How Long Is A Course Of Chemotherapy
In the majority of cases for best results the patient will need regular chemotherapy over a specific period. A protocol plan is drawn up which specifies when treatment sessions will occur and for how long.
A course of chemotherapy may be just a one-day treatment, or can last for a few weeks it will depend on the type and stage of the cancer . If the patient requires more than one course of treatment there will be a rest period for his/her body to recover. This could be a one-day treatment followed by a weeks rest period, followed by another one-day treatment followed by a three-week rest period, etc. This may be repeated many times.
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Prostate Cancer Patients Are At Increased Risk Of Precancerous Colon Polyps
- University at Buffalo
- Men with prostate cancer should be especially diligent about having routine screening colonoscopies, results of a new study by gastroenterologists indicate.
Men with prostate cancer should be especially diligent about having routine screening colonoscopies, results of a new study by gastroenterologists at the University at Buffalo indicate.
Their findings show that persons diagnosed with prostate cancer had significantly more abnormal colon polyps, known as adenomas, and advanced adenomas than men without prostate cancer.
Results of the research were presented Oct. 19 at a 10:30 a.m. session at the American College of Gastroenterology meeting being held Oct. 15-20 in San Antonio, Texas.
While most adenomas are benign and dont become cancerous, there is evidence that most colon cancers begin as adenomas. Advanced adenomas carry an even higher colorectal cancer risk.
Colon cancer and prostate cancer are two of the most common cancers in males, says Ognian Pomakov, MD, an author on the study. However there are no published clinical studies to date that determined the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in people with prostate cancer.
Our study is the first to show that men with prostate cancer are at increased risk of developing colon cancer, and that it is especially important for these men not skip their routine colonoscopies.
What Happens If My Cancer Starts To Grow Again
Your first treatment may help keep your cancer under control. But over time, the cancer may change and it may start to grow again.
You will usually stay on your first type of hormone therapy, even if its not working so well. This is because it will still help to keep the amount of testosterone in your body low. But there are other treatments that you can have alongside your usual treatment, to help control the cancer and manage any symptoms. Other treatments include:
Which treatments are suitable for me?
Which treatments are suitable for you will depend on many things, including your general health, how your cancer responds to treatment, and which treatments youve already had. Talk to your doctor or nurse about your own situation, or speak to our Specialist Nurses.
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Colorectal Cancer Support In Southeast Virginia
Local support groups, genetic risk testing, and financial counseling are just some of the areas the specialists at Virginia Oncology Associates can assist you with during your colorectal cancer care.We encourage you to learn more and take advantage of our cancer support groups and disease specific organizations, including the ColonCancer Alliance.
Second Cancers After Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer survivors can be affected by a number of health problems, but often a major concern is facing cancer again. Cancer that comes back after treatment is called a recurrence. But some cancer survivors may develop a new, unrelated cancer later. This is called a second cancer.
Unfortunately, being treated for prostate cancer doesnt mean you cant get another cancer. Men who have had prostate cancer can still get the same types of cancers that other men get. In fact, they might be at higher risk for certain types of cancer.
Men who have had prostate cancer can get any type of second cancer, but they have an increased risk of certain cancers, including:
This risk is probably related to the dose of radiation. Newer methods of giving radiation therapy may have different effects on the risks of a second cancer. Because these methods are newer, the long-term effects have not been studied as well.
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Soreness In The Groin
When prostate cancer spreads, its common for cancer cells to go to your lymph nodes and then move to more areas of your body. The lymph nodes are a network of glands that help your body filter fluids and fight infections.
There are several lymph nodes in your groin. These are the ones closest to your prostate, so its common for the cancer to spread to them first. Cancer cells prevent your lymph nodes from draining fluid and working properly. When this happens, your lymph nodes swell. As a result, you might experience pain or soreness in the area.
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The Top 7 Signs Of Advanced Prostate Cancer
In the early stages, you may not notice any symptoms related to prostate cancer. This is why screenings are important. Symptoms can sometimes be noticed for the first time when the cancer advances.
Advanced prostate cancer, also called metastatic cancer, means the cancer has spread to other areas of your body beyond your prostate gland. The most common areas for prostate cancer to spread are your bladder, rectum, and bones. It can also spread to your lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and other body tissues.
Whether youve just been diagnosed or youre in treatment, its also important to know the signs of advanced cancer. Cancer can behave differently depending on your genetics, so not every person will experience the same symptoms in the same way.
Read on to learn more about the seven top symptoms of advanced prostate cancer and how to spot them.
