Friday, February 3, 2023

Good Diet For Prostate Cancer Patients

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Overview Of Cam Use In Prostate Cancer

Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Survivorship | T. Colin Campbell, PhD (2007)

Studies of CAM use to treat prostate cancer have shown the following:

  • Men who have prostate cancer are more likely to take dietary supplements and eat certain foods than men who do not have prostate cancer.
  • Men who have prostate cancer and who have healthy eating habits are more likely to take dietary supplements.
  • Men who have prostate cancer use CAM treatments to help boost the immune system, improve quality of life, and lower the risk of the cancer coming back, but only half of them tell their doctors about their use of CAM.

Studies of CAM use to lower prostate cancer risk or to prevent it from coming back have shown the following:

  • A study of men with a family history of prostate cancer found that over half used vitamins or other dietary supplements for prostate health or to prevent cancer.
  • A study of men at a prostate cancer screening clinic found that over half took multivitamins and some took herbal supplements.
  • A study of prostate cancer survivors found that up to one-third took vitamins or minerals.

See the PDQ summary on Prostate Cancer Prevention for more information on prostate cancer prevention.

Adding Exercises To Your Daily Routine

Find physical activities you enjoy. This will make it more likely that you will do them regularly. Remember that any small increases in activity will help. Set small goals and gradually work your way up.

Exercise can be broken up into 2 or 3 sessions. For example, if you dont have 1 whole hour to exercise, try walking for 30 minutes twice a day. Try the following ideas for exercise:

  • Take the stairs instead of the elevator.
  • Get off the bus or subway 1 stop early and walk the rest of the way.
  • Walk to work, class, or the store or walk your pets.
  • Take a 2-mile brisk walk in 30 minutes.
  • Increase your time spent on household tasks, such as vacuuming, mopping, dusting, and washing dishes .
  • Take activity breaks at work.
  • Swim laps for 20 minutes.
  • Take a 4-mile bike ride in 15 minutes.
  • Play volleyball for 45 minutes.
  • Play basketball for 15 to 20 minutes.
  • Dance for 30 minutes.

For protein, you can also substitute plant proteins, such as beans.

Your meal might not always look exactly like the plate shown here. You could have a cup of lentil and vegetable soup and a small apple, and youd be getting a similar kind of meal and proportions. Also, you might get more vegetables at lunch and dinner than at breakfast. Just keep in mind the ideas of mostly plant-based and portion controlled for all meals.

Nutrition And Prostate Cancer

Differences in diet and lifestyle may account for the variability of prostate cancer rates in different countries. Good nutrition may reduce the incidence of prostate cancer and help reduce the risk of prostate cancer progression. There are many lifestyle studies currently being conducted to further understand how diet and prostate cancer are related.

We do know that improved nutrition reduces risk of heart disease, diabetes and obesity, and usually improves overall quality of life. It’s estimated that a third of cancer deaths in the United States can be attributed to diet in adults, including diet’s effect on obesity. Additionally, a healthy diet helps to increase energy levels, facilitate recovery and enhance the immune system.

Researchers conducted an 11-day study where men followed the Pritikin program. The Pritikin program includes a diet that is high in vegetables, fruits and whole grains and very low in fat. This diet is used in combination with 60 minutes of daily exercise. Serum IGF-I decreased by 20 percent after following the program for 11 days. Higher IGF-I values previously have been associated with higher risk for various cancers, including prostate cancer. This reduction in IGF-I may be related to the lower serum insulin levels observed with a healthy, low-fat, plant-based diet and regular exercise.

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Limit Salt And Sodium

Eating foods with a lot of salt may raise your blood pressure and increase your risk for stroke, heart failure, and kidney disease. Eat less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium per day. Fresh food that isnt processed is usually lower in sodium.

Read food labels to find out the amount of sodium in the product. Choose foods that are labeled low sodium, very low sodium, or sodium-free.

