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How Is Prostate Size Measured

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What Are Additional Tests For Detecting Prostate Problems

If the DRE or the PSA blood test indicates a problem may exist, the health care provider may order additional tests, including urinalysis, urodynamic tests, cystoscopy, abdominal ultrasound, transrectal ultrasound with prostate biopsy, and imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography scan.

What Is A Prostate Ultrasound Used For

A prostate ultrasound is used to check your prostate gland using ultrasound imagery. The procedure provides your doctor with black-and-white images of your prostate and the surrounding tissues. Your doctor usually wont do this as part of a physical examination, but they may recommend it if:

  • youre over 40

A prostate ultrasound can also be used to help your doctor take a tissue sample, or biopsy, from your prostate.

How Are Prostate Problems Diagnosed

To diagnose prostate problems, the health care provider will perform a digital rectal exam . The health care provider will also ask the patient

  • when the problem began and how often it occurs
  • what symptoms are present
  • whether he has a history of recurrent urinary tract infections
  • what medications he takes, both prescription and those bought over the counter
  • the amount of fluid he typically drinks each day
  • whether he consumes caffeine and alcohol
  • about his general medical history, including any major illnesses or surgeries

Answers to these questions will help the health care provider identify the problem or determine what medical tests are needed. Diagnosing BPH may require a series of medical exams and tests.

What Is The Function Of The Prostate

The prostate plays a fundamental role in the formation of seminal fluid, making sure it produces the correct volume. Their secretions also benefit the mobility of sperm, ensuring that they arrive safely to the egg to fertilize it.

Additionally, this gland is responsible for protecting men from urinary tract infections and maintains a healthy bladder, so it is paramount that it is in perfect condition.

What Is The Normal Prostate Size

CT v TAUS. Comparison imaging of prostate volume ...

A small prostate has a volume of 30 ml to 40 ml and a weight of 20 g to 70 g. A medium prostate has a volume of 40 ml to 80 ml and a weight of 20 g to 125g . A large prostate has a volume of 40ml to 100 ml and a weight of 40 g to 125 g.

Around age 40, prostate gland begins to grow. With a benign prostatic hyperplasia , glands size can increase by 4 to 5 times compared to its initial size.

How Is Volume Measurement Determined During Transrectal Ultrasonography Of The Prostate

    Volume assessment of the prostate is an important and integral part of TRUS. Of the several formulas that have been developed for this purpose, the most commonly used is the ellipsoid formula, which requires measurement of 3 different prostate dimensions.

    First, the transverse dimension and the anteroposterior dimension at the estimated point of the widest transverse dimension are measured in the axial plane. Next, the longitudinal dimension is measured in the sagittal plane just off the midline . The ellipsoid volume formula is then applied, as follows:

    Volume = height × width × length × 0.52

    If You Have Any Problems

    If you have any discomfort when urinating, any pain in the area around the prostate or any indication of a problem, the recommendation is to visit a urologist who can examine you to determine the source of discomfort or the problem.

    It is important to visit a urologist whenever you feel the smallest discomfort, as the problem could get worse with time.

    This article is merely informative, oneHOWTO does not have the authority to prescribe any medical treatments or create a diagnosis. We invite you to visit your doctor if you have any type of condition or pain.

    If you want to read similar articles to What is the Normal Size of the Prostate, we recommend you visit our Family health category.

    Prostate Weight Is The Preferred Measure Of Prostate Size In Radical Prostatectomy Cohorts

    Corresponding Author

    Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville and Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre, Victoria, Australia

    TissuPath Specialist Pathology, Mount Waverley

    Monash University Faculty of Medicine, Victoria, Australia

    Corresponding Author

    Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville and Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre, Victoria, Australia

    TissuPath Specialist Pathology, Mount Waverley

    Monash University Faculty of Medicine, Victoria, Australia

    M.K.H.H., supported by scholarships from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and from the National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia

