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Prostate Cancer Questions And Answers

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What If I’m Under 50

Is Prostate Cancer Fatal? | Ask A Prostate Expert, Mark Scholz, MD

Prostate cancer isn’t common in men under 50. If youre under 50 and dont have any symptoms, your GP doesnt have to give you a PSA test. But you may still want to talk to your GP about having a test if youre over 45 and youre at higher risk for example if you have a family history of prostate cancer or youre Black.

Weve been working with health professionals across the UK to develop agreement about when men should be able to have a PSA test, if they want one. Read more about this work.

To be updated March 2018

This involves having a single PSA blood test while your risk of getting prostate cancer is still low for example in your 40s. The aim of a baseline test is not to help diagnose prostate cancer, but to help work out your risk of getting prostate cancer in the future.

There is some research suggesting that your PSA level in your 40s could be used to predict how likely you are to get prostate cancer, or fast-growing prostate cancer, later in life. If the test suggests youre at higher risk, you and your doctor may decide to do regular PSA tests in the future. This might be a good way to spot any changes in your PSA level that might suggest prostate cancer.

However, we dont yet know exactly what PSA level in your 40s would show an increased risk of prostate cancer, or how often you should have more tests. Because of this, baseline testing isnt very common in the UK.

For more information about baseline testing, speak to your GP.

To be updated March 2018

Can Prostate Cancer Be Prevented If So How

There is little that can be done to change your risk. Prostate cancer is not as related to lifestyle or habits as other diseases. For example, when we think of smoking, we often associate it with lung cancer. Prostate cancer is not as strongly associated with habits like this. It is more common in older men and those with a family history, both of which cannot be changed. There is little in terms of lifestyle, aside from healthy diet and exercise that can help reduce the risk. The main drivers of risk are age, race and family history.

Is Prostate Cancer Genetic

Both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. A family history of prostate cancer is the strongest risk factor for this disease.

Inherited genetic variations cause 5-10% of all diagnosed prostate cancer variations in genes related to immune function and androgen play essential roles in prostate cancer development.

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Prostaatkanker Vrae En Antwoorde

In ooreenstemming met sy missie, wend die Redaksie van MedTvoiLokony alles aan om betroubare mediese inhoud te verskaf wat deur die nuutste wetenskaplike kennis ondersteun word. Die bykomende vlag “Gekontroleerde inhoud” dui aan dat die artikel deur ‘n dokter hersien is of direk deur ‘n dokter geskryf is. Hierdie twee-stap verifikasie: ‘n mediese joernalis en ‘n dokter stel ons in staat om die hoogste gehalte inhoud te verskaf in ooreenstemming met huidige mediese kennis.

Ons verbintenis op hierdie gebied is waardeer, onder andere, deur die Vereniging van Joernaliste vir Gesondheid, wat die Redaksie van MedTvoiLokony met die eretitel van die Groot Opvoeder toegeken het.

Bewese inhoud

Vind antwoorde op gereelde vrae oor prostaatkanker.

Die besluit oor hoe om … prostaatkanker te behandel hang van baie faktore af. Ideaal gesproke moet dit deur ‘n multidissiplinêre span dokters onderneem word: uroloog, kliniese onkoloog en radioterapeut onkoloog. Die belangrikste ding is die aanvanklike stadium van die siekte dit is belangrik of die gewas slegs tot die prostaatklier beperk is of verder as die prostaat strek, en laastens of daar metastase na ander organe of weefsels was. Die dokter neem die beginkonsentrasie van die sogenaamde Prostaat-spesifieke antigeen in ag.

Soos met enige behandelingsmetode, het bestralingsterapie ook sy eie newe-effekte, die sogenaamde bestralingsreaksies. Hulle beïnvloed gewoonlik die urienweg , die einde van die spysverteringskanaal of die vel .

What Is Prostate Cancer

100 Questions and Answers About Prostate Cancer By Ellsworth  Prithvi ...

As with many malignancies, prostate cancer develops when cells in the gland mutate and start growing uncontrollably. The mutated cells may eventually form a tumor or tumors.

Caught early, prostate cancer is highly treatable. The five-year survival rate for patients whose cancer was localized is nearly 100 percent. But the rate falls dramatically when the cancer has spread beyond the prostate to distant organs.

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What Is My Chance Of Surviving Prostate Cancer

While being screened for prostate cancer may sound scary, for the vast majority of men who contract the disease, the majority will survive it. In fact, the 5-year survival rate for most men with local or regional prostate cancer is nearly 100%. Ninety-eight percent are alive after 10 years. For men diagnosed with prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, the 5-year survival rate is 30%.

Get screened not only can it save your life but give you peace of mind in leading a healthy, quality life.

Causes And Risk Factors

What causes prostate cancer?

Changes in the DNA of a normal prostate cell may result in prostate cancer, though researchers aren’t sure what initiates the change.

However, you can inherit DNA changes or mutations from your parents, or you may acquire them. In other words, you may inherit prostate cancer or develop it in the course of your life.

Are some men more likely to develop prostate cancer compared to others?

