Soreness In The Groin
When prostate cancer spreads, its common for cancer cells to go to your lymph nodes and then move to more areas of your body. The lymph nodes are a network of glands that help your body filter fluids and fight infections.
There are several lymph nodes in your groin. These are the ones closest to your prostate, so its common for the cancer to spread to them first. Cancer cells prevent your lymph nodes from draining fluid and working properly. When this happens, your lymph nodes swell. As a result, you might experience pain or soreness in the area.
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How Long Is A Course Of Chemotherapy
In the majority of cases for best results the patient will need regular chemotherapy over a specific period. A protocol plan is drawn up which specifies when treatment sessions will occur and for how long.
A course of chemotherapy may be just a one-day treatment, or can last for a few weeks it will depend on the type and stage of the cancer . If the patient requires more than one course of treatment there will be a rest period for his/her body to recover. This could be a one-day treatment followed by a weeks rest period, followed by another one-day treatment followed by a three-week rest period, etc. This may be repeated many times.
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Managing Bone Pain And Weakness
Symptoms like nausea, hot flashes, and pain can usually be relieved with medication. Some people find that complimentary treatments like acupuncture or massage help manage side effects.
Your doctor may also recommend orthopedic surgery to stabilize your bones, relieve pain, and help prevent bone fractures.
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Treatments To Help If It Spreads
If colon cancer spreads, you and your doctor will come up with an aggressive treatment plan to try and stop cancer from spreading. The treatments go by Stage and include:
Stage 1 and 2 Treatments
If the cancer is still confined to just the colon, surgical intervention can usually prevent the spread of colon cancer.
Stage 3 Treatments
If the cancer begins to spread to the lymph nodes, any lymph nodes near the start of the cancer will be removed. If the cancer is found in distant lymph nodes near the liver or lungs, they will also be removed.
Stage 4 Treatments
Once colon cancer has invaded the liver, lungs, bones, and/or brain, the treatment plan will be to give both chemotherapy and radiation in cycles to kill off cancer cells. Radiation may also be given early in Stage 1 or 2 to prevent the spread.
The Role Of Inflammation
Acute inflammation is a biological response triggered by harmful stimuli such as infection, trauma, and tissue injury to eliminate the source of damage . The tumor microenvironment is unequivocally linked with inflammation, whether the infiltration of immune cells engages with tumor cells causing inflammation or chronic inflammation promotes the malignant transformation of cells and carcinogenesis .
In an experiment performed by Morrissey et al., it was found that IL-6 was highly expressed in prostate cancer bone metastases. PC-3 cells inhibited osteoblast activity and induced osteoblast to produce IL-6 that promoted osteoclastogenesis . In addition, a recent study by Roca et al. observed that macrophage-driven efferocytosis induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 by activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells signaling. CXCL5-deficient mice had reduced tumor progression. These findings suggested that the myeloid phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cancer cells accelerated CXCL5-mediated inflammation and tumor growth in bone . In summary, findings from available evidence suggest the alleviation of chronic inflammation as a potential therapeutic approach for prostate cancer bone metastases.
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Where Does Colon Cancer Spread
When you are diagnosed with colon cancer it means that you had abnormal cells invade your colon. The abnormal cells grow into colon polyps. Not all colon polyps are cancerous. Sometimes the polyps turn cancerous and can spread to surrounding tissues.
Colon cancer symptoms are often mild and can be missed early on in the disease. This means you may not notice any symptoms until the disease has progressed into advanced stages and spread beyond the colon. This is why it is important to get screened for colon cancer at each yearly physical after the age of 50. Once the disease has spread it may be harder to treat.
Homing Of Prostate Cancer Cells To The Bone
Homing and growth of prostate tumor cells in the bone
As described in the text, the specific mechanisms by which tumor cells home to the bone remain unknown, but are thought to occur through factors produced or expressed in both bone and tumor. Integrin Î²1 has been implicated in attachment of prostate cancer cells to the bone epithelium. Cadherin-11 is highly expressed in bone metastases and its knockdown decreases bone homing. Chemotactic factors such as SDF-1 released from the bone are implicated in bone homing of tumor cells. Once Tumor cells reach the bone, the classic vicious cycle occurs, whereby factors from the tumor lead to bone destruction and bone formation, and factors from the bone released in this process promote tumor growth.
Colonization in the bone
Chemoattraction to the bone
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If Treatment Does Not Work
Recovery from cancer is not always possible. If the cancer cannot be cured or controlled, the disease may be called advanced or terminal.
