Medical History And Physical Exam
If your doctor suspects you might have prostate cancer, he or she will ask you about any symptoms you are having, such as any urinary or sexual problems, and how long you have had them. You might also be asked about possible risk factors, including your family history.
Your doctor will also examine you. This might include a digital rectal exam , during which the doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum to feel for any bumps or hard areas on the prostate that might be cancer. If you do have cancer, the DRE can sometimes help tell if its only on one side of the prostate, if its on both sides, or if its likely to have spread beyond the prostate to nearby tissues. Your doctor may also examine other areas of your body.
After the exam, your doctor might then order some tests.
What Happens During Your Gp Appointment
Your doctor needs to build up a picture of what’s going on. So they will ask you some questions. These include:
- what symptoms you have
- when you get them
- whether anything makes them better or worse
They will ask you about your general health and any other medical conditions you have. They might arrange for you to have some tests.
Discuss Prostate Cancer Testing With Your Doctor
Medical authorities do not recommend that all men should be tested for prostate cancer. In fact, most authorities suggest that men should make their own choice about whether or not to have a PSA test. If you decide to be tested, it is recommended that it should be done every two years from 50 to 69 years of age, and only if your health is such that you expect to live for at least another seven years.
Men at high risk of prostate cancer, such as men with a family history of prostate cancer , or men who have previously had an elevated test result, can start two-yearly testing from age 45. Your doctor can help you decide whether this is necessary.
While there is now some evidence that regular testing may prevent prostate cancer deaths, there are concerns that many men may be diagnosed and treated unnecessarily as a result of being screened, with a high cost to their health and quality of life .
However, the option of active surveillance, where a low-risk cancer is watched closely instead of being treated, helps to lower these risks. Active surveillance is now used quite commonly in Australia for men with low-risk prostate cancer.
If you are unsure whether or not to be tested after considering the benefits and uncertainties of testing and your own risk of prostate cancer, discuss it with your doctor.
In Australia, if you choose to be tested for prostate cancer the tests are covered by Medicare.
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Can I Look For Signs Of Prostate Cancer
Often there are very few signs of prostate cancer, and they can be confused with symptoms of other prostate problems. Some men may experience difficulty passing urine , such as slow starting, a weak flow, a sudden urge to wee and getting up more frequently in the night. But especially in older men, these can often be due to enlarged prostate symptoms where the prostate presses against the bladder and the urethra and affects the flow of urine.
Prostate cancer is slightly different. Usually it grows around the outside of the prostate and doesnt really make the prostate gland bigger in the early stage so doesnt press on the bladder or urethra. However, you can have both BPH and prostate cancer at once so your doctor will want to check it out to be sure.
The prostate is a small gland and its role in life is to secrete fluids into semen to keep sperm in tip top condition. It is tucked between the bladder and the rectum and gradually gets larger as you age.
Pain and difficulty passing urine can frequently be caused by prostatitis, a bacterial infection causing swelling and pain. A urine infection can also often be a cause of troublesome symptoms, particularly in older men. A GP will usually check for an infection early on, but may suggest a prostate cancer check at the same time, usually just to rule it out.
Self Prostate Exam For Prostatic Hyperplasia
Clinically we divided prostatic hyperplasia into three gradients, indicating the severity of benign prostatic hyperplasia disease. So, in our daily lives, how to perform self prostate exam? What are the evaluation criteria?
According to the severity of the disease, each disease can be divided into mild, moderate and severe, benign prostatic hyperplasia is with no exception. So what are the typical symptoms for mild, moderate and severe prostatic hyperplasia? How can we male patients to perform self prostate exam?
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Lymph Node Biopsy As A Separate Procedure
A lymph node biopsy is rarely done as a separate procedure. Its sometimes used when a radical prostatectomy isnt planned , but when its still important to know if the lymph nodes contain cancer.
Most often, this is done as a needle biopsy. To do this, the doctor uses an image to guide a long, hollow needle through the skin in the lower abdomen and into an enlarged node. The skin is numbed with local anesthesia before the needle is inserted to take a small tissue sample. The sample is then sent to the lab and looked at for cancer cells.
Biopsy During Surgery To Treat Prostate Cancer
If there is more than a very small chance that the cancer might have spread , the surgeon may remove lymph nodes in the pelvis during the same operation as the removal of the prostate, which is known as a radical prostatectomy .
The lymph nodes and the prostate are then sent to the lab to be looked at. The lab results are usually available several days after surgery.
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Why Should You Self
Self-testing provides men with the tools to take better control over their health and potentially detect prostate cancer earlier.
It is advised that older men should have prostate exams with their regular health check-ups. It is more prevalent at this time in men’s lives. This is because the symptoms become more apparent as cancer has grown to a size to begin affecting men’s health.