    Part 1 Of 3:making Lifestyle Changes

  • 1Reduce the amount of caffeine, soda, and alcohol you consume. Cut down on the amount of coffee, tea, soda, and alcoholic beverages you drink every week. Carbonation and caffeine can irritate the bladder, worsening urinary symptoms.XTrustworthy SourceNational Health Service Public healthcare system of the UKGo to source
  • Try to drink no more than 200 milligrams of caffeine dailyabout the amount in 2 cups of coffee. Thats about half the maximum amount for a healthy adult.XTrustworthy SourceMayo ClinicEducational website from one of the world’s leading hospitalsGo to source
  • Drink no more than 4 alcoholic drinks in a given day or 14 drinks in a given week. Its best to reduce your alcohol consumption as much as possible.XResearch source
  • 2Drink less liquid in the 2 hours before bed. Avoid drinking excess liquid in the evenings before you go to sleep. Going to bed with an empty bladder can help you avoid urinary discomfort and frequent urges overnight.XTrustworthy SourceNational Health Service Public healthcare system of the UKGo to source
  • Increase your fluid intake earlier in the day to make sure you are drinking enough overall.
  • Men should aim to drink 15.5 cups of fluid a day.XTrustworthy SourceMayo ClinicEducational website from one of the world’s leading hospitalsGo to source
  • If you exercise strenuously or the weather is very hot, increase your fluid intake accordingly.
  • Avoid stopping any prescribed medication without consulting your doctor.
  • Transrectal Ultrasound With Prostate Biopsy

    Transrectal ultrasound is most often used to examine the prostate. In a transrectal ultrasound, the health care provider inserts a transducer slightly larger than a pen into the mans rectum next to the prostate. The ultrasound image shows the size of the prostate and any abnormal-looking areas, such as tumors. Transrectal ultrasound cannot definitively identify prostate cancer.

    To determine whether a tumor is cancerous, the health care provider uses the transducer and ultrasound images to guide a needle to the tumor. The needle is then used to remove a few pieces of prostate tissue for examination with a microscope. This process, called biopsy, can reveal whether prostate cancer is present. A transrectal ultrasound with prostate biopsy is usually performed by a doctor in a health care providers office, outpatient center, or hospital with light sedation and local anesthesia. The biopsied prostate tissue is examined in a laboratory by a pathologista doctor who specializes in diagnosing diseases.

    How Is A Prostate Ultrasound Done

    When you get to the facility for the test, an ultrasound technician may ask you to take off your clothes and change into a gown. Then, the technician will ask you to lie down on your back or side on an examination table and bend your knees.

    To perform a transrectal ultrasound , the technician covers a small imaging tool called a transducer with ultrasound gel to help the tool broadcast good images. Then, the technician slowly inserts the transducer into your rectum and moves it around gently to get images of your prostate from various angles. For a biopsy, the technician will slowly insert a needle alongside the transducer into your prostate to remove the tissue.

    Your rectum might feel like its swelling while the transducers inside, and the gel can feel damp and cold. Let the technician know if youre uncomfortable during the procedure. Your technician may use local anesthesia or a sedative to help you feel you more comfortable.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Problems

    The symptoms of prostate problems may include

    • urinary retentionthe inability to empty the bladder completely
    • urinary frequencyurination eight or more times a day
    • urinary urgencythe inability to delay urination
    • urinary incontinencethe accidental loss of urine
    • nocturiafrequent urination at night
    • trouble beginning a urine stream
    • weak or interrupted urine stream
    • blockage of urine
    • urine that has an unusual color or odor
    • pain after ejaculation or during urination

    Different prostate problems may have similar symptoms. For example, one man with prostatitis and another with BPH may both experience urinary urgency. Sometimes symptoms for the same prostate problem differ among individuals. For example, one man with BPH may have trouble beginning a urine stream, while another may experience nocturia. A man in the early stages of prostate cancer may have no symptoms at all. Because of this confusing array of symptoms, a thorough medical exam and testing are vital.

    How Accurately Can Prostate Gland Imaging Measure The Prostate Gland Volume Results Of A Systematic Review

    The 1 Thing You Should Do For Your Prostate Daily ...

