Monday, January 30, 2023

Prostate Cancer Spread To Rib Cage

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Should I Make Any Lifestyle Changes Including In My Diet Or Physical Activity

Advanced prostate cancer: Bones at risk!

Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight by eating a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and staying physically active, can help your overall health. These lifestyle changes can also have a positive effect for men with bone metastases, Tagawa says. Both diet and exercise, he says, are things that are under a mans direct control.

A healthy lifestyle can help you better manage side effects from treatment as well. Try setting small but realistic goals for yourself when it comes to eating a healthy diet and getting plenty of exercise.

While no single food is likely to have a benefit for prostate cancer, smart food choices may help you feel better day to day. Start by cutting out foods high in sugar, saturated fat, and added flavorings and preservatives.

If youre not sure which healthy foods to choose, ask your doctor for a referral to a dietitian. This specialist can help you develop a meal plan that includes foods that offer the best chance of slowing the cancers growth and keeping you as healthy as possible.

As an oncologist, Tagawa says he concentrates on treating the cancer itself, but hes aware that many of the men he sees with advanced prostate cancer are older and more likely than younger men to have health problems that can benefit from diet and exercise.

And if youre on hormone therapy, talk to your doctor about investing in some weights or elastic resistance bands to support your bone strength too.

What Are The Symptoms Of Bone Metastases

If your breast cancer spreads to the bones, you may experience some of the symptoms described below. Symptoms may vary depending on the location and size of the cancerous deposit. Sometimes bone metastases dont cause any symptoms at all and they are picked up on a routine scan. It is also possible for some metastases and not others to be bothersome. Symptoms may develop over weeks or months. Its very important for you to tell your doctors and nurses about any new symptoms or any change in symptoms.

Prostate Cancer Can Cause Pain In Many Areas And Not Just Because Of Bone Spread But Also Due To Other Features Of The Disease

It can feel different ways depending on the nature of the cause.

Curable early stage prostate cancer usually does not cause pain, says Sean Cavanaugh, MD, a radiation oncologist with GenesisCare, a premier provider of cancer and urology care.

That is the most important message do not use pain as a primary screening mechanism for prostate cancer.

Most pain associated with prostate cancer is from bone metastases in stage IV disease.

For example, men with bone metastases to their spine may have pain in their back.

Prostate cancer can spread to the ribs , pelvis and femur .

Prostate cancer metastases to the spine, pelvis and femur.Wan-Hsiu Liao, Sheng-Hsiang Lin and Tsu-Tuan Wu, CC BY-SA 2.0/creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/Wikimedia Commons

Even shoulder and arm pain are possible when a metastatic tumor is pressing against the spine.

Bone metastases occur in approximately 80% of patients with advanced prostate cancer, says the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

When prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it almost always goes first to the bones.

Bone pain from prostate cancer can feel like a dull ache or feel like a toothache in the bones, or you may feel a sharper sensation.

Can worsen with movement

May come and go or be constant

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Can I Survive Advanced Prostate Cancer Whats The Prognosis

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in men, according to the National Cancer Institute. While theres no cure, men can live with it for years if they get the right treatment. Each man with advanced prostate cancer is different, of course. You and your cancer have unique qualities that your doctor takes into consideration when planning the best treatment strategy for you.

According to Harvard Medical School, the prognosis for men with advanced prostate cancer is improving because of newer medications that help them get past a resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy that typically develops after a few years of treatment. With these medications, many men are living longer, and a number of men diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer are dying with the cancer, not from it.

Promptly treating prostate cancer bone metastases with the newest medication can help change a mans prognosis dramatically, Tagawa says. There are men who do well for decades, he says. Some men can even stop treatment, go on to live many years, and actually die of something unrelated.

Tagawa says that cancer specialists who use sophisticated imaging technologies, like positron-emission tomography scans, have gotten very good at finding even tiny bone metastases, which is valuable in diagnosing and removing early stage metastases.

The Role Of Inflammation

Metastatic prostate cancer, PET scans

Acute inflammation is a biological response triggered by harmful stimuli such as infection, trauma, and tissue injury to eliminate the source of damage . The tumor microenvironment is unequivocally linked with inflammation, whether the infiltration of immune cells engages with tumor cells causing inflammation or chronic inflammation promotes the malignant transformation of cells and carcinogenesis .

In an experiment performed by Morrissey et al., it was found that IL-6 was highly expressed in prostate cancer bone metastases. PC-3 cells inhibited osteoblast activity and induced osteoblast to produce IL-6 that promoted osteoclastogenesis . In addition, a recent study by Roca et al. observed that macrophage-driven efferocytosis induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 by activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells signaling. CXCL5-deficient mice had reduced tumor progression. These findings suggested that the myeloid phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cancer cells accelerated CXCL5-mediated inflammation and tumor growth in bone . In summary, findings from available evidence suggest the alleviation of chronic inflammation as a potential therapeutic approach for prostate cancer bone metastases.

