How Is Prostatitis Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will review your past health and sexual history. He or she will also do a physical exam. Other tests may include:
- Urine culture. This test collects prostatic fluid and urine. They are checked for white blood cells and bacteria.
- Digital rectal exam . In this test, the healthcare provider puts a gloved finger into the rectum to check the part of the prostate next to the rectum. This is done to look for swelling or tenderness.
- Prostate massage. The healthcare provider massages your prostate gland to drain fluid into the urethra. This fluid is then checked under a microscope to look for inflammation or infection. This test is usually done during a digital rectal exam .
- Semen culture. A semen sample is tested in the lab for bacteria and white blood cells.
- Cystoscopy. A thin, flexible tube and viewing device is put into the penis and through the urethra. Your healthcare provider uses the device to look at your bladder and urinary tract for structure changes or blockages.
- Transrectal ultrasound. A thin transducer is inserted into the rectum next to the prostate to show images of the prostate.
- CT scan. This is an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to make detailed images of the body. A CT scan shows details of the bones, muscles, fat, and organs.
Pressure In Your Rectum
As we mentioned before, prostate cancer often starts developing in the side of the prostate that is just in front of the rectum. Therefore, it is common to have rectal problems, as in a feeling of pressure or discomfort in your rectum and even bleeding in the rectal area. It all depends on the stage of cancer and the severity of your symptoms.
Pressure on the rectum, and even bleeding, might be a symptom of hemorrhoids, which are more common than prostate cancer and should be ruled out first. Thus, if you have only this symptom it is unlikely you have cancer. Talk to your doctor if you have doubts or concerns about what you feel and follow his advice to the letter.
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Diagnosing Hemorrhoids Vs Cancer
A doctor can usually diagnose hemorrhoids by conducting a simple rectal exam and taking a medical history. If they notice an unusual growth that is not a hemorrhoid, they may recommend a biopsy to test for anal cancer.
Diagnosing colon cancer is more difficult. This is because cancer markers do not necessarily correlate with the presence or absence of cancer. Therefore, the doctor may also recommend testing based on symptoms. For example, they may ask if a person has bleeding but no hemorrhoids or if hemorrhoid treatment does not relieve their symptoms.
They may perform blood work to look for cancer markers or recommend a colonoscopy to look for growths. A colonoscopy involves inserting a thin, flexible tube into the rectum while the person is asleep or sedated. If the doctor finds a growth, they may examine it in the laboratory or recommend a biopsy.
A number of lifestyle changes may improve the symptoms of hemorrhoids. For example, people can try:
- eating more fiber
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Soreness In The Groin
When prostate cancer spreads, its common for cancer cells to go to your lymph nodes and then move to more areas of your body. The lymph nodes are a network of glands that help your body filter fluids and fight infections.
There are several lymph nodes in your groin. These are the ones closest to your prostate, so its common for the cancer to spread to them first. Cancer cells prevent your lymph nodes from draining fluid and working properly. When this happens, your lymph nodes swell. As a result, you might experience pain or soreness in the area.
How Does A Prostate Massage Feel
The massage therapy is somewhat similar to the digital rectal exam . Its normal for urologists to use DREs to examine the prostate for any health issues, lumps, or possible signs of prostate cancer. The doctor can do a prostate biopsy to examine any signs of an infection, prostatitis, or other health disorders. This is basically a sample of the prostate gland.
During the massage, the doctor will use a glove and add some lubricant to their finger. They will then insert the finger into the patients anus. By adding gentle pressure, they will stimulate the prostate for a couple of minutes.
If you feel any pain, you should inform the doctor while they are still performing the treatment. But, do have in mind that its normal to feel slightly uncomfortable. However, the stimulation is not supposed to be painful.
How often you might want the treatment is entirely up to you. It might be a good idea for those struggling with ED or prostatitis to attend multiple sessions in a week for at least one month. After the symptoms have subsided, you can reduce doctor visits.
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How Will My Veterinarian Get These Samples
A free-flow urine sample iscollected . Samples of prostatic fluid are obtained by passing a urethral catheter to the level of the prostate and massaging the prostate to milk fluid out of it.
