin to exhibit the signs of dying from cancer. For example, family caregivers can help cancer patients who are confused or delirious by answering their questions, listening to their concerns, and just by being present. If the patient shows no interest in doing anything, just sit with him or her. If the patient gets confused or angry, fight the natural instinct to become upset. The best thing you can do for your loved one is make this time easier in any way possible.
We also recommend speaking to the healthcare professionals, such as the patients primary care physician, regarding other ways in which loved ones can help. Palliative care, for example, is designed to treat the symptoms and side-effects of cancer, which can help with many of these issues. There is no reason that your loved one should suffer more than he or she has to, even before it may become time to consider hospice care. Palliative care can be administered separate from hospice care.
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What Are The Stages Of Prostate Cancer
Your healthcare provider uses the Gleason score and Grade Groups to stage prostate cancer based on its projected aggressiveness. To get this information, the pathologist:
- Assigns a grade to each type of cell in your sample. Cells are graded on a scale of three to five . Samples that test in the one to two range are considered normal tissue.
- Adds together the two most common grades to get your Gleason score .
- Uses the Gleason score to place you into a Grade Group ranging from one to five. A Gleason score of six puts you in Grade Group 1 . A score of nine or higher puts you in Grade Group five . Samples with a higher portion of more aggressive cells receive a higher Grade Group.
Eight Types Of Standard Treatment Are Used:
Watchful waiting or active surveillance
Watchful waiting and active surveillance are treatments used for older men who do not have signs or symptoms or have other medical conditions and for men whose prostate cancer is found during a screening test.
Active surveillance is closely following a patient’s condition without giving any treatment unless there are changes in test results. It is used to find early signs that the condition is getting worse. In active surveillance, patients are given certain exams and tests, including digital rectal exam, PSA test, transrectal ultrasound, and transrectal needle biopsy, to check if the cancer is growing. When the cancer begins to grow, treatment is given to cure the cancer.
Other terms that are used to describe not giving treatment to cure prostate cancer right after diagnosis are observation, watch and wait, and expectant management.
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