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What Is Prostate Cancer Caused By

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Is Cancer Increasing Or Decreasing

What Causes Prostate Cancer?

From 1999 to 2019, cancer death rates went down 27%, from 200.8 to 146.2 deaths per 100,000 population. Healthy People 2030 set a target of 122.7 cancer deathsexternal icon per 100,00 population. Cancer death rates went down more among males than among females but were still higher among males than females .

NOTES: Deaths were classified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Cancer deaths were identified using underlying cause-of-death codes C00-C97 . Rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Mortality Data.

Prostate Cancer Treatment: Cryotherapy

Cryotherapy is a treatment that kills cancer cells by freezing the cells which break apart when they are rewarmed. The treatment is less invasive than surgery, but the long-term effectiveness is still under study.

Prostate Cancer Cryotherapy and Impotence

Unfortunately, freezing damages nerves, sometimes including those near the prostate that control erections. Many men become impotent after cryotherapy. Erectile dysfunction is a more common side effect following cryotherapy than it is following a radical prostatectomy.

Risk Factors You Cant Control

Age: The risk of developing prostate cancer increases with age. One in 10,000 men younger than 40 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, but one in 15 men in their 60s will be diagnosed with the disease.

Family history: Being born with a gene mutation is one of the unavoidable risks of prostate cancer. Two of them include the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations. BRCA and other inherited mutations, including HOXB13 and DNA mismatch repair genes, may explain why prostate cancer runs in families. Having a father or brother with prostate cancer may double a mans risk, especially if that relative was diagnosed before age 55.

Hormones: The level of male sex hormones, called androgens, may be higher in some men than others. Higher levels of androgensmainly testosteronehave been linked to a higher risk of prostate cancer. Men who use testosterone therapy are at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer, as an increase in testosterone stimulates the growth of the prostate gland.

Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia : This condition may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. PIN is a condition in which prostate gland cells look abnormal when examined with a microscope. Its not necessarily linked with any symptoms. Nearly half of men will be diagnosed with PIN before age 50.

Race: Studies show that African-American men are about 70 percent more likely to develop prostate cancer in their lifetime than Caucasian or Hispanic men.

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Does Prostate Cancer Have Any Symptoms

Most men with early prostate cancer dont have any signs or symptoms.

One reason for this is the way the cancer grows. Youll usually only get early symptoms if the cancer grows near the tube you urinate through and presses against it, changing the way you urinate . But because prostate cancer usually starts to grow in a different part of the prostate, early prostate cancer doesnt often press on the urethra and cause symptoms.

If you do notice changes in the way you urinate, this is more likely to be a sign of a very common non-cancerous problem called an;enlarged prostate, or another health problem. But its still a good idea to get it checked out. Possible changes include:

  • difficulty starting to urinate or emptying your bladder
  • a weak flow when you urinate
  • a feeling that your bladder hasnt emptied properly
  • dribbling urine after you finish urinating
  • needing to urinate more often than usual, especially at night
  • a sudden need to urinate you may sometimes leak urine before you get to the toilet.

If prostate cancer breaks out of the prostate or spreads to other parts of the body , it can cause other symptoms, including:

  • back pain, hip pain or pelvis pain
  • problems getting or keeping an erection
  • blood in the urine or semen
  • unexplained weight loss.

These symptoms can all be caused by other health problems. But its still a good idea to tell your GP about any symptoms so they can find out whats causing them and make sure you get the right treatment, if you need it.

How Is Prostate Cancer Treated

What Cause Prostate Cancer

Your treatment will depend on what kind of cancer cells you have, how far they have spread, your age and general health, and your preferences. At HealthPartners and Park Nicollet, we approach cancer treatment by understanding the impact it has both physically and mentally. So, you and your doctor may decide to manage your cancer with active surveillance or to treat it with surgery or radiation.

If youre over age 80 or have other serious health problems, like heart disease, you may choose not to have treatments to cure your cancer. Instead, you can just have treatments to manage your symptoms. This is called watchful waiting.

If youve already been diagnosed with prostate cancer, choosing treatment for prostate cancer can be confusing. Both urologists and oncologists have the specialty training and expertise to treat prostate cancer. They can work with you develop a treatment plan thats right for you.

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What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Prostate Cancer

Because prostate cancer tends to grow slowly, most men die from something other than the disease. Early detection is key to better outcomes. Almost all men 97% to 98% diagnosed with localized cancer that hasnt spread outside of the prostate live at least five years after diagnosis. When metastatic cancer has spread outside of the gland, one-third of men continue to survive after five years.

What Else Can Cause These Symptoms

As men get older their prostate gland enlarges. It isn’t normally cancer. But instead a condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia . BPH is when the prostate gland grows and presses;on the urethra. The urethra is the tube that empties out urine from the bladder.