Some men are more likely to develop prostate cancer compared to others based on a variety of factors:

  • About6 out of 10 men diagnosed with prostate cancer are over the age of 65. As you grow older, the chances of prostate cancer also increase.

  • Black men are more likely to develop the disease and twice more likely to die from it¹.

  • 57% of all prostate cancer patients¹¹ develop it due to genetic factors. If your parents, or their parents, have a history of prostate cancer, you’re more likely to have it.

  • If you’re obese, you have a higher risk of prostate cancer than those with a healthier weight, though studies have mixed results. Also, prostate cancer is likely to be more aggressive in obese people.

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Does An Abnormal Psa Test Mean That I Have Cancer

No, not necessarily. Because there are new screening tests available today, the PSA test may be just the first screening your doctor recommends. Either way, only a prostate biopsy can confirm a prostate cancer diagnosis.A prostates size could also contribute to a high PSA score. If your doctor suspects you may have a large prostate, he or she may recommend an ultrasound to better gauge its size. For men with a larger prostate, your doctor can calculate PSA density, which is a more accurate way to assess prostate cancer risk.Read more about prostate cancer screening guidelines and ask your doctor about whether new screening tests might benefit you.

Prostate Cancer: Common Questions Answered

How Radiation Affects The Prostate | Mark Scholz, MD

Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in American men, affecting 10 percent of all men during their lifetime. And yet, many screening and treatment questions dont always have straightforward answers.

Recently, Fox Chase Cancer Center oncologists Andres Correa, MD Eric Horwitz, MD, FABS, FASTRO and Matthew Zibelman, MD sat down with 6abc Action News for a to answer questions about prostate cancer. Heres a look at some of the topics they discussed:

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Questions To Ask Your Specialist

A prostate cancer diagnosis can leave you anxious and confused, likely with more questions than answers. Being prepared with questions and thoughts can help guide conversations with your specialist or doctor, help you make informed decisions about what to do next, and choose the best pathway for you.

Weve listed some of the most commonly asked questions below, which you will find in more detail in the Questions To Ask Your Specialist booklet which you can download and print. Just click on the image.

Here are our key questions to ask your specialist:

  • Do I have prostate cancer and is it treatable?
  • What is the best treatment option for me?
  • What are the chances the treatment will work?
  • How long will my treatment take?
  • Are there any side effects to this treatment?
  • What should I do to prepare for treatment?
  • What happens following treatment?
  • At any point in time, who is my day-to-day contact?
  • Where can I get support and information?
  • What happens if my cancer comes back?
  • Questions To Ask About Choosing A Treatment And Managing Side Effects

    • How much experience do you have treating this type of cancer?

    • What are my treatment options?

    • What clinical trials are available for me? Where are they located, and how do I find out more about them?

    • Does this prostate cancer need to be treated? What would happen if I choose not to start treatment now?

    • What treatment plan do you recommend? Why?

    • What is the goal of each treatment? Is it to eliminate the cancer, help me feel better, or both?

    • What are the possible side effects of each treatment, both in the short term and the long term?

    • How will treatment affect my emotional well-being?

    • Who will be part of my health care team, and what does each member do?

    • Who will be leading my overall treatment?

    • How will this treatment affect my daily life? Will I be able to work, exercise, and perform my usual activities?

    • Will I have difficulty controlling my bladder or bowel function after treatment?

    • Could this treatment affect my sex life? If so, how and for how long?

    • Could this treatment affect my ability to have children? If so, should I talk with a fertility specialist before cancer treatment begins? Should I consider sperm banking?

    • If Im worried about managing the costs of cancer care, who can help me?

    • What support services are available to me? To my family?

    • If I have questions or problems, who should I call?

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    How Is Prostate Cancer Detected

    Physicians mainly use PSA blood tests to screen for prostate cancer. PSA levels are higher when something abnormal is happening in the prostate, but its important to know that having a high PSA level is not always linked to cancer. If your urologist is concerned about prostate cancer, they may order an MRI and/or a biopsy.

    An Asco Reading Room Selection

    20 Questions and Answers about Metastatic Castration

    This Reading Room is a collaboration between MedPage Today® and:

    Although most men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer die of prostate cancer , there remains significant outcome variability, with approximately 18.5% living 10 years or longer. Prognosis and management are determined in part by disease extent detected on conventional imaging . With the advent of multiple new life-prolonging therapies, clinicians can better personalize therapy on the basis of these findings. However, the availability of new imaging modalities with varying performance characteristics has added more variables that affect clinical decision making.

    Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen -positron emission tomography is a more sensitive imaging tool compared with CIM, detecting previously CIM-invisible disease . Several trials demonstrated that PSMA-PET imaging resulted in management changes however, all available clinical trial data guiding the treatment of patients with mHSPC are CIM-based.

    Integrating PSMA-PET into clinical practice without prospective evidence derived from clinical trials poses significant challenges. In this Comments and Controversy paper, we detail what is known and what remains to be determined for optimal implementation of PSMA-PET imaging and provide opinions generated by an international, multidisciplinary group of PCa experts to help guide decision making until further data are available.

