What Types Of Prostate Cancer Can Be Treated With Proton Therapy
Almost anyone with prostate cancer may be a candidate for proton therapy, which can treat prostate tumors with complex shapes and prostate cancer in all stages when radiation treatment is indicated, even if the cancer has spread.
Types of prostate cancer treated by proton therapy include:
- Early-stage prostate cancer
- Late-stage prostate cancer
- Prostate cancer that has spread to adjacent organs or tissues
- Prostate cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes
- Prostate cancer that returned after surgical removal and is detected through the prostate-specific antigen test, indicating biochemical recurrence
In some situations, another treatment or another type of radiation may offer better or faster results than proton therapy. These situations include:
- Aggressive prostate cancer that causes symptoms: Proton therapy treatments take longer to plan than traditional radiation. Doctors may recommend traditional radiation therapy for aggressive prostate cancers so treatment can be started sooner.
- Early-stage prostate cancer: Some early-stage prostate cancers require careful monitoring, not treatment. Others may need surgery to remove the tumor and not require radiation therapy.
- Hip replacement implants, especially if they are in both hips, can affect the accuracy of CT imaging. Without clear images, it is difficult to plan precise proton beam delivery.
- Pacemakers: Proton therapy can increase the risk of a pacemaker device failure.
Stage 4 Prostate Cancer: Survival Rates Treatment And Support
Prostate cancer is in stage 4 when the cancer spreads beyond the lymph nodes and into other areas of the body. While the vast majority of prostate cancer cases are caught before this happens, when the cancer is treatable, stage 4 is far more difficult to treat. Therefore, the survival rate among men with stage 4 prostate cancer is much lower.
There are two types of stage 4 prostate cancer: 4A and 4B, according to the American Cancer Society. The type assigned to a persons diagnosis is based on whether the cancer has spread and to what degree, and the value assigned to two additional factors called the Grade Group and the prostate-specific antigen . The Grade Group is a measure of how likely the cancer is to spread quickly, and the PSA is a measure of a protein in the blood produced by cells in the prostate.
With stage 4A, the tumor has already spread into the lymph nodes and may be spreading into tissues adjacent to the prostate, but has not spread to other areas of the body. The Grade Group can be of any value, as can the PSA.
With stage 4B, the tumor may have spread into the lymph nodes, may be spreading into nearby tissues and has spread to other areas of the body like the bones, certain organs and distant lymph nodes. The Grade Group and PSA can be of any value.
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This article was medically reviewed by . Dr. Litza is a board certified Family Medicine Physician in Wisconsin. She is a practicing Physician and taught as a Clinical Professor for 13 years, after receiving her MD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health in 1998.There are 13 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 65,131 times.
The prostate gland is a part of the male reproductive system that can enlarge with age, putting uncomfortable pressure on the urethra. This can cause urinary difficulties, urinary tract infections , and even bladder stones. By making lifestyle changes and using medication, most men can reduce their urinary troubles. A few men, though, may need to consider minimally invasive or traditional surgery options to feel their best.
Staging And Grading For Stage 4 Cancer
Most cancers are staged using some form of the TNM system. Doctors may also use the TNM system to help determine the extent of certain cancers in each stage. The TNM system stands for:
- T , or the size of the original tumor
- N , or whether the cancer is present in the lymph nodes
- M , or whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body
Not all cancers are staged using the TNM system, though. Some cancers, especially liquid cancers, are staged through different established protocols. The Binet and Rai systems, for example, are used to stage certain types of leukemia. Female reproductive system cancers, such as cervical cancer, are staged with a separate staging system created by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics .
As your care team gathers information about your cancer for the purposes of staging, they may need to order several tests, including:
Your care team may likely also need to perform a biopsy, a procedure that involves removing a sample of cells and analyzing it for signs of cancer. Imaging scans may be able to tell your care team where your cancer is, but looking at the cancer cells specifically tell them how fast they are likely to growor what grade they are.
Grading is different from staging and is done for most, but not all, cancers.
The grade of your cancer is part of how your cancer care team stages your cancer and determines your prognosis, or outlook.
Survival Rates By Tnm Stage
The first approach is based on the TNM stage statistical survival times are matched to the stage of the disease.
|TNM Lung Cancer Stage|
By contrast, the one-year survival rate for stage 4 lung cancer was reported in one study to be between 15% and 19%, meaning this portion of patients with metastatic disease lived for at least a year.
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What About Other Treatments I Hear About
When you have cancer you might hear about other ways to treat the cancer or treat your symptoms. These may not always be standard medical treatments. These treatments may be vitamins, herbs, special diets, and other things. You may wonder about these treatments.
Some of these are known to help, but many have not been tested. Some have been shown not to help. A few have even been found to be harmful. Talk to your doctor about anything youre thinking about using, whether its a vitamin, a diet, or anything else.