If younger men take PSA tests, it can help lead to an early diagnosis and catch prostate cancer in its infancy. This gives you a better chance in either eradicating it or successfully managing it to not impact your life expectancy or lifestyle.
While PSA testing is available with a recommendation from either a GP or registered nurse, this is only if you meet certain risk requirements. If prostate cancer runs in your family or you shows signs of symptoms, you may be recommended.
If you dont meet these risk requirements, it is unlikely you would be.
However, if this is a concern of yours and you want to take a PSA test, it is possible for men to take matters into their own hands.
Self-testing is not limited to doctors and nurses recommendations. You can purchase your self-test kits. Simply provide a small blood sample and, after sending it to a private laboratory, you can find out how much PSA is present in your blood. With this information, you can approach your GP or nurse for further investigation and testing.
What Is A Normal Psa By Age Range
Theres no specific level that classifies as abnormal, but levels can be helpful in determining if a biopsy is needed. According to the National Cancer Institute, most doctors used to consider PSA levels of 4.0 ng/mL and lower as normal.
Various factors, like medication and physical activity, can cause PSA levels to rise, so your doctor may look at a variety of factors before deciding to perform additional tests.
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How Are Researchers Trying To Improve The Psa Test
Scientists are investigating ways to improve the PSA test to give doctors the ability to better distinguish cancerous from benign conditions and slow-growing cancers from fast-growing, potentially lethal cancers. None has been proven to decrease the risk of death from prostate cancer. Some of the methods being studied include:
How To Check Prostate Cancer
When youre checking for prostate cancer, its important to know the symptoms. When youre aware of the signs, prostate cancer can be caught early. Because prostate cancer doesnt typically show signs early on, this particular cancer is typically found through PSA blood test or digital rectal exams.
But, there are typically five major warning signs of prostate cancer however, as cancer progresses, symptoms typically involve the urinary system. Because the prostate is located close to the urethra and bladder, symptoms might include 1 :
- Frequent urination
- Hip or back pain
- Leg swelling or weakness
Contact your doctor if you notice any of the above symptoms. And if you do catch any of these symptoms, try not to panic. These particular symptoms can often have to do with non-cancerous conditions of the prostate, as well as bladder infections.
Its important to know that there are also several different types of prostate cancer. The most common types found in prostate cancer patients include:
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How Can I Get My Prostate Checked
Although you cant check yourself for prostate cancer, you should be aware of your risk factor, keep an eye out for any symptoms and be prepared to ask for a prostate test if youre at all concerned. You can ask your GP or go to a urology clinic. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK, and although more people are being diagnosed, its mainly because theyre more aware and going to get symptoms checked which is good news, because early diagnosis can lead to better outcomes.
If youd like to arrange a prostate cancer check privately, we run specialist clinics where you can have a PSA test, prostate examination and discuss your concerns with a consultant. Even if you dont have prostate cancer symptoms but feel you may be at risk and want the peace of mind, we welcome you to our clinics. You can use your medical insurance or we have self-pay prices.
What Is The First Test For Detecting Prostate Problems
The first test for detecting prostate problems is a blood test to measure prostate-specific antigen , a protein made only by the prostate gland. This test is often included in routine physical exams for men older than age 50. Because African American men have higher rates of getting, and dying from, prostate cancer than men of other racial or ethnic groups in the United States, medical organizations recommend a PSA blood test be given starting at age 40 for African American men. Medical organizations also recommend a PSA blood test be given starting at age 40 for men with a family history of prostate cancer. Some medical organizations even recommend a PSA blood test be given to all men starting at age 40.
If urination problems are present or if a PSA blood test indicates a problem, additional tests may be ordered. These tests may require a patient to change his diet or fluid intake or to stop taking medications. If the tests involve inserting instruments into the urethra or rectum, antibiotics may be given before and after the test to prevent infection.
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What Are The Benefits And Risks Of A Psa Test
One benefit of PSA testing is the increased chance of finding prostate cancer before it spreads.
However, PSA testing is no longer routinely recommended because even in the potential of detecting all prostate cancers, it would not always lead to improved survival.
The CDC states that a false positive can lead to unnecessary worry and tests, like a biopsy, causing potential harm.
There are some cases where the amount of prostate cancer is so minimal that it would never be life threatening. of people who would have not had symptoms or died from their amount of prostate cancer may lead to more medical complications from the treatment, according to the CDC.
Some treatment side effects include:
- urinary incontinence
- erectile dysfunction
- bowel problems
If youre concerned about your treatment plan, its a good idea to get a second opinion and weigh the pros and cons of treatment.