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Is There A Connection Between Osteoporosis And Bone Cancer

Yes. While osteoporosis isnt a precursor for bone cancer, many people with bone cancer develop osteoporosis as a result.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Bone cancer is rare. Being diagnosed with the condition can bring fear, frustration and uncertainty. When detected and treated early, bone cancer can be treated successfully. Talk to your healthcare provider about your treatment options. You may also want to consider joining a support group. Talking with people who are going through the same thing can be beneficial for your mental, emotional and spiritual health.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 11/08/2021.

References

What Are The Side Effects Of Hormone Therapy For Prostate Cancer

Testosterone is the primary male hormone and plays an important role in establishing and maintaining the male sex characteristics, such as body hair, muscle mass, sexual desire, and erectile function. Most men who are on hormone therapy experience at least some effects related to the loss of testosterone, but the degree to which you will be affected by any one drug regimen is impossible to predict. Side effects from testosterone-lowering therapies include hot flashes, breast enlargement or tenderness, loss of bone mineral density and fractures, increased weight gain , higher cholesterol, a higher risk of diabetes, and a slightly higher risk of heart problems like heart attacks and chest pains. Some men complain of mood problems and depression during this time as well. Dont be afraid to discuss these issues with your doctors. For all of these reasons, maintaining a healthy overall lifestyle is vital to doing well with hormonal therapies over time.

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Prostate Cancer Presenting With Parietal Bone Metastasis

Brahima Kirakoya

Abstract

Bone metastases from prostate cancer are very common. They are usually located on the axial skeleton. However, cranial bone metastases especially to the parietal bone are rare. We report a case of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with left parietal bone metastasis in a patient with no urological symptoms or signs. We should consider prostate cancer in any man above 60 years presenting unusual bone lesions.

1. Introduction

Prostate cancer is known to have high metastatic potential especially to the bone. Bone metastases are common and are osteoblastic in more than 95% . They represent nearly 40% of secondary locations at diagnosis in Burkina Faso . Metastases to the skull are rare and account for only 2% of secondary locations as reported in an autopsy series . The base of the skull is the most affected. Clinical presentation depends on the location of the metastatic lesion and cranial nerve involved . We report a case of occult prostate cancer presenting with skull metastatic.

2. Case Report

3. Discussion

4. Conclusion

Patient with prostate cancer, even in advanced stage, may have no urological symptom or sign. Metastatic cranial lesion especially to the parietal bone from prostate cancer is rare. Only high index of suspicion based on age, sex, PSA, and radiological evidence of osteoblastic lesions on CT scan may suggest prostate cancer as the primary site.

Conflicts of Interest

Remission And The Chance Of Recurrence

What are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?

A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having no evidence of disease or NED.

A remission can be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. Although there are treatments to help prevent a recurrence, such as hormonal therapy and radiation therapy, it is important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. There are tools your doctor can use, called nomograms, to estimate someones risk of recurrence. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.

In general, following surgery or radiation therapy, the PSA level in the blood usually drops. If the PSA level starts to rise again, it may be a sign that the cancer has come back. If the cancer returns after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer.

When this occurs, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence, including where the recurrence is located. The cancer may come back in the prostate , in the tissues or lymph nodes near the prostate , or in another part of the body, such as the bones, lungs, or liver . Sometimes the doctor cannot find a tumor even though the PSA level has increased. This is known as a PSA-only or biochemical recurrence.

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Where Does Prostate Cancer Spread

The most common place for prostate cancer to spread to is the bones. It can also spread to the lymph nodes, liver and lungs and other organs.

A large tumour in the prostate gland can spread into or press on areas around the prostate, such as the back passage or urethra. The urethra is the tube which carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.

What Are Bone Metastases With Prostate Cancer

The ACS describes bone metastases as areas of bone containing cancer cells that have spread from another place in the body. In the case of prostate cancer, the cells have spread beyond the prostate gland. Since the cancer cells originated in the prostate gland, the cancer is referred to as metastatic prostate cancer.

The cancer cells spread to the bones by breaking away from the prostate gland and escaping attack from your immune system as they travel to your bones.

These cancer cells then grow new tumors in your bones. Cancer can spread to any bone in the body, but the spine is most often affected. Other areas cancer cells commonly travel to, according to the ACS, include the pelvis, upper legs and arms, and the ribs.

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Other Locations Of Pain From Prostate Cancer

Pain during urination

Leg and foot pain from swelling/edema

Shooting, burning or stabbing pain can occur in the lower extremities if a metastasis is pressing against a nerve.

Lower abdominal pain or soreness can occur if a tumor is causing pressure on the organs that surround the prostate.

If youve been having any of the following symptoms, many benign conditions can explain them. But so can prostate cancer. Better safe than sorry.

Get yourself checked out if youve been experiencing any of the following:

Urination discomfort of any sort

Any difficulty with urination

Increased urges to urinate overnight

Loss of bladder control

Reduced flow of urine stream

Appearance of blood in the urine

Numbness in the lower extremities

Unexplained fatigue or weight loss

WARNING: Many of the aforementioned symptoms are signs of advanced disease.