Here are some tips to reduce how much sodium you eat:

  • Dont add salt to food at the table.
  • Pay attention to the ingredients. Sometimes the name of a food can be misleading. Lemon pepper, spice rubs, and adobo may contain large amounts of salt or other sources of salt, such as MSG .
  • When cooking, flavor foods with fresh herbs and spices instead of salt.
  • Limit canned foods.
  • Limit packaged, processed, pickled, and cured foods.
  • Be aware that both fast food and regular restaurant food can contain large amounts of salt.

Recommended Foods For Patients With Prostate Cancer

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Research suggests that eating a lot of red meat and saturated fat may increase a mans risk of developing prostate cancer. Some doctors believe that continuing to eat these foods after diagnosis might cause the cancer to progress faster. As such, many medical experts recommend a plant-based diet, and findings from various studies support this notion. A plant-based diet may slow the cancers growth and progression, which can improve the patients outcome.

What does a plant-based diet look like for men with prostate cancer? In general, it consists of more vegetables, fruit, and soy. Therefore, Regional Cancer Care Associates suggests eating more:

  • Fish: Instead of consuming red meat, like steak and burgers, switch to fish, such as salmon and trout. Fish also offers many nutritional benefits, including important omega-3 fatty acids.
  • Fruits: Fruit, nuts, and seeds are also a healthy addition to the diet and serve as an ideal alternative to unhealthy snacks like chips and candy.
  • Vegetables: Incorporate more servings of vegetables into your daily routine, especially leafy greens, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, spinach, and tomatoes. Tomatoes are high in lycopene, which is believed to have anti-cancer effects. Vegetables are rich in antioxidants , which are protective agents that help stop the DNA-damaging effects of free radicals.

We also urge patients with prostate cancer to eat less:

Additional Diet Tips

Turn to RCCA for Advanced Prostate Cancer Treatment

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Vitamin E: Questions And Answers

In This Section
  • Vitamin E and selenium.

SELECT results published in 2011 showed that men taking vitamin E alone had a 17% increase in prostate cancer risk compared with men who did not take vitamin E.

Several factors may have affected study results, including the dose of vitamin E.

Clinical trials

  • In the Physicians Health Study II, men took either vitamin E supplements, vitamin C supplements, or both and were followed for about 8 years. The overall rates of prostate cancer were similar in the men who took vitamin E supplements and in those who did not. Vitamin E did not affect the number of new cases of cancer or the number of deaths from cancer.
  • A 2011 study of men who took part in The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial found that, among those who were current smokers, higher blood levels of alpha-tocopherols and gamma-tocopherols were linked with lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer. In another study of men who were current smokers or who recently stopped smoking, higher blood levels of alpha-tocopherol were linked to a lower risk of prostate cancer.
  • Have any side effects or risks been reported from vitamin E?

    In the Physicians Health Study II and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group, there was a higher number of strokes caused by a broken blood vessel in the brain in men who took vitamin E than in men who took a placebo.

  • Prostate Cancer Nutrition And Dietary Supplements Patient Version

    On This Page

    Complementary and alternative medicine is a form of treatment used in addition to or instead of standard treatments.

    In the United States, about 1 out of every 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer. It is the most second-most common cancer in men in the United States. CAM use among men with prostate cancer is common. Studies of why men with prostate cancer decide to use CAM show that their choice is based on medical history, beliefs about the safety and side effects of CAM compared to standard treatments, and a need to feel in control of their treatment.

    CAM treatments used by men with prostate cancer include certain foods, dietary supplements, herbs, vitamins, and minerals.

    Different types of research have been done to study the use of CAM in prostate cancer. These study types include the following:

    CAM treatments have been studied to see if their use lowers the risk of prostate cancer, kills prostate cancer cells, or lowers the risk that cancer will come back after treatment. Most of these studies used prostate-specific antigen levels to find out whether the treatment worked. This is a weaker measure of how well the treatment works than direct measures, such as fewer new cases of prostate cancer, or smaller tumor size or lower rate of recurrence after treatment for prostate cancer.

