What Is Prostate Cancer
In prostate cancer, normal cells undergo a transformation in which they not only grow and multiply without normal controls, but they also change in their microscopic appearance and can invade adjacent tissues. Prostate cancer cells form into malignant tumors or masses, which then overwhelm surrounding tissues by invading their space and taking vital oxygen and nutrients. Cancer cells from these tumors can eventually invade remote organs via the bloodstream and the lymphatic system. This process of invading and spreading to other organs is called metastasis. Common metastatic locations where prostate cancer cells may eventually be found include pelvic lymph nodes, and bones. The lungs and the liver may also show deposits of, or metastases from, prostate cancer, but that is less common.
Almost all prostate cancers arise from the glandular cells in the prostate. Cancer arising from a glandular cell in any organ in the body is known as adenocarcinoma. Therefore, the most common type of prostate cancer is an adenocarcinoma. The most common non-adenocarcinoma is transitional cell carcinoma. Other rare types include small cell carcinoma and sarcoma of the prostate.
Older men commonly have an enlarged prostate, caused by a benign condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia . Prostate gland cells simply keep growing in number in the prostate gland in BPH. BPH can cause urinary symptoms but is not a form of prostate cancer .
Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Most prostate cancers are found early, through screening. Early prostate cancer usually causes no symptoms. More advanced prostate cancers can sometimes cause symptoms, such as:
- Problems urinating, including a slow or weak urinary stream or the need to urinate more often, especially at night
- Blood in the urine or semen
- Trouble getting an erection
- Pain in the hips, back , chest , or other areas from cancer that has spread to bones
- Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet, or even loss of bladder or bowel control from cancer pressing on the spinal cord
Most of these problems are more likely to be caused by something other than prostate cancer. For example, trouble urinating is much more often caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia , a non-cancerous growth of the prostate. Still, its important to tell your health care provider if you have any of these symptoms so that the cause can be found and treated, if needed. Some men might need more tests to check for prostate cancer.
Identification Of Itch As A Substrate Of Spop
As the analysis revealed that SPOP mutations correlated strongly with metastasis, we sought to uncover a potential mechanism for this phenomenon. We used siRNA to suppress the SPOP expression in prostate cancer cells, and performed a mass spectrometry analysis on the lysates from these cells to determine which proteins have an altered expression upon the depletion of SPOP. Potential candidate proteins were selected based on increased protein levels when SPOP was knocked down, a previously published role in oncogenesis, and the presence of a SPOP degron. The SPOP degron we used was –S-S/T-S/T , based on the findings in Zhuang M et al. . We then classified the proteins based on whether they showed an increased or decreased expression after SPOP knockdown. There were 15 proteins on the list . Focusing on the proteins with an increased expression, we hypothesized that these proteins could be potential SPOP substrates for ubiquitylation-mediated degradation. Within this subset of proteins, we then focused on ITCH for validation and further experimentation, as evidence suggests that it contributes to EMT.
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Common Causes Of Cancer Itch In Patients
While itching can be annoying, you should not usually worry about it. Most often, the cause is dry skin caused by spending hours in a dry hospital environment or repeated cleaning of the skin while undergoing treatment. To help resolve itching, use a rich body lotion or cream after showering or bathing, and be sure to drink plenty of water.
Another common cause of itching can be an allergy. While you are preoccupied with your cancer, you may not be as vigilant about avoiding things you are allergic to. Do a mental review of your diet and the places youve been to see if you may have been in contact with one of your triggers. An antihistamine and avoiding your allergens may be all you need.
Some patients experience itching or flushing while undergoing treatment for cancer. In this case, itching may begin almost immediately after the start of the infusion. Tell your doctor or your nurse if this happens to you. Some drugs commonly cause a skin reaction and an itch. In this case, the drug can be stopped temporarily and then resumed at a lower pace. If the itching persists, your doctor may prescribe a stronger antihistamine or change your treatment protocol to make you more comfortable.
Causes Of Pruritus In Cancer Patients
Certain cancers and blood disorders are likely to cause pruritus.
These include the following:
The way you reactdepends on the drug, the dose, and whether you are allergic to it. Itching caused when drugs are given by infusion usually occurs only near the place where the needle was inserted and often stops on its own 30 to 90 minutes after the infusion ends. It’s important to report itching caused by chemotherapy to your doctor because your reactions can get worse each time the same drug is used.