    David R. H. Christie

    1GenesisCare, Inland Drive, Tugun, QLD 4224, Australia

    2Brain-Behaviour Research Group, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2350, Australia

    Abstract

    1. Introduction

    There are many clinical situations in in the management of prostate diseases in which the measurement of the prostate gland volume has a role . For some of these the measurement does not need a high level of accuracy and simply detecting that the prostate is enlarged can be sufficient. For example, if a general practitioner is considering the choice of medication when treating benign prostatic hyperplasia , more precise measurements of the PGV may be required in other situations, for example, to calculate prostate specific antigen density. For radiation oncologists, the PGV is used to determine the suitability of prostate cancer patients for low dose rate brachytherapy and the number of brachytherapy seeds to order. In those situations, a more accurate measure of the PGV is required and is usually obtained by medical imaging methods.

    2. Materials and Methods

    3. Results

     

    First author,

    What Happens After A Prostate Ultrasound

    Once the test is done, you can take off the gown and put your clothes back on. Your rectum may feel tender for a few days, but you wont need to follow any specific aftercare instructions. Your doctor may prescribe an antibiotic to prevent infection.

    In some cases, your doctor or technician may ask you to wait in the facility until your results are available. Youll usually need to wait a few days for a radiologist to look at the images and diagnose any conditions, however. Depending on where the test was done, you may wait up to two weeks for results.

    Your doctor will schedule a follow-up appointment to discuss your test results. If you have any abnormalities or conditions that are visible on the images, your doctor will point out these areas. Excess tissue, prostate enlargement, or cancerous tumors will appear on the ultrasound images as bright white areas that represent the dense tissue.

    How Do I Prepare For A Prostate Ultrasound

    Some possible instructions that your doctor might give you before the test include:

    • Dont eat for a few hours before the test.
    • Take a laxative or enema to help clear out your intestines a few hours before the test.
    • Stop taking any medications that can thin your blood, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin, about a week before the procedure. This is usually recommended if your doctor plans to take a biopsy of your prostate.
    • Dont wear any jewelry or tight clothes to the clinic on the day of the procedure.
    • Take any medications recommended to help you relax during the procedure. Your doctor may recommend a sedative, such as lorazepam .
    • Make sure someones available to take you home in case your doctor gives you a sedative.

    How Is Bph Diagnosed And Evaluated

    Early diagnosis of BPH is important because if left untreated it can lead to  tract infections, bladder or  damage, bladder stones and incontinence. Distinguishing BPH from more serious diseases like prostate cancer is important.

    Tests vary from patient to patient, but the following are the most common:

    Acute And Chronic Prostatitis

    The prevalence of prostatitis ranges between 5% and 11%. Prostatitis occurs at any age and its incidence increases with age. Acute bacterial prostatitis often begins with chills and fever, lower abdominal discomfort, perineal pain and burning on urination. In chronic bacterial prostatitis perineal pain and increased frequency of painful voiding are the most common symptoms. Acute or chronic bacterial prostatitis with confirmed or suspected infection should be distinguished from chronic pelvic pain syndrome , according to the classification suggested by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases . The pathophysiology of prostatitis is not well understood. In patients with prostatitis, the activities of prostatic antibacterial factor are decreased and the pH is very alkaline. Bacteria invade the prostate by an ascending urethral infection, by reflux of infected urine into prostatic ducts or by lymphatic/haematogenous spread. Acute bacterial prostatitis appears in US as a hypoechoic rim around the prostate and colour Doppler shows an increased flow . A prostate abscess appears sonographically as a hypoechogenic walled-off collection of fluid. In chronic bacterial prostatitis a diffuse increased enhancement of contrast agent may be found. US contrast agents show an increased perfusion of the prostate during acute and chronic infection, however they are not used in routine clinical practice since no studies regarding this issue have been performed.

    What The Results Mean

    PSA levels depend on a mans age. As men get older, their PSA levels naturally go up, but PSA can go up and down for many reasons. Doctors have a hard time agreeing on what is a normal PSA level. But some researchers use a cut-off PSA level of around 3 ng/mL to help them decide which men have the greatest risk of developing prostate cancer. Its important for you to discuss your PSA level result and what it means for your risk of prostate cancer with your doctor. Your doctor will help you determine your risk of prostate cancer in relation to your age, family history and other personal information.