Samples of prostatic cells are obtained by fine needle aspiration or biopsy. If the prostate is greatly enlarged, it may be sampled by through the body wall by FNA or biopsied. FNA involves taking a small needle with a syringe and suctioning a sample of cells directly from the prostate and placing them on a microscope slide. A veterinary pathologist then examines the slide under a microscope. In some cases, results from FNA may not be entirely clear and biopsy may be necessary.
Belly Acupressure And Massage
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Surgical Treatment For Enlarged Prostate
Transurethral resection of the prostate . In this surgery, the inner portion of the prostate is removed. Used 90% of the time, this is the most commonly used surgical procedure for BPH.
Open prostatectomy .The surgeon makes an incision and removes the enlarged tissue from the prostate.
Laser surgery âLaser surgery uses laser energy to destroy prostate tissue and shrink the prostate.
Transurethral incision of the prostate .This surgery does not involve removing prostate tissue. A few small cuts are made in the prostate gland to reduce the prostateâs pressure on the urethra, making urination easier.
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Diagnosis Of An Enlarged Prostate
In order to establish the possible underlying causes for an enlarged prostate, doctors will perform a variety of tests.
Tests which are commonly used to find the cause of an enlarged prostate include:
- A digital rectal exam. A physician or nurse will insert a gloved finger into the patientâs rectum to digitally examine the prostate for swelling and/or enlargement.
- Swab tests for urethral discharge or urine. To determine underlying conditions such as STIs/STDs and urinary tract infections. A swab of discharge or urine is taken and sent to a medical laboratory for culturing, so that any microorganisms are identified.
- Urinalysis. A urine sample is sent to a medical laboratory for analysis and may be tested for urea nitrogen or creatinine, among other things.
- Blood tests. A sample of blood is sent to a medical laboratory for analysis, which may include tests for creatinine or blood urea nitrogen, as well as antibodies and infectious agents.
- Prostate-specific antigen test. A blood sample is sent to a medical laboratory to be tested for prostate-specific antigen , an enzyme produced by cells in the prostate. A change in PSA levels can indicate that there is a problem with the prostate.
If patients are referred to a urologist, they may have further tests, including:
Before referring the patient for tests, the physician may also ask questions in order to determine the possible causes of the discomfort, their severity, and their duration. Such questions may cover:
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Dealing With A Prostate Cancer Prognosis
A cancer diagnosis can be lifechanging. Luckily, very few prostate cancers require urgent treatment. Most men have time to figure out the best course of action for them. The best thing you can do is educate yourself on the types of treatments available, find a doctor youre comfortable with, make smart lifestyle choices to improve your ability to fight off cancer and stay positive.
Thanks to advancements in technology, treatments like proton therapy are helping provide prostate cancer patients with strong cure rates, reduced side effects and improved outcomes, such as a lower risk of impotence and incontinence. In fact, recent studies show the stats are getting even better as treatments continue to improve.
Why It Is Done
A digital rectal exam is done to:
- Check for growths in or enlargement of the prostate gland in men. A tumor in the prostate can often be felt as a hard lump. This may be done as part of a regular examination or to check on symptoms, such as a change in urination. Not all problems of the prostate can be felt through the rectum.
- Check for problems in a woman’s reproductive organs, such as the uterus and ovaries. It may also be done to check on symptoms, such as pelvic pain or vaginal bleeding.
- Help find the cause of symptoms such as rectal bleeding , belly or pelvic pain, a change in urination, or a change in bowel habits.
- Check for hemorrhoids or growths, such as cancer, in the rectum. DRE alone is not used to diagnose colorectal cancer. Also, a DRE may not find internal hemorrhoids because they are soft and hard to feel. A sigmoidoscopy may be needed to diagnose internal hemorrhoids.
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How Are Haemorrhoids Diagnosed
Diagnosis of haemorrhoids usually involves an examination of the anal passage to look for any swollen blood vessels. Your doctor may conduct one of the following tests.
- Digital rectal examination, where your doctor puts on gloves and places a lubricated finger inside the back passage to gently feel for any abnormalities. This is likely to be uncomfortable but will probably not be painful.
- Proctoscopy, where your doctor examines the inside of the rectum using a proctoscope to look for any swelling or other symptoms. Again, this may be uncomfortable but will probably not be painful.
There is no need to feel embarrassed about these tests haemorrhoids are a common problem and your doctor is used to diagnosing and treating them.
In some cases, your doctor may refer you to a surgeon who can assess your haemorrhoids and recommend a treatment.