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Definition Of Crn Advanced Neoplasm And Colorectal Cancer
CRN was defined as a histologically confirmed adenoma or adenocarcinoma component. Non-neoplastic polyps such as inflammatory or hyperplastic polyps and mucosal tags were excluded. Subjects with 3 CRNs were classified as having multiple lesions. Patients were classified into the advanced CRN group if they met the criteria for advanced adenoma classification of the 2012 American Gastroenterological Association Guidelines as follows: 1) high-grade dysplasia, 2) villous features, 3) size 1 cm, or 4) presence of an adenocarcinoma.33
Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression
Metastatic spinal cord compression happens when cancer cells grow in or near to the spine and press on the spinal cord. MSCC isnt common, but you need to be aware of the risk if your prostate cancer has spread to your bones or has a high risk of spreading to your bones. The risk of MSCC is highest if the cancer has already spread to the spine. Speak to your doctor or nurse for more information about your risk.
MSCC can cause any of the following symptoms.
- Pain or soreness in your lower, middle or upper back or neck. The pain may be severe or get worse over time. It might get worse when you cough, sneeze, lift or strain, or go to the toilet. It might get worse when you are lying down. It may wake you at night or stop you from sleeping.
- A narrow band of pain around your abdomen or chest that can move towards your lower back, buttocks or legs.
- Pain that moves down your arms or legs.
- Weakness in your arms or legs, or difficulty standing or walking. You might feel unsteady on your feet or feel as if your legs are giving way. Some people say they feel clumsy.
- Numbness or tingling in your legs, arms, fingers, toes, buttocks, stomach area or chest, that doesnt go away.
- Problems controlling your bladder or bowel. You might not be able to empty your bladder or bowel, or you might have no control over emptying them.
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Study Design And Data Sources
This study analyzed administrative claims data obtained from the Taiwan Bureau of National Health Insurance . Because the BNHI was the sole payer in Taiwan, the BNHI data set covered the information of more than 23 million people, which was assumedly the most comprehensive and reliable data source for the study. Besides, the Taiwan Cancer Registry was used to identify cancer patients. TCR established in 1979 to monitor the Taiwan’s cancer incidence and the mortality rates. From the 20 items of all newly diagnosed cancers information , TCR added detailed diagnosis and treatment items in 2002 for cancer types as oral cavity and pharynx , colon and rectum, liver, lung, breast, and cervix. In 2007, the prostate cancer was also added in the long-form database .
The subjects of this study were selected from the TCR. The history of the diagnosis claims among those patients obtained from the national health insurance research database . The NHIRD contained a registry of contracted medical facilities, a registry of board-certified physicians, and monthly summaries for all inpatient claims. Since the analysis was limited to aggregate secondary data that could not be used to identify the patients, this study was exempt from full review by the internal review board at this institution. However, the study protocol conformed to the ethical standards established by the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964, which did not require written or verbal consent for data linkage studies.
Treatments To Help If It Spreads
If colon cancer spreads, you and your doctor will come up with an aggressive treatment plan to try and stop cancer from spreading. The treatments go by Stage and include:
Stage 1 and 2 Treatments
If the cancer is still confined to just the colon, surgical intervention can usually prevent the spread of colon cancer.
Stage 3 Treatments
If the cancer begins to spread to the lymph nodes, any lymph nodes near the start of the cancer will be removed. If the cancer is found in distant lymph nodes near the liver or lungs, they will also be removed.
Stage 4 Treatments
Once colon cancer has invaded the liver, lungs, bones, and/or brain, the treatment plan will be to give both chemotherapy and radiation in cycles to kill off cancer cells. Radiation may also be given early in Stage 1 or 2 to prevent the spread.
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Tips To Reduce Risk Of Cancer
It is advisable for people to attend regular cancer screenings following their doctors guidance, particularly those at higher risk. Early detection can improve cancer treatment outcomes.
Additionally, making changes to the manageable risk factors for cancer may help reduce cancer risk in some people. These typically involve changes to the diet and lifestyle, such as:
Pearls And Other Issues
PSA Testing: The Pros and the Cons
Prostate Specific Antigen is a protein produced by the prostate and is abundant in semen. Its natural function is to divide seminogelin in the semen, which helps in liquefaction. The expression of PSA is androgen-regulated.
It was originally used as a prostatic tissue stain to help determine the etiology of tumors of unknown origin. Later, serum levels of PSA were used as a prostate cancer screening tool because serum PSA levels start to increase significantly about seven to nine years before the clinical diagnosis of malignancy. While a good indicator of prostatic disorders, PSA elevation is not specific for cancer as it is also elevated in benign prostatic hyperplasia, infection, infarction, inflammation and after prostatic manipulation. It also cannot reliably distinguish between low risk/low grade disease and high risk/high grade cancers.
About 80% of the patients currently diagnosed with prostate cancer are initially investigated due to an elevated serum PSA.
While it unquestionably increases prostate cancer detection rates, the value of PSA testing is less clear in avoiding overtreatment, improving quality of life and lengthening overall survival which is why routine PSA screening for prostate cancer remains quite controversial.