This diagnosis is stressful, and for many people, advanced cancer may be difficult to discuss. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your health care team to express your feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team has special skills, experience, and knowledge to support patients and their families and is there to help. Making sure a person is physically comfortable, free from pain, and emotionally supported is extremely important.
People who have advanced cancer and who are expected to live less than 6 months may want to consider hospice care. Hospice care is designed to provide the best possible quality of life for people who are near the end of life. You and your family are encouraged to talk with the health care team about hospice care options, which include hospice care at home, a special hospice center, or other health care locations. Nursing care and special equipment, including a hospital bed, can make staying at home a workable option for many families. Learn more about advanced cancer care planning.
After the death of a loved one, many people need support to help them cope with the loss. Learn more about grief and loss.
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What Is Brachytherapy For Prostate Cancer
Brachytherapy is a form of radiation treatment. During brachytherapy, doctors take small particles or seeds that contain a source of radiation and place them inside the body in or near a tumor.
The radioactive material only affects the tissue very close to it, so it tackles the tumor but doesnt harm the rest of the body.
According to the American College of Surgeons , healthcare professionals may recommend brachytherapy as a stand-alone treatment if you have very low- or low-risk prostate cancer or favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer.
If you have a higher-risk case, healthcare professionals might use brachytherapy in addition to external beam radiation therapy .
Resources For More Information
Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network
Offers education and support services, advances research, and raises awareness about bladder cancer. Has an extensive online resource library for bladder cancer patients.
American Bladder Cancer Society
The site is intended to offer help, hope, and support to anyone affected by bladder cancer. Bladder cancer information, resources, and a support forum are offered.
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Causes Of Advanced Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. It is more common over the age 65. Although it can happen at a younger age it is uncommon under 50. People who have a prostate include men, transwomen and people assigned male at birth. If you are a trans woman and have had genital gender affirming surgery as part of your transition, you still have a prostate. Trans men do not have a prostate. It is important to talk to your GP or nurse if you are worried about prostate cancer or have symptoms.
We have more information about the risk factors of prostate cancer.
What Treatments Are Available
If you have advanced prostate cancer, treatment wont cure your cancer. But it can help keep it under control and manage any symptoms.
If youve just been diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer, you may be offered the following treatments:
- chemotherapy with hormone therapy
- clinical trials.
Research has found that having radiotherapy together with one of the main treatments listed above can help some men with advanced prostate cancer to live longer. But radiotherapy isnt suitable for all men with advanced prostate cancer.
If you live in Scotland, you may also be offered a type of hormone therapy called abiraterone acetate together with standard hormone therapy. In the rest of the UK, abiraterone is currently only given to men with advanced prostate cancer that has stopped responding to other types of hormone therapy. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence is currently deciding whether to make it available for men who have just been diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer.
Before you start treatment
Before you start any treatment, make sure you have all the information you need. Its important to think about how you would cope with the possible side effects. Speak to your doctor or nurse about this.
It can help to write down any questions you want to ask at your next appointment. It may also help to take someone with you, such as your partner, a family member or friend.
If you have any questions, speak to our Specialist Nurses.
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Newly Diagnosed With Prostate Cancer Why Choose Robotic Prostatectomy
When first diagnosed with prostate cancer, its common for men to wonder what the future will hold. Certainly, a prostate cancer cure is a top priority, but then what?
Dr. David Samadi understands that men want to know:
Will I have sex after prostate cancer?
How will sex after prostate cancer be different?
For many men, prostate cancer treatment choice determines these answers.
If you select robotic prostate surgery your chances of enjoying sex after prostate surgery are very high. Robotic prostatectomy is a minimally invasive prostate removal. It is considered one of the best treatment options for prostate cancer due to its success rate and fast recovery rate.
The da Vinci robotic prostate cancer surgery system enables the surgeon to make precise movements. This ensures cancer-removal efficiency and sparing of the nerves and muscles that are responsible for the sexual function.
However, it is absolutely critical to choose a robotic surgeon with a high case volume and extensive prostate surgery experience. The robot does not perform the surgery and technology is no guarantee of success.
Dr. Samadi explains how the preservation of sexual function is possible:
If my only responsibility was to remove the cancerous prostate, my job would be much easier, he acknowledges, But patients deserve much more than that. It was paramount that I find a way to remove the prostate gland without damaging functions critical to a comfortable and enjoyable life after recovery.