Ask About Screening For Bowel Cancer
Early detection of bowel cancer greatly improves chances of successful treatment. Your risk of bowel cancer increases with age. If you are over age 50, you should be tested for bowel cancer every two years.
The National Bowel Screening Program, using FOBT, is offered free to all Australians aged 50-74 every two years. Cancer Council urges all eligible Australians to participate. Screening kits usually arrive within six months of your birthday.
Some people have known risk factors that put them at increased risk. If you do, your doctor will talk to you about regular surveillance.
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Why Test For Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer affects 1 in 7 men. Certain men are at higher risk for prostate cancer because of their family history breast cancer and ovarian cancer in mothers and sisters can also put men at increased risk for prostate cancer.
It is important that all men over age 40 who have symptoms that can be caused by prostate cancer are tested for prostate cancer. These symptoms can be caused by many other conditions but it is important to test for prostate cancer in order not to miss it.
Use In Men Already Diagnosed With Prostate Cancer
The PSA test can also be useful if you have already been diagnosed with prostate cancer.
- In men just diagnosed with prostate cancer, the PSA level can be used together with physical exam results and tumor grade to help decide if other tests are needed.
- The PSA level is used to help determine the stage of your cancer. This can affect your treatment options, since some treatments are not likely to be helpful if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
- PSA tests are often an important part of determining how well treatment is working, as well as in watching for a possible recurrence of the cancer after treatment .
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Transurethral Resection Of Bladder Tumors
TURBT is a procedure to diagnose and treat early-stage bladder cancer. With TURBT, a tissue sample from a suspicious area can be obtained. If cancer is present, we can remove the cancerous tissue by inserting a scope in the urethra, in a process called resection. This process is minimally invasive and does not require incisions.
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How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
A biopsy is when a small piece of tissue is removed from the prostate and looked at under a microscope.
A biopsy is a procedure that can be used to diagnose prostate cancer. A biopsy is when a small piece of tissue is removed from the prostate and looked at under a microscope to see if there are cancer cells.
A Gleason score is determined when the biopsy tissue is looked at under the microscope. If there is a cancer, the score indicates how likely it is to spread. The score ranges from 2 to 10. The lower the score, the less likely it is that the cancer will spread.
A biopsy is the main tool for diagnosing prostate cancer, but a doctor can use other tools to help make sure the biopsy is made in the right place. For example, doctors may use transrectal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging to help guide the biopsy. With transrectal ultrasound, a probe the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum and high-energy sound waves are bounced off the prostate to create a picture of the prostate called a sonogram. MRI uses magnets and radio waves to produce images on a computer. MRI does not use any radiation.
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Early Detection Saves Lives
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer affecting Australian men .
Prostate cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the prostate gland. This gland is only found in males and is about the size of a walnut.
The causes of prostate cancer are not understood and there is currently no clear prevention strategy.
How Is The Psa Test Used In Men Who Have Been Treated For Prostate Cancer
The PSA test is often used to monitor patients who have a history of prostate cancer to see if their cancer has recurred . If a mans PSA level begins to rise after prostate cancer treatment, it may be the first sign of a recurrence. Such a biochemical relapse typically appears months or years before other clinical signs and symptoms of prostate cancer recurrence.
However, a single elevated PSA measurement in a patient who has a history of prostate cancer does not always mean that the cancer has come back. A man who has been treated for prostate cancer should discuss an elevated PSA level with his doctor. The doctor may recommend repeating the PSA test or performing other tests to check for evidence of a recurrence. The doctor may look for a trend of rising PSA level over time rather than a single elevated PSA level.
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How To Stimulate Prostate For Maximum Pleasure
There are a number of ways to achieve the goal. Here is how you should proceed for maximum effects.
Step 1: Prepare the Things That You Need
You need to pay attention to certain things before you even think of stimulating your prostate internally or externally. If you are have someone massaging it for you, then he/she should make the preparations. For instance:
- You should trim your nails and use a filer to get rid of any sharp edges. You will be using your finger to learn how to stimulate prostate and sharp nails can hurt your sensitive tissues.
- You should wash your hands thoroughly using an antiseptic solution to reduce the chances of infection.
- You should get a good quality lube and lubricate your hand properly. You may even consider lubricating the anus.
- You should spend some time massaging your perineum and anus from the outside before taking it to the next step.
Step 2: Prepare your Body and Sexual Organs
You need to understand that rushing through things may lead to complications. You need to be patient and always start with an external massage. The perineum, the area located between the anus sand the scrotum, should be massaged lighting from the outside. Even though you dont feel your prostate when massaging the perineum, youre still giving a massage to your prostate in an indirect way. Maintain a rhythmic, circular motion when massaging the anus it is fine to gently push on your anus without inserting your finger in for now.
Step 3: Find the Prostate