PSA testing became widely available in the United States in 1992, and since then, prostate cancer detection rates have increased substantially.
The Current USPSTF Recommendation
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Is Colon Cancer Hereditary
You could be at risk of developing colorectal cancer if you have a family history of the disease.Our cancer genetic experts at Virginia Oncology Associates are here to guide you through cancer genetic counseling. Find out if you are at risk for hereditary colon cancer syndromes, and if you should take advantage of the Genetic Risk Evaluation & Testing Program.
Genetic Counseling And Testing
People with a strong family history of cancer may want to learn their genetic makeup. This may help the person or other family members plan their health care for the future. Since inherited mutations affect all cells of a persons body, they can often be found by genetic testing done on blood or saliva samples. Still, genetic testing is not helpful for everyone, so its important to speak with a genetic counselor first to find out if testing might be right for you. For more information, see Understanding Genetic Testing for Cancer.
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Some Colorectal Tumors Are Born To Be Bad
To get a better handle on the timing of metastasis, the team developed a computer model to simulate the evolution of millions of virtual tumors under different conditions.
We could then compare the simulated data with the observed patient data using various statistical techniques, Dr. Curtis explained.
The modeling data indicated that metastasis begins very early during tumor developmentwhen the primary tumor is smaller than the tip of a sharpened pencil.
In other words, Dr. Curtis said, some tumors may be born to be bad.
The team next investigated whether the results from their small set of paired samples of primary and metastatic tumors from patients could be extended to a larger number of patients.
They analyzed publicly available data from 938 people with metastatic colorectal cancer and 1,813 people with early-stage, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer whose medical histories were known. The primary tumors of these patients had been profiled to identify genetic changes in known cancer-associated genes.
This analysis showed that certain genetic changes tend to occur together, and that specific combinations of three to five mutations were more common in patients with metastatic cancer than in those with nonmetastatic disease, suggesting that specific combinations of early genetic changes confer the potential for tumor cells to spread.
If confirmed in future studies, this information could potentially be used to guide treatment decisions, she said.
Stage 3 Pericardial And Testicular Mesothelioma
Doctors and researchers do not clearly define stage 3 pericardial or testicular mesothelioma due to their rare nature.
Only 1% to 2% of mesothelioma cases are pericardial, which means cancer forms within the sac that protects the heart. Therefore, a diagnosis for this disease is unlikely until the late stages, after metastasis to the lungs or chest cavity.
Doctors evaluate testicular mesothelioma tumor characteristics by using staging guidelines for general testicular cancer. For example, doctors more commonly refer to stage 3 testicular mesothelioma as late-stage cancer. This description indicates that cancer has spread beyond the lining of the testicles to other tissues such as lymph nodes or bone.
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What About Other Treatments That I Hear About
When you have cancer you might hear about other ways to treat the cancer or treat your symptoms. These may not always be standard medical treatments. These treatments may include vitamins, herbs, diets, and other things. You may wonder if these treatments are safe and whether they could help you.
Some of these treatments are known to help, but many have not been tested. Some have been shown not to help. A few have even been found to be harmful. Talk to your doctor about anything youre thinking about using, whether its a vitamin, a diet, or anything else.
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Prevalence Of Prostate Cancer
An estimated 191,930 new cases of prostate cancer will occur in the United States this year. Further it is expected that 33,330 deaths will occur this year due to prostate cancer. This is the second leading cause of cancer death in men.
Men age 40 and older who have at least a 10-year life expectancy should talk with their health care professional about having a baseline digital rectal exam of the prostate gland and a prostate-specific antigen blood test.
Most prostate cancers are discovered in the local stage the 5-year relative survival rate for patients whose tumors are diagnosed at the earliest stages of the disease is nearly 100%.
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Selection Of Data For Analysis
Medical charts of the patient and control groups were reviewed. These data included age, BMI, history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, and aspirin intake. Laboratory data included the levels of total cholesterol and PSA. In the PCa group, the TNM stage was reclassified according to the American Joint Cancer Committee based on laboratory, pathology, operation, and radiology records.34 In PCa patients who received colonoscopy, the reasons for the colonoscopy, such as routine health screening or evaluation of symptoms , and abnormal radiologic findings during PCa evaluation were recorded. In PCa patients, the time from PCa diagnosis to the colonoscopy examination was also noted.
Treatments For Prostate Cancer Spread To Bones
If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it nearly always goes to the bones first. Bone metastasis can be painful and can cause other problems, such as fractures , spinal cord compression , or high blood calcium levels, which can be dangerous or even life threatening.
If the cancer has grown outside the prostate, preventing or slowing the spread of the cancer to the bones is a major goal of treatment. If the cancer has already reached the bones, controlling or relieving pain and other complications is also a very important part of treatment.
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