    A higher than normal PSA level doesnt always mean that a man has prostate cancer. High PSA levels can also be caused by:

    • an enlarged prostate due to benign prostatic hyperplasia
    • an inflamed or infected prostate
    • a urinary tract infection
    • a recent medical test or procedure on the prostate, such as a transrectal ultrasound or biopsy
    • a urinary catheter

    Why A Psa Test Is Done

    A PSA test may be done to:

    • help find prostate cancer early in men who dont have any signs or symptoms of the disease
    • check for cancer in men who have signs or symptoms of prostate cancer
    • confirm a diagnosis when other tests suggest prostate cancer
    • predict a prognosis for prostate cancer
    • predict if cancer has spread outside the prostate
    • plan treatment for prostate cancer
    • monitor men with prostate cancer who are being treated with active surveillance
    • find out if cancer treatments are working
    • find out if cancer has come back after treatment

    A PSA test is often used together with a digital rectal exam to increase the chance of finding prostate cancer early when it is easier to treat. Using these tests together is better than using either test alone.

    Who Should Have A Psa Test

    Talk to your doctor about the PSA test. Make an informed decision about whether the PSA test is right for you by talking with your doctor and considering your personal risk factors.

    • If you are at average risk of developing prostate cancer, consider testing from age 50.
    • If you are at high risk of developing prostate cancer, consider testing from age 45. Black men and those with a family history of prostate cancer are considered to be at high risk.

    Your PSA levels will determine how often you get tested. The decision to stop testing is based on your PSA levels, age and general health.

    Know Your Prostate Size

    Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate showing measurement ...

    June 24, 2015 by

    Know Your Prostate Size

    Since everyone is different, it should be no surprise that every mans prostate is a different size.  Heres why it can matter and how it can help to know: What IS surprising to me after over a decade as an advocate, and on a Helpline, is that most men dont know what size their prostate is, and most men are never even told.

     

    SCREENING For men who are PSA testing and screening for prostate cancer, it is very helpful to know how large or small your prostate is because it bares on how much PSA you should be making.  I have seen different experts use different formulas, but in simple terms, a 60cc prostate should make twice the PSA of a 30cc prostate.  I know there is an age-specific PSA, but honestly, it is based on the reality that a prostate gets larger as you get older, but if thats the case, why not find out what size it really is?  Ive had a couple of Helpline callers in their 70s one with a 17 cc prostate and the other with a 200 cc prostate.  And, yes they were both in their 70s.  So how does age-specific PSA work for them?  So ask your urologist for a number What is the size of my prostate?  This may be an estimate, but that is still helpful.  An urologist can estimate on DRE , and if youve ever had a biopsy, there is an ultrasound report from the biopsy that has a measurement and should have a number a prostate volume or size.  Ask for it.

     

     

    How Accurate Is A Prostate Ultrasound

    A prostate ultrasound is more accurate than an X-ray. This is because your technician can see the images as the transducer moves through your rectum rather than having to take a snapshot and develop the images. Ultrasound tests are also safer than X-rays because they dont produce any dangerous radiation.

    A prostate ultrasound is also faster than a computed tomography test, which provides 3-D images of your prostate and the areas around it. CT scans require more preparation and time for testing, and they dont provide real-time images.

    What Are Clinical Trials And Are They Right For You

    Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for you.

    What Is The Normal Size Of The Prostate

    Max. D Gray

    The prostate is an organ located below the bladder and in front of the rectum which is only present in the male body, fulfilling a key role in the formation of seminal fluid. The prostate secretes an alkaline fluid, white in appearance, that makes up to 30% of the volume of semen.

    Over the years this gland can slightly increase in size, resulting in a condition known as prostatitis or inflammation of the prostate. For this reason many men wonder what the normal size of the prostate is and at what point it is considered enlarged. Read this OneHowTo article if you want more information about the normal size of the prostate.