What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer
Advanced prostate cancer is cancer that has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body. It develops when prostate cancer cells move through the blood stream or lymphatic system.
Watch our video about advanced prostate cancer.
You might hear cancer that has spread described as metastatic prostate cancer, secondary prostate cancer, secondaries, metastases or mets. It is still prostate cancer, wherever it is in the body.
Prostate cancer can spread to any part of the body, but most commonly to the bones and lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are part of your lymphatic system, which is part of the bodys immune system. Lymph nodes are found throughout the body including in the pelvic area, near the prostate.
Advanced prostate cancer can cause symptoms, such as fatigue , bone pain, and problems urinating.
The symptoms you have will depend on where the cancer has spread to. Speak to your doctor or nurse if you have any symptoms. There are treatments available to help manage them.
Its not possible to cure advanced prostate cancer. But treatments can help keep it under control and manage any symptoms.
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Lymphangiogenesis & Lymph Node Metastasis
During embryogenesis lymphatic vessels develop from blood vessels . Therefore, lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis are stimulated by the same family of growth factor proteins. VEGF-A/VPF is the most potent growth factor for angiogenesis . Other VEGF family members, such as VEGF-C and VEGF-D, are potent lymphangiogenic factors . Flt-4, also known as VEGF receptor-3 , is the tyrosine kinase receptor for VEGF-C or -D in lymphatic endothelial cells. Upon activation, this receptor triggers signaling events to initiate the proliferation and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells . Neuropilin-2, a nontyrosine kinase receptor, is also expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells and acts as a coreceptor for VEGF-C during lymphangiogenesis . Both VEGF-C and -D are expressed by tumor cells and, therefore, promote lymphangiogenesis from the tumor-associated surrounding lymphatics . Importantly, cancer cells have also been shown to express neuropilin-2 and/or VEGFR-3, thus suggesting autocrine regulation of lymphangogenic growth factors . Our laboratory has reported one such autocrine regulation of VEGF-C and its receptor neuropilin-2 in prostate cancer this autocrine function promotes the survival of prostate cancer cells during oxidative stress and, thereby, is important for metastatic progression .
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Treatment Of Prostate Cancer
Early detection is the best way to start treatment. Treatment will come in various forms and will be dependent on the stage at which cancer has gotten to. The treatments can also have side effects. These treatments are:
When in doubt, you notice symptoms, have a family history of prostate cancer or are in the age risk zone, you can consult with our doctor when you call 080 8111 1121. Early screening is the best chance against prostate cancer. You can also book a PSA blood test by contacting the same number above.
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Bladder And Urinary Troubles
A prostate tumor that has grown significantly in size may start to press on your bladder and urethra. The urethra is the passage the carries urine from your bladder out of your body. If the tumor is pressing on your urethra, you might have trouble passing urine.
One of the common areas for prostate cancer to spread to is the bladder, because the two organs are close. This can cause additional problems with urination and bladder function.
Some symptoms your bladder and urethra are being affected by cancer include:
- urinating more frequently
- getting up in the middle of the night to pee
- feeling like you have to urinate often and not actually passing anything
What Are Next Steps
Bone metastasis have a profound effect on the long-term outlook for prostate cancer. But its important to remember that the numbers are only statistics.
The good news is that life expectancy for advanced prostate cancer continues to increase. New treatments and therapies offer both longer life and better quality of life. Speak to your doctor about your treatment options and long-term outlook.
Everyones cancer experience is different. You may find support through sharing your treatment plan with friends and family. Or you can turn to local community groups or online forums like Male Care for advice and reassurance.
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How Effective Is Proton Beam Therapy For Prostate Cancer
Studies show that success and survival rates of proton therapy for prostate cancer are similar to those of other types of radiation therapy. Some retrospective studies have shown that proton therapy has lower risk of prostate cancer returning and of secondary cancers developing after treatment. However, prospective studies are ongoing to compare results of proton therapy to those of other treatments among patients with different types and stages of prostate cancer.
Find Efficient Treatment For Prostate Cancer Today
At Comprehensive Urology in the Beverly Grove community of Los Angeles, we concentrate on both medical diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer treatment in LA. Furthermore, Dr. Michel and his professional group work relentlessly to enhance your results and offer the very best options offered. To get evaluated for prostate cancer, schedule a visit with Comprehensive Urology today. You can schedule by phone or book online today!
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Take Time To Make A Treatment Decision
Most prostate cancers grow relatively slowly, so immediate treatment is rarely necessary. Many men can safely take months to decide what to do. The decision process can be complicated. The chosen treatment can significantly affect your life, which makes it especially important to take time to educate yourself and confidently choose the approach that is most appropriate for you.
