Characteristics Of Included Studies
The data extracted from the seven studies are detailed . The publication years ranged from 2003 to 2018 with 5 studies having been conducted in the USA. One of the studies was a multicenter study that involved multinationals . The study with the highest female participants was conducted in Spain . Webb et al. recruited the lowest sample size, 14 women . A total of 5634 women were involved in the 7 studies. Two studies were solely conducted in women, three included other diseases, and two did not disclose study duration.
Pain Or Burning Sensation When Urinating
Painful urination is also known as dysuria. This symptom tends to be more common in older men than in younger men. Dysuria is characterized by feelings of discomfort, pain, and/or burning when urinating. Dysuria may also be a sign of other medical conditions, including a urinary tract infection or sexually transmitted infection, which is why its important to see your doctor for a proper diagnosis.
Not Everyone With Prostate Cancer Needs Treatment
A 2013 Harvard study found that about 70% of prostate cancers are low risk, meaning the tumor is so small and growing so slowly it will never become life-threatening. In that case, the study found that these men are often better off choosing “active surveillance,” meaning that they postpone treatment indefinitely while their health care team closely monitors their case.
“In my personal opinion, whenever possible choose watch and wait, since treatment can cause significant side effects such as impotence and leaking urine,” advises Wexler. Patients with early stage prostate cancer who opt for this approach aren’t any more likely to die from the disease compared to those who immediately go for surgery and/or radiation, according to a study published last fall in the New England Journal of Medicine.
If your guy has prostate cancer and chooses active surveillance, he should expect to see his doctor often to get his PSA level tested. If it rises sharply, he’ll need a biopsy, which gives you a Gleason score, an indication of how suspicious the cells look. A Gleason score above 6 often means it’s time for treatment, says Wexler.
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What Are The Signs Of Prostate Cancer In Women
The signs of prostate cancer in women include:
- Painful urination
- Blood in the urine or passing from the urethra
- Pressure behind the pubic bone
- Frequent urination
- Pain during sex
- Difficulty urinating
Besides cancer, there are other conditions related to the Skene glands that your doctor will consider in making a diagnosis. They include:
Symptoms Of Female Prostate Cancer
Aside from a spike in PSA levels, there are other symptoms of prostate cancer in women to look out for. As expected, they mimic the signs of male prostate cancer, such as pressure on the bladder, a frequent need to urinate, and painful urination. Soreness in the lower pelvis, itching around the vaginal opening and urethra, painful sex, and disrupted menstrual cycles are all indicators of prostate cancer in women. Because of how rarely it occurs, patients who develop cancer in the female prostate gland are often misdiagnosed.
Technically, you cannot develop prostate cancer without an actual prostate. However, the Skene glands have been known to foster cancerous growths, adversely affecting your reproductive system, urethra, and bladder.
Problems with the Skene glands also go undetected when the symptoms of female prostate cancer fall in line with other reproductive diseases. This includes uterine or ovarian cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome , which are far more common. They all cause irregular periods, abdominal aches, sluggish metabolism along with weight gain, pressure behind the pubic bone, and painful sex.
Furthermore, the Skene glands have a tendency to grow cysts, which may be benign or cancerous. Theyre manually detectable with your fingers and will probably feel like lumps around your vagina or urethra.
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Two Reasons Women Should Get Tested For The Prostate Cancer Gene
While its true that women cant develop prostate cancer, they can still carry the gene. And learning whether you have the gene matters.
Dr. Caroline Peterson, OB-GYN and Director of Cancer Screening and Prevention for Kettering Health, says it matters for two reasons:
A woman can pass a gene for prostate cancer to a son and not realize it, says Dr. Peterson. You can carry a gene and pass a gene for a cancer that you may not get, but you can still pass it to children.
Less Common Or Newer Treatments
Some less common or newer treatments still being studied for prostate cancer include:
- Cryosurgery. This treatment freezes the prostate gland to kill the cancer.
- High-intensity focused ultrasound . This treatment uses sound waves to destroy prostate tissue.
- MRI-guided focal laser ablation. This treatment uses heat from a laser to destroy prostate tissue.
Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series
We are proud to announce a new podcast series geared toward helping give support, hope and guidance to prostate cancer caregivers. The goal of this Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series is to help others connect with a diverse group of people who have felt the impact of prostate cancer in their lives and empower them on their journey.