The time to get checked is at the first sign of symptoms, even if they seem trite such as reduced urine stream or having more urges to urinate overnight.

Furthermore, annual PSA tests are highly recommended beginning at age 50 for men at average risk of prostate cancer.

For more information on prostate cancer screening, call Cancer Center Treatments of America at 993-3381.
Lorra Garrick has been covering medical, fitness and cybersecurity topics for many years, having written thousands of articles for print magazines and websites, including as a ghostwriter. Shes also a former ACE-certified personal trainer.
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General Prostate Cancer Survival Rate

Prostate Cancer ADVANCED 007

According to the American Cancer Society:

  • The relative 5-year survival rate is nearly 100%
  • The relative 10-year survival rate is 98%
  • The 15-year relative survival rate is 91%

Note: Relative survival rate means the percentage of patients who live amount of years after their initial diagnosis.

Keep in mind, however, that because the compiled list figures are of cancers diagnosed up to 15 years ago, you may have an even greater chance of survival than these indicate due to advances in prostate cancer treatment technology

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Understanding Prostate Cancers Progression

To determine the appropriate treatment, doctors need to know how far the cancer has progressed, or its stage. A pathologist, the doctor trained in analyzing cells taken during a prostate biopsy, will provide two starting pointsthe cancers grade and Gleason score.

  • Cancer grade: When the pathologist looks at prostate cancer cells, the most common type of cells will get a grade of 3 to 5. The area of cancer cells in the prostate will also be graded. The higher the grade, the more abnormal the cells.
  • Gleason score: The two grades will be added together to get a Gleason score. This score tells doctors how likely the cancer is to grow and spread.

After a biopsy confirms prostate cancer, the patient may undergo additional tests to see whether it has spread through the blood or lymph nodes to other parts of the body. These tests are usually imaging studies and may include a bone scan, positron emission tomography scan or computed tomography scan.

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Longterm Remission Of Prostate Cancer With Extensive Bone Metastases Upon Immuno And Virotherapy: A Case Report

  • Affiliations: Immunological and Oncological Center, Cologne, Germany
  • Pages: 2403-2406
  • This article is mentioned in:

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignant tumorin males . Conventionaltreatment, including surgery and radiotherapy, has potentialsecondary effects, such as impotence or incontinence, that cangreatly impair quality of life. By contrast, specific immunotherapyhas no severe side-effects, as it affects only the malignant cellsand spares the healthy tissue. Dendritic cell vaccination isan important immunotherapeutic strategy. Oncolytic virotherapy andhyperthermia can have synergistic functions with immunotherapy.

    The approval of the first therapeutic anticancervaccine, sipuleucel-T, by the Food and Drug Administration for thetreatment of metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer in April2010 has enforced a new era of immunotherapy . In a phase III trial, followingvaccination with activated autologous DC, a prolonged overallsurvival time was demonstrated in patients suffering fromcastration-resistant prostate cancer . In addition, a number of other clinicaltrials have reported the clinical benefit of DC vaccination.

    Case report

    Case history
    Immunotherapy
    Outcome and follow-up

    Discussion

    Abbreviations:

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    Toward Individualized Care For Patients With Bone Pain

    The current results are based on a small number of patients and will need to be confirmed in a larger group treated at multiple different cancer centers, said Dr. Lutz.

    A larger clinical trial is planned to evaluate the higher, single-dose approach in more patients. The findings could help clinicians treat patients with the most appropriate radiation therapy regimens for their bone metastases, Dr. Nguyen said.

    She stressed that patients with metastatic cancer vary in their overall health, how long they are expected to survive, and the extent of bone metastases.

    Some patients will have a single bone metastasis, whereas others have three metastases or many, she said. We should individualize our care for these patients.

    For instance, for a person with a life expectancy of less than a month, its reasonable to give them a single low dose of radiation for pain, Dr. Nguyen continued.

    But for those who are functioning well and whose life expectancy is relatively long, it makes sense to give them a single higher dose of radiation to alleviate pain over the long term, she added.

    What Happens When Prostate Cancer Is Left Untreated

    Stories of Advanced Prostate Cancer Survivors | Ask a Prostate Expert, Mark Scholz, MD

    Doru Paul, MD, is triple board-certified in medical oncology, hematology, and internal medicine. He is an associate professor of clinical medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College and attending physician in the Department of Hematology and Oncology at the New York Presbyterian Weill Cornell Medical Center.

    While most men undergo some form of treatment for their prostate cancer, some men today choose to not be treated for their prostate cancer. Instead, they may choose to have their healthcare providers monitor their cancer.

    Known as active surveillance, it is common when the cancer is expected to grow slowly based on biopsy results, confined to the prostate, not causing any symptoms, and/or small. In active surveillance, healthcare providers will initiate cancer treatment only if cancer starts growing.

    Others men may choose to not undergo cancer treatment because of a short life expectancy or other serious medical problems. They may feel that the risks or side effects of cancer treatment outweigh their potential benefits.

    This option is certainly OK and reasonable in the right circumstancesrequiring a careful and thoughtful discussion with your healthcare provider and family.

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