Clinical Staging Options For Lymph Node Involvement
Several user-friendly but sometimes sophisticated tools based on initial clinical and pathological characteristics have been developed to predict the risk of nodal involvement in patients.1014 These tools are useful for predicting the probability of finding positive nodes in populations of patients, but they cannot determine if and where nodes are involved in an individual. As a result, the use of these tools has generated a lot of controversy not only because of significant differences in the observed vs. expected rates of pathological stage in the modern era of lymph-node dissection, but also because of concerns about their clinical relevance.
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Stage I Prostate Cancer Treatment
In This Section
Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy using a photosensitizing agent has been tested in men with low-risk prostate cancer. In the CLIN1001 PCM301 randomized trial, 413 men with low-risk cancer were randomly assigned in an open-label trial to receive either the photosensitizing agent, padeliporfin , or active surveillance. Median time to local disease progression was 28.3 months for patients receiving padeliporfin and 14.1 months for patients who were assigned to active surveillance . However, the appropriate population for photodynamic therapy may be quite narrow, as it may overtreat men with very low-risk disease and undertreat men with higher-risk disease.
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Radiation For Prostate Cancer
Radiation treatment is a medical procedure for killing or disabling cancer cells in the prostate gland by using high-energy X-ray or proton beams. The radiation is delivered by one of two methods: a machine outside the body that directs a beam to the target area or by small nylon catheters or pellets with radioisotopes that are placed inside the body. Because radiation can damage healthy cells in addition to killing cancerous ones, precautions are taken to focus the radioactive effects on the cancer.
Radiation therapy has proven to be very effective in treating localized prostate cancers. More than 60,000 American men opt for this method of addressing their disease every year. External-beam procedures are typically handled on an outpatient basis and dont require an anesthetic.
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Treating Prostate Cancer That Doesnt Go Away Or Comes Back After Treatment
If your prostate-specific antigen blood level shows that your prostate cancer has not been cured or has come back after the initial treatment, further treatment can often still be helpful. Follow-up treatment will depend on where the cancer is thought to be and what treatment youve already had. Imaging tests such as CT, MRI, or bone scans may be done to get a better idea about where the cancer is.
What Can I Expect If I Have Metastatic Cancer
Your healthcare provider will work closely with you. Theyll monitor your symptoms and find treatments to ease them. Youll probably have many medical visits and will need to make important decisions regarding your overall health.
Is metastatic cancer curable?
In most cases, metastatic cancer is not curable. However, treatment can slow growth and ease many of the associated symptoms. Its possible to live for several years with some types of cancer, even after it has metastasized. Some types of metastatic cancer are potentially curable, including melanoma and colon cancer.
What is the metastatic cancer survival rate?
The five-year survival rate of metastatic cancer depends on the type of cancer you have. For example, the five-year survival rate for metastatic lung cancer is 7%. This means that 7% of people diagnosed with metastatic lung cancer are still alive five years later. Meanwhile, the five-year survival rate of metastatic breast cancer is 28% for women and 22% for men.
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Can I Prevent Metastatic Cancer
When cancer is detected at an earlier stage, systemic treatments given in addition to surgery may be recommended to reduce the likelihood of developing metastasis. These treatments may include chemotherapy, hormonal treatments or immunotherapy. Research is ongoing in these areas and experts are trying to find ways to slow, stop or prevent the spread of cancer cells.
After Prostate Cancer Has Been Diagnosed Tests Are Done To Find Out If Cancer Cells Have Spread Within The Prostate Or To Other Parts Of The Body
The process used to find out if cancer has spread within theprostate or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The results of the tests used to diagnoseprostate cancer are often also used to stage the disease. In prostate cancer, staging tests may not be done unless the patient has symptoms or signs that the cancer has spread, such as bone pain, a high PSA level, or a high Gleason score.
The following tests and procedures also may be used in the staging process:
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When You Meet With Patients Who Have Opted For Prostate Cancer Surgery What Complications Seem To Cause The Most Anxiety
Patients are usually concerned about longer-term quality-of-life issues, such as urinary control also called urinary continence and changes in sexual function. Prostate cancer surgery does sometimes have a negative impact on these functions, although the likelihood depends on a variety of factors, including age, the extent of the cancer, and baseline function, or how well everything worked before the procedure.
The outcomes for urinary continence at MSK are what I would consider to be excellent. More than 90 percent of our patients will regain urinary control, although they may go through a period perhaps several months or a year after surgery in which they do not have complete control.
For sexual function, the extent of recovery is especially affected by the nature of the cancer. Unfortunately, the nerve tissue that allows a man to get an erection is right up against the prostate. We obviously want to remove all the disease, and if the cancer extends outside the prostate at all, its not wise for us to try to preserve the nerve tissue because we might leave some cancer behind.
You often see claims made by institutions or surgeons that the patients they treat recover their erectile function in 90 percent of cases. Thats true only for a very select group of patients, usually those who are younger and had full erections prior to surgery.