Cancer Symptoms Men Ignore
You eat pretty well and get regular exercise . But if youre like a lot of men, a trip to the doctor isn’t on your to-do list. That can be bad if it means you brush off early signs of cancer.
One of the best ways to fight the disease is to catch it in the early stages, when its more treatable. The problem is that the warning signs for many kinds of cancer can seem pretty mild.
Take a look at these 15 signs and symptoms. Some are linked more strongly to cancer than others, but all are worth knowing about — and even talking over with your doctor.
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What Causes Prostate Cancer
The exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown. One in three men older than 50 years has some cancer cells in the prostate. Luckily, eight out of 10 tumors are found to be small and harmless after the biopsy. Although the reason for prostate cancer is unknown, there are many risk factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer:
- Age over 55 years
- Ethnicity: Common in blacks as compared to Caucasians.
- Genetic/family history
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How Is Prostate Disease Treated
Treatment depends on the diagnosis, and the type of disease that is present.
Diseases associated with excessive hormone levels are typically treated by neutering the dog. Because testosterone and estrogen are both formed in the testicles, neutering is generally an effective treatment. The prostate will return to its normal size within one month after surgery. Certain medications or hormone replacements, such as finasteride, megestrol acetate, and GnRH, may be used to treat specific prostatic conditions.
Paraprostatic cysts and prostatic abscesses require surgery to drain and remove them.
Diseases involving primary or secondary bacterial infections are treated with aggressive and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Because it is difficult for antibiotics to penetrate into the prostate gland, treatment for several weeks to months is usually necessary. Antibiotics that can penetrate the prostate include enrofloxacin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, chlorhamphenicol, doxycycline, and trimethoprim-sulfonamides each having varying pros and cons. Since the prostatic infections are typically secondary to another disease, treating the prostatic infection is only part of the overall treatment.
âBecause it is difficult for antibiotics to penetrate into the prostate gland, treatment for several weeks to months is usually necessary.â
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Bone Metastasis Signs & Symptoms
If prostate cancer metastasizes, about 80% of the time it will spread to the hip, spine and pelvic bone. Once this occurs, the cancer is likely in Stage 4 and your symptoms might become more widespread and affect other areas of the body.
- Bone pain
- Weak bones increasing your risk for fractures
- Spinal cord compression and related weakness or numbness
- High blood calcium levels, which can trigger vomiting, dehydration, confusion and abdominal discomfort
- Stiffness or pain in the hip, thighs, or back
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Using Palliative Care To Ease Discomfort
For both urinary and bowel incontinence that is caused by compression of nerves in the spinal cord as a result of prostate cancer that has spread to the spine or bones, palliative treatments for metastasized cancer may be of use. These treatments include radiotherapy, medication, or surgical removal of spinal cord tumors. However, these treatment options are not indicated for every situation. Your doctor will help you determine what path is right for you and to improve your quality of life. As always, coping with quality of life symptoms like these can take a toll on an individual or their caretaker both mentally and physically. For this reason, it can be a good idea to consult a therapist or counselor if needed for extra support.
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Rectal Cancer Symptoms Vs Hemorrhoid Symptoms Quick Comparison
Bleeding from the rectum is the most common sign or symptom that both rectal cancer and hemorrhoids share. Other shared symptoms include blood mixed with stool, a change in bowel habits , tenesmus , and discomfort and/or pain during bowel movements.
Rectal cancer can have symptoms of unexplained weight loss in the absence of dieting, bowel obstruction, anemia, and fatigue. These symptoms are not usually seen with hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids produce the symptom of pruritus in the rectal and/or anal area while rectal cancers usually do not.
Many hemorrhoids can be palpated or seen during a physical exam and are usually easy to diagnose. Rectal cancers are diagnosed by biopsy.
Rectal Cancers are composed of abnormal, uncontrolled cells that may metastasize to other organ systems. Hemorrhoids, on the other hand, are blood vessels that have become swollen due to increased abdominal pressure and/or constipation/diarrhea episodes. They are located only in the rectal/anal area and do not metastasize.
Any situation that increases abdominal pressure is a risk factor for developing hemorrhoids. In contrast, risks for developing rectal cancer are increasing age, smoking, a family history of cancer, and other gastrointestinal diseases.
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