How Should I Prepare For The Exam
You should tell your doctor if you have hemorrhoids, anal tears, or other problems with your anus. The exam will be easier if you breathe normally and try to relax.
Before having a PSA test, tell your doctor about any medications and supplements you take. Recent ejaculation can also affect your PSA levels. Ask your doctor if you should abstain from sexual activity before the test.
Your blood must be sent to a laboratory for analysis, so your PSA results wont be available immediately. Your doctor will let you know when they have the results.
The lab report will show the level of PSA in your blood as:
In addition to looking at the amount of PSA in your blood, your doctor will assess how quickly this number is changing. Many things can affect PSA, so test results require careful analysis by an expert. Your doctor will take all of your health information into account.
If you have an abnormal PSA test result, it doesnt mean you have prostate cancer. Most men with a high PSA level dont have prostate cancer. About 25 percent of men who have a biopsy due to a high PSA level have prostate cancer.
Its also possible for men with prostate cancer to have normal DRE and PSA test results.
What If A Screening Test Shows An Elevated Psa Level
If a man who has no symptoms of prostate cancer chooses to undergo prostate cancer screening and is found to have an elevated PSA level, the doctor may recommend another PSA test to confirm the original finding. If the PSA level is still high, the doctor may recommend that the man continue with PSA tests and DREs at regular intervals to watch for any changes over time.
If a mans PSA level continues to rise or if a suspicious lump is detected during a DRE, the doctor may recommend additional tests to determine the nature of the problem. A urine test may be recommended to check for a urinary tract infection. The doctor may also recommend imaging tests, such as a transrectal ultrasound, x-rays, or cystoscopy.
If prostate cancer is suspected, the doctor will recommend a prostate biopsy. During this procedure, multiple samples of prostate tissue are collected by inserting hollow needles into the prostate and then withdrawing them. Most often, the needles are inserted through the wall of the rectum . A pathologist then examines the collected tissue under a microscope. The doctor may use ultrasound to view the prostate during the biopsy, but ultrasound cannot be used alone to diagnose prostate cancer.
What Are Prostate Screening Tests
The prostate screening tests are the screening tests done for the diagnosis of cancer and the diagnosis of an enlarged or inflamed prostate. A prostate helps in the production of seminal fluid, as its a walnut-sized gland located near ones bladder. So, doctors perform a prostate screening test to determine whether or not one has an enlarged or inflamed prostate. Moreover, the same test is also done to diagnose prostate cancer .
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What Are Some Of The Limitations And Potential Harms Of The Psa Test For Prostate Cancer Screening
Detecting prostate cancer early may not reduce the chance of dying from prostate cancer. When used in screening, the PSA test can help detect small tumors that do not cause symptoms. Finding a small tumor, however, may not necessarily reduce a mans chance of dying from prostate cancer. Many tumors found through PSA testing grow so slowly that they are unlikely to threaten a mans life. Detecting tumors that are not life-threatening
that requires treatment.
What Is A Normal Psa Test Result
There is no specific normal or abnormal level of PSA in the blood, and levels may vary over time in the same man. In the past, most doctors considered PSA levels of 4.0 ng/mL and lower as normal. Therefore, if a man had a PSA level above 4.0 ng/mL, doctors would often recommend a prostate biopsy to determine whether prostate cancer was present.
However, more recent studies have shown that some men with PSA levels below 4.0 ng/mL have prostate cancer and that many men with higher levels do not have prostate cancer . In addition, various factors can cause a mans PSA level to fluctuate. For example, a mans PSA level often rises if he has prostatitis or a urinary tract infection. Prostate biopsies and prostate surgery also increase PSA level. Conversely, some drugsincluding finasteride and dutasteride , which are used to treat BPHlower a mans PSA level. PSA level may also vary somewhat across testing laboratories.
Another complicating factor is that studies to establish the normal range of PSA levels have been conducted primarily in populations of White men. Although expert opinions vary, there is no clear consensus regarding the optimal PSA threshold for recommending a prostate biopsy for men of any racial or ethnic group.
In general, however, the higher a mans PSA level, the more likely it is that he has prostate cancer. Moreover, a continuous rise in a mans PSA level over time may also be a sign of prostate cancer.
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What Are Additional Tests For Detecting Prostate Problems
If the DRE or the PSA blood test indicates a problem may exist, the health care provider may order additional tests, including urinalysis, urodynamic tests, cystoscopy, abdominal ultrasound, transrectal ultrasound with prostate biopsy, and imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography scan.