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    Prostate Cancer Questions Get The Answers Here

    September is Prostate Cancer Awareness Month and Dr. Suchit H. Patel, M.D., Ph.D., radiation oncologist, Mary Bird Perkins Our Lady of the Lake Cancer Center, recently provided answers to some of the most asked questions he receives from men when it comes to prostate cancer early detection and treatment.

    Prostate Questions Every Man Should Be Able To Answer


    Since prostates are generally not considered a polite dinner-party topic, chances are nobodys regularly asking after the health of yours. Thats why the AMITA Health Cancer Institute recommends that all men ask themselves four simple questions during this time of year. Not every guy is a candidate for a prostate cancer screening, but every guy should know how to answer each of these questions:

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    Who Is At Risk For Prostate Cancer

    An important risk factor is age more than 70 percent of men diagnosed with this disease are over the age of 65. African American men have a substantially higher risk of prostate cancer than white men, including Hispanic men. Dramatic differences in the incidence of prostate cancer are also seen in different populations around the world. There is some evidence that dietary factors are involved, such as vitamin E and selenium, which may have a protective effect. Genetic factors also appear to play a role, particularly for families in which the diagnosis is made in men under age 60. The risk of prostate cancer rises with the number of close relatives who have the disease.

    When Should I Start Testing For Prostate Cancer

    Treating High-Risk Gleason 8: A Modern Approach | Mark Scholz, MD | PCRI

    The best place to start when wanting to learn more information about PSA testing is to discuss the matter with your doctor. There is much debate as to what age to start PSA screenings. It is strongly advisable to begin with a baseline PSA screening around age 40. Men can and do develop prostate cancer younger than the age of 50 and when they do, it can be more aggressive and difficult to treat. Ask your healthcare provider about the benefits and risks of PSA screening and also be aware of risk factors that can increase your risk for developing prostate cancer, including:

    Currently, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation on screening for prostate cancer is as follows: Based on a review of the evidence, the Task Force recommends that men aged 55 to 69 years decide individually whether to be screened after they have received detailed information on the potential benefits or harms. Regarding the men 70 years and older, the potential benefits may not be bigger than the expected harms. Thus, these men should not be routinely screened for prostate cancer.

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    What Prostate Cancer Treatment Options Are Available To Me

    There are many factors that will determine which prostate cancer treatment option is right for you. In some instances, your urologist or radiation oncologist may choose to observe your prostate cancer before starting any treatment plan. Radiation, cryotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and surgery could all be potential options for treatment moving forward. Your urologist or radiation oncologist will discuss your options and take in your full medical history before selecting the best plan for you.

    How Does Hormone Therapy Work

    Hormone therapy may include drugs that prevent the testicles or other glands from producing hormones, or it may be given in combination with an orchiectomy, the surgical removal of one or testicles designed to reduce the amount of testosterone being produced.

    Possible side effects of hormone therapy include:

    • Loss of sex drive

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    What Are The 4 Stages Of Prostate Cancer

    Doctors use a well-defined staging system to describe the size of the tumor, its location, and if or where it has spread. The stage of prostate cancer is divided into four main groups, assigned by combining the TNM system , Gleason groups, and PSA levels.

    The stages include:

    • Stage I early-stage and slow-growing
    • Stage II a localized tumor with a risk of growing and spreading
    • Stage III locally advanced cancer with increased risk of spreading to distant organs
    • Stage IV advanced metastatic disease

    You can find more information on these stages and their sub-groups at . Additional information on stage-specific treatment options is described in .

    What Other Prostate Conditions Can Cause Symptoms Like These

    Prostate Cancer

    As men get older, their prostate may grow bigger and block the flow of urine or interfere with sexual function. This common condition, called benign prostatic hyperplasia, is not cancer, but can cause many of the same symptoms as prostate cancer. Although BPH may not be a threat to life, it may require treatment with medicine or surgery to relieve symptoms. An infection or inflammation of the prostate, called prostatitis, may also cause many of the same symptoms as prostate cancer. Again, it is important to check with a doctor.

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    When Deciding On A Treatment Plan

    • How likely is my cancer to cause problems if Im not treated right away?
    • Should I consider watchful waiting or active surveillance as an option? Why or why not?
    • Do you recommend a radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy? Why or why not?
    • Is laparoscopic or robot-assisted prostatectomy an option for me?
    • What types of radiation therapy might work best for me?
    • What other treatment might be right for me? Why?
    • Am I eligible for any clinical trials?
    • What risks or side effects should I expect from my treatment options?
    • What are the chances that I will have problems with incontinence or impotence?
    • What are the chances that I will have other urinary or rectal problems?
    • If these side effects happen, are they treatable?
    • How quickly do I need to decide on treatment?
    • What should I do to be ready for treatment?
    • How long will treatment last? What will it be like? Where will it be done?
    • How might treatment affect my daily activities?
    • What are the chances my cancer will come back with the treatment plans wehave discussed? What would be our next step if this happened?

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