Can Prostate Cancer Increase The Risk Of Other Cancers
Men who have survived prostate cancer, like all other cancer survivors, have a common concern what is the possibility of facing cancer again, especially second cancer? This is an understandable and normal concern for any cancer survivor to question. Second cancers are not uncommon. While the risk is small, one to three percent of survivors will develop second cancer different from the originally treated cancer, such as men whove had prostate cancer.
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Risk And Other Prostate Conditions
The most common misconception is that the presence of non-cancerous conditions of the prostate will increase the risk of prostate cancer.
While these conditions can cause symptoms similar to those of prostate cancer and should be evaluated by a physician, there is no evidence to suggest that having either of the following conditions will increase a mans risk for developing prostate cancer.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate. Because the Urethra runs directly through the prostate, enlargement of the prostate in BPH squeezes the urethra, making it difficult and often painful for men to urinate. Learn more about BPH.
Prostatitis, an infection in the prostate, is the most common cause of urinary tract infections in men. Most treatment strategies are designed to relieve the symptoms of prostatitis, which include fever, chills, burning during urination, or difficulty urinating. There have been links between inflammation of the prostate cancer and prostate cancer in several studies. This may be a result of being screened for cancer just by having prostate-related symptoms, and currently, this is an area of controversy. Learn more about prostatitis.
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Prostate Cancer Tied To Higher Colorectal Cancer Risk
The risk of colorectal cancer is increased after a diagnosis of prostate cancer, according to a study published online Feb. 25 in Cancer.
Danielle Desautels, M.D., from the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada, and colleagues analyzed data on 14,164 subjects diagnosed with prostate cancer as their first cancer and 69,051 age-matched men with no history of invasive cancer on the prostate cancer diagnosis date. Follow-up lasted until date of diagnosis of colorectal cancer or another cancer, death, emigration, or the study endpoint .
The researchers found that men diagnosed with prostate cancer had an increased risk of a subsequent diagnosis of colorectal cancer . There was an increased risk for rectal cancer associated with the treatment of prostate cancer with radiation , compared with prostate cancer cases not treated with radiation.
Colorectal cancer screening should be considered soon after the diagnosis of prostate cancer, especially for men planning for radiotherapy, the authors write.
One author disclosed financial ties to the medical device industry.
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What Are The Risk Factors For Prostate And Colorectal Cancer
Age, family history, and diets low in fruits and vegetables are among the shared risk factors of both cancers. Additionally, lifestyle choices such as diet, smoking, alcohol use, obesity, and inactivity can affect the risk equation for these cancers and many other conditions.
Ethnicity is considered a shared risk factor with Black men nearly 2.5 times more likely to die of the disease than non-Hispanic white men. Recent studies, however, suggest that disparity is linked to healthcare access and not biology.
People with inflammatory bowel disease, a personal or family history of colorectal polyps or colorectal cancer, or genetic syndromes such as Lynch syndrome are at higher risk for colorectal cancer.
Surgery Is Used For Both Colon And Rectal Cancers
Surgery is the most common treatment for both colon and rectal cancer, although each type has specific techniques and risks. Patients may still need chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to kill remaining cancer cells, even when surgery is the primary treatment.
Colon Cancer Surgery
A partial colectomy is usually the first surgical treatment for colon cancer, which involves removing only a section of the colon. Surgeons can typically reconnect the separated portions of the colon, allowing you to have normal bowel movements. In some cases where it cant be reconnected right away, you may need a colostomy.
A colostomy is a procedure that involves creating a hole, or ostomy, in your abdomen and attaching the end of your colon to the ostomy. A bag connected to the outside of the ostomy then collects the bowel movements. This is not always a permanent condition. For some patients, after some healing of the colon, the two parts can be reconnected and the ostomy closed.
Rectal Cancer Surgery
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What Is Colon Cancer
Cancer that starts in the large intestine is called colon cancer. The large intestine is the last part of your digestive tract.
People usually get colon cancer when they are old. Colon cancer can happen at any age, though, and it starts when there is a small noncancerous clump of cells called polyps. Over time some of these polyps can become colon cancers.
If you get colon cancer, there are many treatments. You can have surgery or radiation therapy. You can also take medicine like chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.
Colon cancer is sometimes called colorectal cancer. This means it is a colon and rectal cancer. It starts in the rectum.
Discussing Symptoms With Your Doctor
Once you describe symptoms to your doctor, they will likely give you a medical exam to ascertain the cause.
The doctor will likely question you about your medical history and ask if any of your family members have colorectal cancer, especially parents, siblings, or children.
While most people who develop colorectal cancer have no family history of the disease, 1 in 5 do.