BPH does not develop into cancer. But;you can have an enlarged prostate at the;same time as having areas in the prostate gland that contain cancer cells.;

See your doctor if you have any of the changes described here.

The changes don’t mean that you have cancer but it is important to get them checked so your doctor can help with you cope with them.

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Genetic Testing For Prostate Cancer

You may hear a lot about genetics or genomics. Both terms are related to genes and cell DNA, but they are different. These tests are being used to learn more about the DNA of cancer cells, and link DNA mutations with treatments. In the future, genetic testing may be the first step doctors take when diagnosing prostate cancer.

What Men Should Know About Prostate Cancer

What Causes Prostate Cancer?

Its not particularly pleasant, but a digital rectal exam can save a mans life. Its purpose is to screen for cancer of the prostate gland, the second most frequent malignancy in men worldwide in 2020, and the leading one in more than half of the worlds countries, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer .

During the exam, a doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and palpates, or feels, the prostate for any hard, lumpy or abnormal areas.

Whos especially at risk?

Prostate cancer is a disease of older men, says Dr Anno Graser, a Munich-based radiologist and prostate specialist. A 35-year-old man has a 0.1 per cent risk of developing prostate cancer within the next 10 years, he notes, while a 75-year-olds risk is 5 per cent.

There were more than 1.41 million cases of prostate cancer worldwide in 2020, or 7.3 per cent of total cancer cases, estimates the IARC, part of the World Health Organization .

What are the warning signs?

Usually there arent any. The body doesnt recognize that abnormal cells are multiplying uncontrollably, so there are typically no symptoms in the early stages, explains Dr Olaf Reichelt, chief physician in the Department of Urology and Paediatric Urology at the Helios Clinic in Aue, Germany. This is why screening is so important, he says.

How can prostate cancer be detected early?

How dangerous is prostate cancer compared with other cancers?

What are the treatment options?

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An Introduction To Prostate Cancer

how to prevent prostate cancer248,000 new cases

Many people who ask how to prevent prostate cancer are often disappointed. The grim truth is that there is no proven way to prevent it from developing. It can be caused by many factors, and the existing study data on prevention is very conflicting.

The prostate is a small gland that rests just below the bladder. It is responsible for producing semen and has a direct effect on urinary function. Only men have prostate glands, which is why prostate cancer affects only males.

While there is no surefire way to prevent prostate cancer, you should still know some natural methods that may reduce your risk of developing this insidious condition. If you have ever wondered how to prevent prostate cancer, you owe it to yourself to read the rest of this article.

Prostate Cancer Treatment: Prostate Cancer Surgery

Radical prostatectomy is the surgical removal of the prostate gland. Usually, this treatment is performed when the cancer is located only in the prostate gland. New surgical techniques help avoid damage to nerves, but the surgery may still have the side effects of erectile dysfunction and impaired urinary control. However, these side effects may gradually improve in some patients. Surgeons today may use robotic technique to assist in the operation.

Tips: Coping With Incontinence

Urinary incontinence is a common complication for men following prostate cancer surgery, and this problem can persist even five years after the surgery takes place. In one survey of 111 men published in 2003, 69% reported incontinence after prostate surgery. Most of these men used pelvic muscle exercises to help. Many used containment devices, including pads, special underwear, and sanitary napkins to manage incontinence.

Here are some post-surgical incontinence tips:

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Effects On Pituitary System

commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar neoplasms, extrasellar brain tumours, head and neck tumours, and following whole body irradiation for systemic malignancies. Radiation-induced hypopituitarism mainly affects and . In contrast, and deficiencies are the least common among people with radiation-induced hypopituitarism. Changes in -secretion is usually mild, and vasopressin deficiency appears to be very rare as a consequence of radiation.

What Causes Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer

Researchers do not know exactly what causes prostate cancer. But they have found some risk factors and are trying to learn just how these factors might cause prostate cells to become cancer cells.

On a basic level, prostate cancer is caused by changes in the DNA of a normal prostate cell. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes, which control how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we look.

Some genes control when our cells grow, divide into new cells, and die:

  • Certain genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes.
  • Genes that normally keep cell growth under control, repair mistakes in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.

Cancer can be caused by DNA mutations that keep oncogenes turned on, or that turn off tumor suppressor genes. These types of gene changes can lead to cells growing out of control.

DNA changes can either be inherited from a parent or can be acquired during a persons lifetime.

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Can Too Much Sex Cause Prostate Cancer

There are many myths about why prostate cancer develops. However, there is no evidence that “too much sex,” masturbation, benign prostatic hyperplasia , or a vasectomy increases the risk or causes prostate cancer. Current research is investigating if STDs, prostatitis, or alcohol use increase the risk of developing prostate cancer.

Treatment Risks And Benefits

There are risks and benefits of each type of therapy.