    What Is The Normal Size of Testicles

  • If you have any problems
  • Impact Of Estimation Method On Qualification For Brachytherapy

    Different numbers of patients fit the prostate volume eligibility criteria for brachytherapy when disparate scanning modalities were used to calculate gland size. Of the 70 patients examined, all except 4 were eligible for brachytherapy when prostate volumes were calculated using the ellipsoid ultrasound method . Of the 4 patients deemed ineligible on ellipsoid ultrasound measures, 2 met eligibility criteria for brachytherapy based on erMRI measures of volume.

    Among the remaining 66 patients deemed anatomical candidates for brachytherapy based on ellipsoid ultrasound measures , 22 did not qualify for brachytherapy based on volumes measured using one or both of the other scanning modalities. In particular, 16 patients would not have qualified on erMRI and 10 patients would not have qualified based on contoured ultrasound measures .

    6 of the 66 patients who were considered candidates for brachytherapy as determined by the ellipsoid ultrasound technique for measuring prostate volume had prostates <20 mL on erMRI and 10 patients had glands measuring >60 mL on erMRI . 7 of the 66 patients who were anatomically good candidates for brachytherapy on ellipsoid ultrasound had prostate sizes <20 mL on contoured ultrasound, and 3 patients had volumes >60 mL .In total, the management of 24/70 patients would have changed if patient prostate size had been measured by a method other than ellipsoid TRUS .

    Figure 3

    How Soon Will Prostate Test Results Be Available

    Results for simple medical tests such as some urodynamic tests, cystoscopy, and abdominal ultrasound are often available soon after the test. The results of other medical tests such as PSA blood test and prostate tissue biopsy may take several days to come back. A health care provider will talk with the patient about the results and possible treatments for the problem.

    How Is A Digital Rectal Exam Performed

    A DRE is a physical exam of the prostate. The health care provider will ask the patient to bend over a table or lie on his side while holding his knees close to his chest. The health care provider slides a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the part of the prostate that lies next to it. The DRE may be slightly uncomfortable, but it is brief. This exam reveals whether the prostate has any abnormalities that require more testing. If an infection is suspected, the health care provider might massage the prostate during the DRE to obtain fluid to examine with a microscope. This exam is usually done first. Many health care providers perform a DRE as part of a routine physical exam for men age 50 or older, some even at age 40, whether or not the man has urinary problems.

    Transrectal Colour Doppler Imaging

    Colour Doppler imaging is well established to illustrate macrovascularity and therefore perfusion. PCa has an increased microvessel density compared with healthy prostatic tissue. Therefore, Doppler visualization of streaming blood within the vasculature may aid in detecting and localizing PCa . In addition, the cancer grade correlates positively with the degree of Doppler signal. Other studies have compared Doppler-guided and systematic biopsies with achieving a detection rate of up to 40%.

    Corresponding contrast-enhanced colour Doppler US showing clearly more enhancement of the left side . Targeted biopsy confirmed the presence of a Gleason score 3+4 cancer focus.

    As a criterion for capsular penetration an increased capsular flow on colour Doppler imaging has been applied. Another study that performed Doppler TRUS staging revealed a sensitivity of 59% for detecting locally advanced disease. In addition, Doppler imaging also aids in differentiating fibrotic tissue from local recurrence of PCa.

    Variation In Prostate Size By Method Of Estimation

    Transabdominal ultrasound of the prostate showing ...

    Estimates of prostate volume differed when disparate scanning modalities were used. Average gland size calculated by the contoured ultrasound, ellipsoid ultrasound, and erMRI methods were 33.99, 37.16, and 39.62 mLs, respectively. The difference between the average volume obtained on contoured ultrasound and that obtained on ellipsoid ultrasound was significant as was the difference between average gland size on contoured ultrasound and erMRI . The comparison between average ellipsoid and erMRI prostate volumes was also significant .

    Figure 1

    What Is The Prostate

    The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that is part of the male reproductive system. It has two or more lobes, or sections, enclosed by an outer layer of tissue. The prostate is located in front of the rectum and just below the bladder, where urine is stored. It surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder and supplies fluid that goes into semen.

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