In rare cases, genetic mutations passed down through families, such as Lynch syndrome, can make a person extremely vulnerable to colorectal cancer.
Your doctor will want to know whether you have any other health conditions, particularly those concerning the colon and rectum, that can increase colorectal cancer risk.
This can include a history of colorectal cancer or precancerous polyps or an inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis.
Theres also an association between type 2 diabetes and colorectal cancer.
Other risk factors include obesity or excess weight, a low level of physical activity, heavy alcohol use, and smoking.
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Causes Of Bowel Cancer
The exact cause of bowel cancer is not known, but there are a number of things that can increase your risk, including:
- age almost 9 in 10 people with bowel cancer are aged 60 or over
- diet a diet high in red or processed meats and low in fibre can increase your risk
- weight bowel cancer is more common in overweight or obese people
- exercise being inactive increases your risk of getting bowel cancer
- alcohol drinking alcohol might increase your risk of getting bowel cancer
- smoking smoking may increase your chances of getting bowel cancer
- family history having a close relative who developed bowel cancer under the age of 50 puts you at a greater lifetime risk of developing the condition screening is offered to people in this situation, and you should discuss this with a GP
Some people also have an increased risk of bowel cancer because they’ve had another condition, such as extensive ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease in the colon for more than 10 years.
Although there are some risks you cannot change, such as your age or family history, there are several ways you can lower your chances of developing the condition.
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Soreness In The Groin
When prostate cancer spreads, its common for cancer cells to go to your lymph nodes and then move to more areas of your body. The lymph nodes are a network of glands that help your body filter fluids and fight infections.
There are several lymph nodes in your groin. These are the ones closest to your prostate, so its common for the cancer to spread to them first. Cancer cells prevent your lymph nodes from draining fluid and working properly. When this happens, your lymph nodes swell. As a result, you might experience pain or soreness in the area.
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Patient Information And Clinical Findings
A 50-year-old male farmer, past heavy smoker , with no known co-morbidities, presented with a 1-year history of gradually enlarging nontender left neck mass, initially approximately 2 × 2 centimetres in size. He also complained of constipation but no abdominal pain, decreased stool calibre, melena or haematochezia. There were no reported lower urinary tract symptoms such as dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, haematuria, straining, hesitancy, urgency, intermittent stream, dribbling or feeling of incomplete bladder emptying. There were also no symptoms pertaining to a thyroid disease. There was no family history of any malignancy.
The left lateral neck mass was progressively enlarging in size which prompted consult at a local hospital where a neck ultrasound was done showing multiple, coalescing complex foci in the left lateral neck area, the largest of which measures 2.8 cm with perilesional uptake on Doppler study. The thyroid gland was normal in size with homogenous parenchymal echogenicity. Thyroid function tests were also normal. A fine needle aspiration biopsy of the neck mass showed atypical epithelial cells.
No masses, nodules, haemorrhoids or tenderness were palpated on initial DRE. There was good sphincter tone. No blood was seen per examining finger.
Symptoms Of Bowel Cancer
The 3 main symptoms of bowel cancer are:
- persistentblood in your poo that happens for no obvious reason or is associated with a change in bowel habit
- a persistent change in your bowel habit which is usually having to poo more and your poo may also become more runny
- persistent lowerabdominal pain, bloating or discomfort that’s always caused by eating and may be associated with loss of appetite or significant unintentional weight loss
Most people with these symptoms do not have bowel cancer. Other health problems can cause similar symptoms. For example:
- blood in the poo when associated with pain or soreness is more often caused by piles
- a change in bowel habit or abdominal pain is usually caused by something you’ve eaten
- a change in bowel habit to going less often, with harder poo, is not usually caused by any serious condition it may be worth trying laxatives before seeing a GP
These symptoms should be taken more seriously as you get older and when they persist despite simple treatments.
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What Is The Difference Between Colon Cancer And Rectal Cancer
The colon and rectum are both part of the large intestine, which is sometimes called the bowel. Cancers of both organs are often grouped together as colorectal cancer.
- The colon is the first five feet of the large intestine. It absorbs water from stool. Surgery is generally simpler for colon cancer, which is in a large area of the body.
What Is The Difference Between Colon Cancer And Prostate Cancer
Colon Cancer vs Prostate Cancer
Colon and prostate cancers are two types of common cancers detected in the elderly individuals. Both cancers are very invasive. These two cancers types are very different from each other, which are discussed below in detail, highlighting the clinical features, symptoms, causes, investigation and diagnosis, prognosis, and the course of treatment of colon and prostate cancers.