When To Get A Prostate Cancer Screening
A prostate screening can help your doctor find prostate cancer early, but youll need to decide if the benefits of the exam outweigh the risks. Have a discussion with your doctor about prostate cancer screenings.
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force now recommends that men ages 55 to 69 decide for themselves whether to undergo a prostate-specific antigen screening test, after talking it over with their doctor.
They recommend against screening for men at or above the age of 70.
The American Cancer Society strongly recommends that no one be screened without discussion of the uncertainties, risks, and potential benefits of prostate cancer screening.
They give these specific recommendations for the date at which these discussions with a healthcare provider should take place:
- Age 50 for men who are at average risk of prostate cancer and are expected to live at least 10 more years.
- Age 45 for men at high risk of developing prostate cancer. This includes African Americans and men who have a first-degree relative diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early age .
- Age 40 for men at even higher risk .
You should also speak with your doctor about a prostate exam if youre experiencing symptoms of a prostate problem, such as frequent or painful urination or blood in your urine.
After this discussion, if you decide to get a prostate cancer screening, the ACS and the American Urologic Association recommend getting a prostate-specific antigen blood test.
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What Is The First Test For Detecting Prostate Problems
The first test for detecting prostate problems is a blood test to measure prostate-specific antigen , a protein made only by the prostate gland. This test is often included in routine physical exams for men older than age 50. Because African American men have higher rates of getting, and dying from, prostate cancer than men of other racial or ethnic groups in the United States, medical organizations recommend a PSA blood test be given starting at age 40 for African American men. Medical organizations also recommend a PSA blood test be given starting at age 40 for men with a family history of prostate cancer. Some medical organizations even recommend a PSA blood test be given to all men starting at age 40.
If urination problems are present or if a PSA blood test indicates a problem, additional tests may be ordered. These tests may require a patient to change his diet or fluid intake or to stop taking medications. If the tests involve inserting instruments into the urethra or rectum, antibiotics may be given before and after the test to prevent infection.
What Natural Or Home Remedies Relieve Pain Symptoms And Treat Prostatitis
In addition to medical treatment, natural home remedies for prostatitis include:
- Warm sitz baths
- Avoid alcohol, caffeine, and spicy foods.
- Prostate massage: In a few studies, prostate massage has been shown to decrease symptoms in some patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis.
- Lifestyle changes: If you cycle or ride horses, it is recommended to suspend this activity until you improve.
- Although there are many herbal preparations available, there is no current evidence that herbal remedies are definitely helpful with prostatitis.
- Acupuncture has shown a decrease in symptoms for some people who suffer from prostatitis.
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Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer
Check out this factsheet for a summary of the video.
Diagnosis is the process of finding out the cause of a health problem. Diagnosing prostate cancer usually begins with a visit to your family doctor. Your doctor will ask you about any symptoms you have and do a physical exam. Based on this information, your doctor may refer you to a specialist called a urologist or order tests to check for prostate cancer or other health problems. A urologist is a doctor who specializes in treating conditions of the genital and urinary tracts, including the prostate.
The process of diagnosis may seem long and frustrating. It’s normal to worry, but try to remember that other health conditions can cause similar symptoms as prostate cancer. It’s important for the healthcare team to rule out other reasons for a health problem before making a diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The following tests are usually used to rule out or diagnose prostate cancer. Many of the same tests used to diagnose cancer are used to find out the stage . Your doctor may also order other tests to check your general health and to help plan your treatment.
What Happens If My Psa Levels Are High
If your test shows a high PSA level, we recommend you use your results to engage a physician for further diagnosis. Your physician may review family history, your PSA history, and evaluate you for biopsy before exploring treatment options if necessary. For more information about diagnosis and treatment techniques for prostate cancer, visit our partners at Halo Diagnostics to learn more about multiparametric prostate MRI and laser focal therapy.
Treating Prostatitis: Any Cause For Optimism
Michael P. OLeary, M.D., M.P.H., looks at what may be ahead
Prostatitis gets little press, but its an all-too-common genitourinary condition in men. It accounts for about 1.8 million visits to the doctors office in the United States each year. Depending on how you define the term, 9% to 16% of men experience prostatitis. Its also an equal opportunity disorder. Unlike benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer, which predominantly affect older men, prostatitis affects men of all ages.
Despite its commonness, little is known about what sparks prostatitis or, more importantly, how to treat it. Frustrated patients visit one doctor after another in search of a remedy, but they usually leave disappointed. Relative to other prostate conditions, little research has been conducted on prostatitis. But a few bright spots may be emerging.