Prostate Cancer: A Guide For Aging Men
Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in the world, despite it only being diagnosed in males . In fact, more than 70 percent of men over the age of 80 have some quantity of cancer cells in their prostate.
Its so common that it sometimes doesnt go diagnosed until autopsies are performed, though that doesnt mean the cancer is the cause of death. On the contrary, the overall prognosis for men diagnosed with prostate cancer is as positive as you can get when talking about the dreaded c word. The five-year survival rates for the disease are close to 100 percent, especially when talking about prostate cancer that is caught early on in the processbefore it spreads.
The five-year survival rates for the disease are close to 100 percent, especially when talking about prostate cancer that is caught early on in the processbefore it spreads.
Nevertheless, prostate cancer is serious business, and the best way to handle a diagnosis is to be informed. Lets take a look at the frequency at which its diagnosed, how youre tested for it, how it can affect your daily life, and what we can do to try and prevent the disease.
Average Age of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis
Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
- The need to pee often, especially at night
- Trouble starting or stopping a stream of urine
- A weak stream or one that starts and stops
- Leaking pee when you laugh or cough
- Not being able to pee standing up
- Pain or burning when you pee
- Pain or burning when you ejaculate
- Less fluid when you ejaculate
- Blood in your pee or semen
- Pressure or pain in your rectum
- Pain or stiffness in your lower back, hips, pelvis, or thighs
- New trouble getting an erection
These arenât symptoms of the cancer itself. They happen because the cancer growth is blocking your prostate.
Can Women Have Prostate Cancer
Most people are aware that men can develop prostate cancer, but can women have prostate cancer? The answer is, Yes, sort of.
While women dont have a prostate gland, they have what are called the Skene glands . This group of glands and ducts is at the front of the vagina and is similar in some ways to the prostate, including that it contains prostate-specific antigen and PSA phosphatase , two enzymes that doctors use to assess the condition of the prostate in men.
Women can develop cancer in the Skene glands and, given the structures similarity to the prostate, the condition is sometimes referred to as female prostate cancer. Its extremely rare, but it can occur. One older study found that prostate cancer in women accounted for just 0.003% of all genital cancers.
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What Is The Actual Purpose Of Prostate In Female Body
Many experts believe that prostate in female body use to release some kind of fluid. This fluid appears thick, scanty and has whitish color while containing PSA. Note that, female ejaculation is actually not a part of orgasm and frequency of this has be estimated somewhere around 10 to 54 percent.
During few recent years, medical professionals have taken help from MRIs to detect the presence as well as functionality of female prostate. However, the research should be continued ahead to make ideas more clear but the basic understanding have obtained a boost with this initiative. You might be aware of the fact that prostate gland in males use to store infections inside body. Several studies around the world reveal that Skenes glands also serve the similar kind of function.
Now, it is already clear that skenes glands use to release some fluid during sexual activity and it use to be of watery in appearance. As per one detailed study published in 2007, this fluid that is excreted into the tract from Skene s Duct use to be consistent with the prostate fluid but it is not observed to have consistency with urine.
What Is The Risk Of Prostate Cancer In Trans Women
We dont know the exact risk of prostate cancer in trans women.
As in cis men, most cases of prostate cancer in trans women have been in those aged over 50 years.
In cis men, being black or having a family history of prostate cancer increases your risk of getting prostate cancer. Although we dont have evidence of this in trans women, its likely that these things will increase your risk as well.
Although the risk of prostate cancer is likely to be low, its important to be aware if youre a trans woman or a non-binary person assigned male at birth because:
- you might not have any symptoms
- you might be listed as female on your medical records so a health professional may not start a conversation with you about prostate problems
- your PSA levels are likely to be lower if you are taking feminising hormones so may not be a reliable sign of prostate problems.
What Exactly Is The Prostate
The prostate is a walnut-size gland located between the bladder and the penis. It surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the penis. When it becomes enlarged, a common condition with age, the urethra is squeezed and urinary problems can result. The prostate plays an important role in reproduction, being responsible for much of the seminal fluid produced by a man.
Blood And Lymphatic Vessels
The prostate receives blood through the inferior vesical artery, internal pudendal artery, and middle rectal arteries. These vessels enter the prostate on its outer posterior surface where it meets the bladder, and travel forward to the apex of the prostate. Both the inferior vesical and the middle rectal arteries often arise together directly from the internal iliac arteries. On entering the bladder, the inferior vesical artery splits into a urethral branch, supplying the urethral prostate and a capsular branch, which travels around the capsule and has smaller branches which perforate into the prostate.