Radiation therapy.;Older studies show that about one-half of patients develop erectile dysfunction within 5 years of having radiation therapy. However, newer forms of radiation may have different outcomes.

  • Many men feel very tired at the end of the treatment period.
  • Erectile dysfunction is a common side effect and often gets worse over time.
  • Some men have side effects like urinary burning, urinary bleeding, frequent urination, rectal bleeding, rectal discomfort, or diarrhea during or shortly after the treatment.
  • More serious complications are rare. However, a degree of uncertainty goes along with radiation treatment. Since the prostate gland and the lymph nodes arent taken out, your doctor cant tell the exact size of the tumor. The cancer could come back many years after radiation treatment.

Radical prostatectomy.;The short-term risks of this surgery are low if youre young and in good health.

The main risks of radical prostatectomy are incontinence and impotence.

Hormone therapy.;Hormone therapy often is used in combination with other treatments. It does have side effects.

Chemotherapy.;Chemotherapy has been shown to help some people who have advanced prostate cancer live longer.

Chemotherapy can have many side effects, including hair loss, nausea, fatigue, and loss of taste.

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What Is Prostate Cancer

The prostate is a small gland located underneath the bladder in men and is part of the reproductive system. Some men develop prostate cancer, usually later in life. If cancer develops on your prostate gland, it will likely grow slowly. In rare cases, the cancer cells may be more aggressive, grow quickly, and spread to other areas of your body. The earlier your doctor finds and treats the tumor, the higher the chances are of finding curative treatment.

According to the Urology Care Foundation, prostate cancer is the second most common cause of all cancer-related deaths among American men. About 1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with the disease in their lifetime. Approximately 1 in 39 men will die from it. Most of these deaths occur among older men.

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

What causes prostate cancer ?

Prostate cancer usually doesnt cause symptoms in its early stages. In fact, most men dont know they have prostate cancer until it is found during a regular medical exam. When unusual symptoms are noticed, theyre most often problems with urinating. But these same symptoms can also be caused by an enlarged prostate, so its important to talk with your doctor.

Typically, noticeable symptoms of prostate cancer dont occur until the cancer has begun to spread beyond the prostate, or its metastasized to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body. At this point, prostate cancer signs and symptoms can include:

  • Not being able to urinate at all
  • Having a hard time starting or stopping the flow of urine
  • Having to urinate often, especially at night
  • Having pain or burning during urination
  • You have difficulty having an erection
  • You have blood in your urine or semen
  • You have deep and frequent pain in your lower back, belly, hip or pelvis

Anytime you experience unusual symptoms especially any of the symptoms mentioned above make an appointment with your family doctor or urologist. They can talk with you about your symptoms, do a physical exam if necessary and work with you to create a treatment plan, if necessary.

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Prostate Cancer Treatment: Prostate Cancer Immune Therapy

Please note that the term prostate cancer immune therapy has been called a vaccine, but that is somewhat misleading because it does not prevent prostatic cancer from developing in men. The prostate cancer âvaccineâ is a highly individualized treatment method, designed to provide immune cells derived from a single patient’s own cells. These cells are laboratory enhanced immune cells that become capable of killing or damaging the patient’s own prostate cancer cells.

Like hormone therapy, this “vaccine” does not kill off all cancer cells and is currently used to slow the progression of aggressive cancers, especially those unresponsive to other treatments. Research is ongoing and perhaps this or similar methods may be developed to be more effective in the future.

Prostate Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

Hormone therapy is designed to use drugs to shrink or slow the growth of prostate cancer cells, but it does not kill the prostate cancer cells. It is used to reduce the symptoms of prostate cancer and to slow the spread of aggressive prostatic cancers by blocking or reducing the production of male hormones like testosterone.

Hormone Therapy Side Effects

  • Other body ailments

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How Do You Know If You Have Prostate Cancer

Theres no way of knowing if you have prostate cancer without visiting your doctor, as most men with early prostate cancer dont have any symptoms. And if you do have symptoms they can be caused by other things.

And you cant check for prostate cancer yourself.

You may want to speak to your GP if you’re;over 50;, even if you don’t have any symptoms. These are all things that can increase your;risk of prostate cancer. Your GP can give more information or tests if necessary.

If youre not sure about what to say to your GP, print and fill out this;form;and show it to them. This will help you have the conversation.

I thought I could be at risk after learning that African Caribbean men are more likely to get prostate cancer than white men.

Data Source And Methods

Prostate Cancer Overview: Signs, Symptoms, Screening, and ...

The data shown in this report reflect information collected by CDCs National Center for Health Statistics from death certificates filed in all 50 states and the District of Columbia and compiled into the National Vital Statistics System. Deaths were classified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Cancer deaths were identified using underlying cause-of-death codes C00-C97 . Rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

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