Radiation can kill skin cells and cause dryness, burning, and itching as the skin peels off. Broken skin may become infected by scratching. If your skin is severely damaged, radiation treatments may have to be stopped for a while to give your skin time to heal. This can affect how well your cancer treatment works. Your doctor will try to keep your skin healthy so you can continue treatment. Some types of radiation cause fewer side effects than others.
Radiation therapy and chemotherapy together
The side effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy given together can be more severe than the side effects when each is given alone.
Several biologic therapy drugs may cause itching. This is most common with drugs called interferons.
Bone marrow transplant
Drugs for supportive care
Some of the drugs used to prevent or treat cancer symptoms may cause pruritus, including the following:
Pruritus can be a symptom of infection.
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Frequent Urination Burning With Urination And Difficulty Urinating
These are the most common complaints. Occasionally the urinary stream will weaken. Generally these symptoms are managed with medications to help the bladder function better or eliminate burning. Rarely, your doctor may order a urine test. Symptoms will resolve after the end of treatment. Contact your doctor if you see blood in your urine or if you are unable to urinate.
How Is It Managed
When itching is an expected side effect of treatment, you may be given skin care instructions to minimize the itch and prevent infection due to scratching. Itchiness can be treated by identifying the cause.
Skin care to manage itching:
- Limit baths, instead use showers, avoid hot water when washing or bathing, wash only with gentle, soap-free cleansers.
- After washing, gently dry your skin. Pat the area dry with a soft towel.
- Use lotions and moisturizers daily. Choose gentle lotions without perfumes or dyes.
- Wear natural fibers such as cotton or linen clothing and choose loose clothing that doesn’t rub against your skin.
- Drink 6-8 eight-ounce glasses of non-alcoholic fluids each day.
- Keep your fingernails short to prevent scratching yourself.
- If you are feeling itchy, applying lotion or a cool washcloth to the area may satisfy the urge to scratch.
Medications may be prescribed to manage itchiness. Antihistamines, sedatives or antidepressants are medications that have anti-itch properties.
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What Is The Survival Rate For Prostate Cancer
Most of the men diagnosed with prostate cancer will not die from it. Other medical conditions along with prostate cancer can cause death.
Survival rates for men with prostate cancer have increased over the years due to increased screening and treatment options. Ninety-nine percent of men with prostate cancer will survive for a minimum of five years after diagnosis.
Targeted Drugs And Hormone Therapy
Some types of targeted cancer drugs and hormone therapy cause skin rashes.
Targeted cancer drugs called EGFR inhibitors are most likely to cause skin reactions such as a rash and itching. These include erlotinib and cetuximab.
If you have a severe rash, you may need treatment with steroid creams or tablets, or antibiotic creams or tablets.
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Is Skin Cancer Itchy
An itchy skin rash could be a warning sign of skin cancer. But, itching is very common and can occur for many reasons other than cancer. Some possible explanations include dry skin, eczema, contact dermatitis, an insect bite or an allergic reaction to a medication, cosmetic or poison ivy.
Due to the wide range of potential causes, itchy skin alone is usually not a reason to be overly concerned. Unless the itching is very bothersome or lasts beyond a few days, home remedies such as applying an anti-itch cream, moisturizer or cool compress may be all that is needed to improve comfort until the itching resolves on its own.
What Are The Symptoms To Watch For
Itching may be an early symptom that you are having an allergic reaction. Notify emergency medical services immediately if you have any of the following symptoms:
- Shortness of breath
Analgesics: Itching may be a mild stimulation of your pain receptors. Over-the-counter medications can relieve pain. Examples are acetaminophen and aspirin.
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Treatment Of Prostate Itch Or Prostatitis
- Drink plenty of fluids to flush out the adhered bacteria in the urinary tract.
- Barley water is helpful in treating itchy prostate.
- Fruit juice mixed in cranberry juice is an effective remedy for itchy prostate. Due to its antibacterial property, cranberry juice is preferred natural home remedy for itchy prostate.
- Homeopathic remedy such as cantharis, sabal serrulata act effectively in itchy prostate. Consultation with a homeopath is essential before taking the medicine.
- Drinking coconut water will help to reduce itchy prostate symptoms.
What Else Can I Do
To control or reduce the symptoms of chronic itching, take care of your skin. Try the following tips:
- Drink plenty of fluids to keep your body well hydrated. Dehydration will cause your skin to dry out and become more itchy
- Use lotions, creams, or oils to relieve dry skin, which may make itching worse. These products prevent water loss by placing an oily substance over the skin to keep water in or by attracting water to the outer skin layer from the inner skin layer.