Large bowel is medically known as the colon. The colon consists of the caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon. The sigmoid colon is continuous with the rectum. Cancers can manifest themselves at any site, but lower colon and rectum are more frequently affected compared to the upper colon. Colon cancers present with bleeding via rectum, feeling of incomplete evacuation, alternative constipation and diarrhea. There may be associated systemic features such as lethargy, wasting, loss of appetite, and loss of weight.
There are many risk factors for colon cancers. Inflammatory bowel diseases lead to cancer due to a high rate of cell division and repair. Genetics play a key role in carcinogenesis because with rapid cell division the chance of cancer gene activation is high. First degree relatives with colon cancers suggest a significantly higher chance of getting colon cancers. There are genes called proto-oncogenes, which result in malignancies if a genetic abnormality transforms them into oncogenes.
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What Is Screening For Prostate Cancer
Some men get a PSA test to screen for prostate cancer. Talk to your doctor, learn what is involved, and decide if a PSA test is right for you.
Cancer screening means looking for cancer before it causes symptoms. The goal of screening for prostate cancer is to find cancers that may be at high risk for spreading if not treated, and to find them early before they spread.
If you are thinking about being screened, learn about the possible benefits and harms of screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and talk to your doctor about your personal risk factors.
There is no standard test to screen for prostate cancer. Two tests that are commonly used to screen for prostate cancer are described below.
Tips To Reduce Risk Of Cancer
It is advisable for people to attend regular cancer screenings following their doctors guidance, particularly those at higher risk. Early detection can improve cancer treatment outcomes.
Additionally, making changes to the manageable risk factors for cancer may help reduce cancer risk in some people. These typically involve changes to the diet and lifestyle, such as:
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Treatment For Bowel Cancer
Bowel cancer can be treated using a combination of different treatments, depending on where the cancer is in your bowel and how far it has spread.
The main treatments are:
- surgery the cancerous section of bowel is removed its the most effective way of curing bowel cancer and in many cases is all you need
- chemotherapy where medicine is used to kill cancer cells
- radiotherapy where radiation is used to kill cancer cells
- targeted therapies a newer group of medicines that increases the effectiveness of chemotherapy and prevents the cancer spreading
As with most types of cancer, the chance of a complete cure depends on how far its spread by the time its diagnosed. If the cancer is confined to the bowel, surgery is usually able to completely remove it.
Keyhole or robotic surgery is being used more often, which allows surgery to be performed with less pain and a quicker recovery.
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Is There A Connection Between Colon Cancer And Prostate Cancer
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Talking With Your Doctor
Different kinds of doctors and other health care professionals manage prostate health. They can help you find the best care, answer your questions, and address your concerns. These health care professionals include:
- Family doctors and internists
- Physician assistants and nurse practitioners
- Urologists, who are experts in diseases of the urinary tract system and the male reproductive system
- Urologic oncologists, who are experts in treating cancers of the urinary system and the male reproductive system
- Radiation oncologists, who use radiation therapy to treat cancer
- Medical oncologists, who treat cancer with medications such as hormone treatments and chemotherapy
- Pathologists, who identify diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope
View these professionals as your partnersâexpert advisors and helpers in your health care. Talking openly with your doctors can help you learn more about your prostate changes and the tests to expect.
Differentiating Diverticulitis And Colon Cancer Treatment
There are various treatments for colon cancer. Sometimes, doctors from various disciplines come together to treat a patient who is suffering from colon cancer. Below you will find a list of the most common treatment methods.
- Laparoscopic surgery viewing scopes are used to guide passage through the abdomen and into the colon where cancer can be removed.
- Radiofrequency ablation surgery that heats tumors for removal when the cancer has spread to liver or lungs.
- Radiation therapy radiation beam directed to the location of cancer
- Brachytherapy radioactive seeds placed inside the body
- Chemotherapy drugs that destroy cancer cells
- Targeted therapy targets specific genes, tissue, or proteins that contribute to cancer growth and survival
Medical treatments for diverticulitis include antibiotics to treat infection, liquid diet to allow bowels to heal, and over-the-counter pain relievers. In complicated cases of diverticulitis, surgery may be required, such as primary bowel resection, where the affected part of the intestine is removed and the rest of it is reconnected. Another option is bowel resection with colostomy if it is impossible to reconnect the colon to the rectum due to inflammation.
There are also some preventative measures you can try to lower your risk of developing diverticulitis.
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What Is The Difference Between A Prostate Exam And Colonoscopy
Because the prostate is located next to the rectum, we can feel it by pressing on the back wall of the rectum. In a colonoscopy, we use a tiny camera with a light on the end to examine the walls of the colon. The colon is six feet long, so a colonoscopy goes much further than a prostate examination.