Can Prostate Cancer Spread
Medically Reviewed by: Dr. BautistaUpdated on: November 18, 2019
Like other cancers, prostate cancer can spread if the cancer cells grow out of control. At ITC, we treat all different types of cancer and know that patients often have a lot of questions surrounding their diagnosis.
We often are asked what is prostate cancer? Can prostate cancer spread? How is it diagnosed? And more. At Immunity Therapy Center, we know that each diagnosis is unique and every patient is different which is why we focus on a holistic approach to prostate cancer. And we believe that when patients have the knowledge, theyre more likely to take control of their health.
To give you the knowledge to prepare, lets take a closer look at prostate cancer, what symptoms to look for, and how it can spread.
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What About Other Treatments That I Hear About
When you have cancer you might hear about other ways to treat the cancer or treat your symptoms. These may not always be standard medical treatments. These treatments may include vitamins, herbs, diets, and other things. You may wonder if these treatments are safe and whether they could help you.
Some of these treatments are known to help, but many have not been tested. Some have been shown not to help. A few have even been found to be harmful. Talk to your doctor about anything youre thinking about using, whether its a vitamin, a diet, or anything else.
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Is It Prostate Cancer Bone Mets Or Primary Bone Cancer
A recent article by a Duke Cancer Institute oncologist, Dr. Daniel George, raised an interesting point. He opened with his own experience of meeting with an advanced prostate cancer patient who says he has bone cancer. Dr. George writes, In the past, I would smile politely and correct them by saying, actually what you have is prostate cancer that has spread to your bones. But, what if they are right?
Despite the very small number of primary bone cancer cases, Dr. George is implying that before administering a systemic treatment for metastatic prostate cancer, further diagnostic tests should be done to identify exactly what is growing in the bone. If it turns out to be primary bone cancer, there are several different types. Each one requires its own type of chemotherapy. And if its prostate cancer bone mets, which is far more prevalent than primary bone cancer, it must be treated as prostate cancer, even though its in the bone.
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What Happens If My Cancer Starts To Grow Again
Your first treatment may help keep your cancer under control. But over time, the cancer may change and it may start to grow again.
You will usually stay on your first type of hormone therapy, even if its not working so well. This is because it will still help to keep the amount of testosterone in your body low. But there are other treatments that you can have alongside your usual treatment, to help control the cancer and manage any symptoms. Other treatments include:
Which treatments are suitable for me?
Which treatments are suitable for you will depend on many things, including your general health, how your cancer responds to treatment, and which treatments youve already had. Talk to your doctor or nurse about your own situation, or speak to our Specialist Nurses.
How Doctors Find Metastatic Prostate Cancer
When you are diagnosed with prostate cancer, your doctor will order tests such as:
- MRI scans
- PET scans
These tests may focus on your skeleton and in your belly and pelvic areas. That way doctors can check for signs that the cancer has spread.
If you have symptoms such as bone pain and broken bones for no reason, your doctor may order a bone scan. It can show if you have signs of cancer spread in your bones.
Your doctor will also ask for blood tests, including a check of PSA levels, to look for other signs that the cancer is spreading.
PSA is a protein made by the prostate gland. A rise in PSA is one of the first signs your cancer may be growing. But PSA levels can also be high without there being cancer, such as if you have an enlarged prostate a prostate infection, trauma to the perineum, or sexual activity can also cause PSA level to be high.
If you’ve been treated, especially if a surgeon removed your prostate, your PSA levels should start to go down. Doctors usually wait seve,ral weeks after surgery before checking PSA levels. A rise in PSA after treatment may suggest the possibility cancer is back or spreading. In that case, your doctor may order the same tests used to diagnose the original cancer, including a CT scan, MRI, or bone scan. The radiotracer Axumin could be used along with a PET scan to help detect and localize any recurrent cancer.
Though very rare, it’s possible to have metastatic prostate cancer without a higher-than-normal PSA level.
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What Happens Without Treatment
Physicians will sometimes talk about a particular diseases natural history or typical progression if it is left untreated indefinitely.
With regard to prostate cancer, most cases of the disease are discovered while the cancer is still confined to the prostate itself. This is called local disease or localized disease.
The disease is easiest to treat while it is confined to the prostate. At this stage, surgery and radiation are most likely to be curative and completely kill or remove whatever cancer cells are present.
If left untreated, however, prostate cancer can proceed on a number of different paths.