- Use products that are mild and do not have perfume. The chemicals that are responsible for fragrances may further irritate your skin.
Things to avoid:
- Any allergen skin reactions are very common when you are exposed to something you are allergic to
- Perfumed skin products perfumes can be allergens and the chemicals may further irritate your skin
- Friction or rubbing on your skin scratching may make the itching sensation worse
- Long hot baths with bubble bath try a cool bath and apply a mild, doctor recommended lotion when you are finished
- Extreme weather such as hot/dry or cold/windy these will make your skin dry and itchy
Things to try for relief:
- Massage the area that itches
- Vibration may also relieve itching
- Massage with an ice cube over the area that itches
- Wash clothes in mild detergent.
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Side Effects Of Cancer Treatment: Itching Overview
Medically reviewed by C.H. Weaver M.D. Medical Editor 8/2020
Pruritus is an uncomfortable skin sensation, commonly called itching. It may be caused by any number of irritants to the skin, or it may be a result of cancer treatments or cancer itself. Treatments aim to reduce inflammation, pain, or reverse an allergic reaction. Taking care of your skin will also help manage itching.
- What is pruritus?
- What are the symptoms to watch for?
- How is itching treated?
- What else can I do?
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Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
- The need to pee often, especially at night
- Trouble starting or stopping a stream of urine
- A weak stream or one that starts and stops
- Leaking pee when you laugh or cough
- Not being able to pee standing up
- Pain or burning when you pee
- Pain or burning when you ejaculate
- Less fluid when you ejaculate
- Blood in your pee or semen
- Pressure or pain in your rectum
- Pain or stiffness in your lower back, hips, pelvis, or thighs
- New trouble getting an erection
These arenât symptoms of the cancer itself. They happen because the cancer growth is blocking your prostate.
Patient Characteristics And The Frequency Of Spop Mutations
Listed in Table 1 are patient characteristics in this study. According to the AJCC staging system standards, 99 cases were stage I-II, 32 were stage III, and 67 were stage IV. 84.9% of the patients had localized disease, whereas the other 15.1% had metastasis at the time of diagnosis. We screened for somatic variants in Exons Six and Seven of the SPOP gene in the prostate tumor tissues, as all the previously reported SPOP mutations were within these two exons. Three somatic SPOP missense mutations were identified in 16 out of the 198 tumor tissues . The patients with mutant SPOP have mutations in the following codons : phenylalanine to valine , leucine , or cysteine substitution in codon 133 , tryptophan to glycine , cysteine , or serine substitution in codon 131 , tyrosine to cysteine or serine substitution in codon 87 , and phenylalanine to leucine substitution . As shown in Table 1, the mutation frequency of SPOP was associated with the T stage and Risk Group. However, it did not correlate with the age of patient, prior treatment PSA level, or the Gleason score. Interestingly, the occurrence of SPOP mutations was significantly associated with metastasis . Among patients with SPOP mutations, 56.3% showed metastasis at the time of diagnosis of primary cancer, compared with only 11.5% of the patients with wild-type SPOP . The metastasis risk for patients with SPOP mutations was thus 1.27 times higher than that of the SPOP wild-type patients .
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Male Yeast Infections Can Involve The Prostate Gland
Unfortunately many of the problems associated with yeast infections are somewhat cyclical and here I will identify two issues that cause many men problems, and which also at first glance, can result in a condition which appears distinct from yeast infection.Before I continue with this article, you should know I’ve recently compiled a list of science-backed ways to get rid of candida yeast infections. You can if you haven’t yet.
I have found that many men who suffer from prostate problems are subsequently identified as also suffering from a yeast infection. Although these may appear to be conditions which are entirely unrelated this is not in fact true. In men, any yeast which is collected by the penis can travel up the urethra and settle in the prostate which resides at the top. This may result in the man not developing significant symptoms of a yeast infection, but he can show signs of prostatitis. Obviously, if this condition is treated without the possibility of a yeast infection being investigated, then the prostatitis will recur. And, again obviously, this is a condition which is very worrying to a lot of men.
The other issue which causes cyclical prostatitis relates to that of alcohol. In my experience when it comes to men, beer is the major causation. Often men who drink beer will find they suffer not only from recurring prostatitis but also from jock itch.
In Fact Most People Don’t Even Know What It Does
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