The veins of the prostate form a network the prostatic venous plexus, primarily around its front and outer surface. This network also receives blood from the deep dorsal vein of the penis, and is connected via branches to the vesical plexus and internal pudendal veins. Veins drain into the vesical and then internal iliac veins.
The lymphatic drainage of the prostate depends on the positioning of the area. Vessels surrounding the vas deferens, some of the vessels in the seminal vesicle, and a vessel from the posterior surface of the prostate drain into the external iliac lymph nodes. Some of the seminal vesicle vessels, prostatic vessels, and vessels from the anterior prostate drain into internal iliac lymph nodes. Vessels of the prostate itself also drain into the obturator and sacral lymph nodes.
Microscopic glands of the prostate
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Can Women Get Prostate Cancer
Prostate recently overtook breast as the biggest cancer killer in the UK.
The research and treatment of the disease are underfunded, and as such there are still huge numbers of fatalities.
It affects the prostate which is a part of the male anatomy which secretes the alkaline milky fluid that makes up about 30% of a mans semen.
For this reason, its considered a mostly male cancer.
This isnt necessarily the case, though.
While the prostate is only present in men, women have a prostate gland of sorts too.
The Skenes gland is located just below the urethra in women, and serves the purpose of secreting fluid that lubricates the urethra .
When females ejaculate, this fluid is released from the Skenes gland.
The main similarity with the male prostate in that they both produce PSA .
Although prostate cancer in men is somewhat common, Skenes gland cancer is found in less than 0.003 per cent of all genital cancers in women.
So while it is possible for females to get a form of prostate cancer, its extremely rare.
It tends to occur in older women, and has links to HPV infection, smoking, and some hormonal medications.
Signs to look out for include:
- painful or frequent urination, or difficulty passing urine
- blood in your urine, or passing blood from your urethra
- painful sexual intercourse
- feeling of pressure behind the pubic bones
- abnormal menstrual cycle, or sudden changes to your menstrual cycle
When To Call A Doctor
- You cannot urinate.
- You have groin or belly pain.
Watch closely for changes in your health, and be sure to contact your doctor if:
- You have pain when you ejaculate.
- You have trouble starting or controlling your urine.
If you have been diagnosed with cancer, be sure to follow your doctor’s instructions about calling when you have problems, new symptoms, or symptoms that get worse.
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When To Consider Genetic Counseling For Prostate Cancer
Experts recommend that men with a family history suggesting an increased risk of prostate cancer engage in shared decision-making with their physicians about genetic counseling and testing. Genetic testing can educate you about your inherited risk of prostate cancer, and it also can inform your family members that they may have genetic mutations that increase their cancer risk. Here are 7 factors that warrant a referral to a certified genetic counselor:
Journal of Clinical Oncology, Feb. 1, 2018).
This article originally appeared in Cleveland Clinic Mens Health Advisor.
A Womans Guide To Prostate Cancer
- Understand and make prostate cancer something to talk about share what you know with your partner, family, and friends.
- Know your partners family history and share it with sons and relatives.
- Recommend diets low in fat, carbohydrates, and processed sugars in combination with regular exercise.
- Be sure your partner talks to his doctor about a baseline screening at age 40 and develops a schedule of subsequent screening based on his medical history.
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Things All Women Should Know About Prostate Cancer
Sure, its not a womans disease, but chances are it will affect a man close to you at some point. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among American men, affecting 1 in 7 during their lifetime, according to the American Cancer Society. While 60% of cases occur in guys over age 65, it sometimes strikes younger. Here, 4 things every woman should know to protect her loved ones, including husbands, fathers, and brothers.
Screening And Selection Of Studies
The final list of search findings will be independently screened by two reviewers . The titles and abstracts of the selected studies will initially be screened for inclusion and exclusion in the review. Studies that are selected after the screening of the titles and abstract will undergo full-text reading by the same independent reviewers. The selection for data extraction will be done by a careful comparison of papers that successfully passed the screening stage to the established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Search findings that present disagreements between the independent reviewers , during the screening and selection stages, will be resolved through discussions with the third reviewer . Kappa coefficient of 0.6 or more would be used to establish an agreement between the two independent reviewers during the screening and selection phase . Reference management will be done by EW.
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