    This PDQ summary has sections about the use of specific foods and dietary supplements to prevent or treat prostate cancer:

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    Tips For Nutrition During Cancer Treatment

    • Maintain a healthy weight. For many men, this means avoiding weight loss by getting enough calories on a daily basis. For men who are overweight and are obese, this may mean losing some weight. If you are trying to lose weight, it should be moderate, meaning only about a pound a week.
    • Get essential nutrients the body needs, such as protein, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, such as carotenoids, and water. Not only will your body function better, you will feel better.
    • Be as active as you can, such as taking a daily walk. If you sit or sleep too much, you may lose muscle mass and increase your body fat, even if you are not gaining weight.

    If you are struggling to eat enough or are eating too much, nutrition counseling may help you get essential nutrients, such as protein, vitamins, and minerals into your diet and maintain a healthy body weight. Ask your health care team for a referral to a registered dietitian or nutritionist. Dietitians and other members of the health care team work with people to meet their nutritional needs.

    Include Calcium And Vitamin D In Your Diet

    Diet and Exercise: Living With Prostate Cancer

    You need calcium in your diet every day to keep your bones and teeth strong and your muscles and nerves healthy. When youre not getting enough calcium from your diet, your body takes calcium from your bones. This can make your bones weak and brittle and cause a disease called osteoporosis. Osteoporosis puts you at greater risk for bone fractures.

    Here are tips for getting more calcium in your diet:

    • Have at least 2 to 3 servings of skim or low-fat dairy every day. Include milk, yogurt, or cheese. If you have trouble eating lactose , try lactose-free products, such as Lactaid® milk or soy products.
    • Almonds, leafy greens, soybeans, canned sardines, and salmon are also good sources of calcium.
    • Foods such as cereals and orange juice usually have added calcium.
    • Many people, including women during menopause, need calcium supplements. Speak with your doctor or a dietitian to find out more about your calcium needs.

    Your body needs vitamin D so it can absorb the calcium in your diet. Vitamin D is found in dairy products and some fatty fishes. Your body can also make vitamin D from sunlight. Most people get all the vitamin D they need from sunlight. But, if you dont spend much time outside or if you usually keep your skin covered , you may need to take a vitamin D supplement.

    Daily recommended intake

    The table below lists the daily amount of calcium and vitamin D you need per day based on your age.

    Age
    800 IU

    IU=International Units

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    Maintaining Good Nutrition During And After Treatment

    Maintaining a healthy diet can help you prepare for and recover after cancer treatment. It may also help to prevent the prostate cancer from coming back.Watching your weight may also reduce your risk of dying from prostate cancer. Recent studies have indicated that the risk of dying from prostate cancer is more than double in obese men diagnosed with the disease compared with men of normal weight at the time of diagnosis. Obese men with local or regional disease have been shown to have nearly four times the risk of their cancer spreading beyond the prostate or metastasizing.

    Prostate cancer treatment may affect your appetite, eating habits, and weight, but it is important for you to maintain a healthy weight, get essential nutrients, and remain as physically active as possible. If you have difficulty eating due to side effects from treatment, there are ways to make eating more comfortable. Working with a registered dietitian/nutritionist can help make sure you are getting the nutrition you need.

    Unfortunately it is possible for the side effects of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy to cause you to lose your appetite, eat less and lose weight. On the other hand, some treatments, such as androgen deprivation therapy may cause weight gain for some men.

    , Prostate Cancer and Nutrition featuring Margaret Martin, RD, MS, LDN, a nutrition educator from PearlPoint Nutrition Services.

    Questions To Ask Your Health Care Provider About Cam

    When considering complementary and alternative therapies, patients should ask their health care provider the following questions:

    • What side effects can be expected?
    • What are the risks related to this therapy?
    • What benefits can be expected from this therapy?
    • Do the known benefits outweigh the risks?
    • Will the therapy affect conventional treatment?
    • Is this therapy part of a clinical trial?
    • If so, who is the sponsor of the trial?
    • Will the therapy be covered by health insurance?