Nutrition Dos And Donts
Note: Discomfort can be linked with bowel problems, so if youre prone to bowel irritation, avoid foods that cause it.
|Trigger foods can include:|
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What Is A Prostate Infection
A prostate infection occurs when your prostate and the surrounding area become inflamed. The prostate is about the size of a walnut. Its located between the bladder and the base of the penis. The tube that moves urine from the bladder to the penis runs through the center of your prostate. The urethra also moves semen from the sex glands to the penis.
Several types of infections can affect the prostate. Some men with prostatitis experience no symptoms at all, while others report many, including intense pain.
Acute Bacterial Prostatitis: Diagnosis And Management
TIMOTHY J. COKER, MD, and DANIEL M. DIERFELDT, DO, Ehrling Bergquist Family Medicine Residency Program, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska
Am Fam Physician. 2016 Jan 15 93:114-120.
Patient information: A handout on this topic is available at .
Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute infection of the prostate gland that causes urinary tract symptoms and pelvic pain in men.1 It is estimated to comprise up to 10% of all prostatitis diagnoses, and its incidence peaks in persons 20 to 40 years of age and in persons older than 70 years.2 Most cases can be diagnosed with a convincing history and physical examination.3 Although prostatitis-like symptoms have a combined prevalence of 8.2% in men, the incidence and prevalence of acute bacterial prostatitis are unknown.4
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What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Prostatitis
Antibiotics can cure acute bacterial prostatitis. These medications also ease chronic bacterial prostatitis symptoms in approximately 30% to 60% of men. Up to 80% of men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome feel better after receiving appropriate treatments for their symptoms using the UPOINT system. Men with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis dont need treatment.
How Are Prostate Problems Diagnosed
To diagnose prostate problems, the health care provider will perform a digital rectal exam . The health care provider will also ask the patient
- when the problem began and how often it occurs
- what symptoms are present
- whether he has a history of recurrent urinary tract infections
- what medications he takes, both prescription and those bought over the counter
- the amount of fluid he typically drinks each day
- whether he consumes caffeine and alcohol
- about his general medical history, including any major illnesses or surgeries
Answers to these questions will help the health care provider identify the problem or determine what medical tests are needed. Diagnosing BPH may require a series of medical exams and tests.
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Which Tests Should Be Performed In The Diagnosis Of Prostatitis
In acute bacterial prostatitis, most patients have pyuria and bacteruria, allowing the infecting organism to be isolated by midstream urine collection. Blood cultures, a complete blood count , and a basic metabolic panel should be obtained.
In chronic bacterial prostatitis, bacteria and leukocytes may or may not be observed in prostate-specific secretions . More than 15 leukocytes/HPF is abnormal.
Is Prostatitis A Sexually Transmitted Disease
Yes, prostatitis can be contracted through sex, so the more sexual partners a man has, the higher his odds of developing the condition.
Interestingly, Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasite and STD, has been found in prostate biopsies of men with prostatitis, and although it seems that E. Coli is a much more regular culprit, the prostates susceptibility to Trichomonas vaginalis colonization has been linked to zinc levels. The prostate is the number one home for zinc in a mans body, and when levels get low, studies have shown these types of pathogens can take a greater foothold.
Mineral deficiencies are common in the U.S., which means supplementing with small amounts of zinc to see whether conditions improve could be worthwhile. As far as food is concerned, pumpkin seeds and oysters are both high in zinc.
As an added benefit, zinc supplementation has also shown some promise in maintaining the cell lining of the gut, which can prevent or help to heal leaky gut, a condition that often accompanies prostatitis, and that is marked by a breakdown of the epithelial wall of the gut lining, which allows pathogens and undigested food particles to enter the blood stream. I will touch more on leaky gut later in this post.
While we are putting a focus on Trichomonas vaginalis in this discussion about zinc, ultimately, identifying the exact pathogenic bacteria causing issues in the prostate can be difficult since samples are often contaminated by the bacteria that grow in the urethra.
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How Are Prostate Screening Tests Performed
Generally, the exam involves two tests: one is a test for prostate-specific antigen levels and the other one is a digital rectal exam . Most people consider it only a cancer screening test but its wrong. If you have symptoms of an enlarged prostate, its simply that your doctor may want to perform a prostate exam. Moreover, some doctors perform this exam as part of a routine checkup before prostate screening tests.
Tests For Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and any similar problems youve had before. This is because chronic bacterial prostatitis tends to affect people whove had infections in the past. They will then try to rule out other problems that could be causing your symptoms. For example, theyll ask you to have a urine test to make sure you dont have a urine infection. They may also do some further tests ask your doctor for more information about these.
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