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    Pomegranate: Questions And Answers

  • What is pomegranate?

    The pomegranate is a fruit grown in Asia and in the Mediterranean, East Indies, Africa, and the United States. Pomegranate has been used as medicine for hundreds of years.

    The pomegranate is made up of the following:

  • The peel, which makes up half the fruit and contains polyphenols and minerals.
  • The aril , which contains phenolics and flavonoids including anthocyanins, which give the pomegranate fruit and juice a red color.
  • How is pomegranate given or taken?

    Pomegranate fruit and juice may be taken as food, drink, or a dietary supplement.

  • Have any laboratory or animal studies been done using pomegranate?

    For information on laboratory and animal studies done using pomegranate, see the Laboratory/Animal/Preclinical Studies section of the health professional version of Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements.

  • Have any studies of pomegranate been done in people?

    In a 2015 study, 183 men with recurrentprostate cancer were randomly assigned to receive either pomegranate juice, pomegranate extract, or a placebo. The study found no difference in how fast the prostate-specific antigen level rose between the 3 groups. There is not enough evidence to know whether pomegranate can prevent or treat prostate cancer.

  • Have any side effects or risks been reported from pomegranate?

    No serious side effects have been reported from the use of pomegranate.

  • Guidelines For A Healthy Diet

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    Your diet should be:

    • Include plenty of fruits and vegetables
    • Limited in the amount of simple sugars

    In addition, drink adequate fluids and be physically active to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.

    A diet that is primarily plant-based includes the following:

    • Fruits and vegetables
    • Other plant protein sources

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    How To Adjust To The Dietary Needs Of The Person With Prostate Cancer

    While these general recommendations ensure a healthy diet, you can play with which foods you choose and how you prepare them so that your meals are appealing and flavorful while also meeting your dietary needs.

    Curb weight loss. If youre losing your appetite and losing weight, think again about what youre cooking and how youre preparing food. Experiment with seasoning foods differently so they taste better, or adding sauces and herbs to mask certain flavors. And cook with higher-calorie ingredients that dont require eating large portions to meet caloric needs.

    Manage fiber intake for diarrhea relief. Loose stools, bleeding from the rectum, and loss of control over bowel movements happen to some men after getting external beam radiation treatments for prostate cancer. Several foods can help if this happens to you. Choose fiber-rich foods such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. The Prostate Cancer Foundation says its a bit of a balancing act when it comes to fiber, but recommends avoiding foods that might irritate your stomach while trying to keep up your consumption of fiber-rich foods to avoid getting constipated.

    How Does Cancer Treatment Affect Your Diet

    Treatments such as chemotherapy and some forms of radiation therapy can cause a variety of side effects, including:

    • Constipation, which can cause discomfort and further reduce your desire to eat
    • Diarrhea, which can drain your body of nutrients
    • Fatigue, which means youre less active, so you burn fewer calories and dont feel as hungry throughout the day
    • Loss of taste, which can make food unappealing
    • Nausea and vomiting, which might reduce your appetite and cause weight loss

    Sometimes it also depends on the specific type of cancer you have, explains Rajagopal. Treatment for breast cancer and blood cancers often involve steroids. Steroids can actually increase your appetite and increase your blood sugar levels, which might lead to insulin resistance and weight gain. So instead of losing weight, its possible to gain quite a bit of weight from the combination of medications and a more sedentary lifestyle during cancer treatment.

    Some people also have hormone therapy after chemotherapy for breast cancer or endometrial cancer. The drugs suppress production of estrogen, a hormone that plays an important role in metabolism. If your metabolism slows down, you may put on weight.

    People with pancreatic cancer often find it difficult to maintain their weight. Since the pancreas isnt functioning the way it should, they may not be able to digest food normally. This can lead to weight loss or malnourishment.

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