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What Are The Signs That Prostate Cancer Has Spread

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Weakness Or Swelling In The Legs

What are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?

Some men experience general weakness and swelling in the legs during advanced prostate cancer. A dull soreness, tingling, or numbness may also accompany these symptoms.

This happens when a prostate tumor starts pressing on the lower part of the spinal cord. The nerves get crowded and compressed, leading to leg issues.

Its easy to pass this symptom off as an age-related shortcoming. However, if the swelling, weakness, or soreness comes out of nowhere and persists, its time to see a doctor.

When managing the symptoms of prostate cancer, time is of the essence. The longer you leave these symptoms unaddressed, the more problems youll encounter them in the future. Disregarding any of these symptoms can also affect your finances as treating prostate cancer with severe symptoms can be expensive.;

What Treatments Are Available

If you have advanced prostate cancer, treatment wont cure your cancer. But it can help keep it under control and manage any symptoms.

If youve just been diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer, you may be offered the following treatments:

Research has found that having;radiotherapy;together with one of the main treatments listed above can help some men with advanced prostate cancer to live longer. But radiotherapy isnt suitable for all men with advanced prostate cancer.

If you live in;Scotland, you may also be offered a type of hormone therapy called;abiraterone acetate ;together with standard hormone therapy. In the rest of the UK, abiraterone is currently only given to men with advanced prostate cancer that has stopped responding to other types of hormone therapy. The;National Institute for Health and Care Excellence ;is currently deciding whether to make it available for men who have just been diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer.

Before you start treatment

Before you start any treatment, make sure you have all the information you need. Its important to think about how you would cope with the possible side effects. Speak to your doctor or nurse about this.

It can help to write down any questions you want to ask at your next appointment. It may also help to take someone with you, such as your partner, a family member or friend.

If you have any questions, speak to our;Specialist Nurses.

What Kind Of Treatment Will I Need

There are many ways to treat prostate cancer. The main kinds of treatment are observation, active surveillance, surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemo. Sometimes more than one kind of treatment is used.

The treatment thats best for you will depend on:

  • Your age
  • Any other health problems you might have
  • The stage and grade of the cancer
  • Your feelings about the need to treat the cancer
  • The chance that treatment will cure the cancer or help in some way
  • Your feelings about the side effects that might come with treatment

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Determining The Proper Treatment

There are a number of treatment options for prostate cancer, according to the Mayo Clinic.

  • Radiation. Radiation therapy can be delivered in a few different ways. One is external beam radiation, in which a machine outside the body delivers radiation to the prostate tissue. Another form of therapy, known as brachytherapy, involves using radioactive seeds to deliver a low dose of radiation directly to the prostate tissue.
  • Hormones. The hormone testosterone acts as fuel for prostate cancer cells inside the body. By blocking the production of testosterone, you can kill off the cancer. Possible treatments include medications that stop the production of testosterone, medications that block testosterone from reaching cancer cells or, in extreme cases, surgery to remove the testicles.
  • Surgery. For life-threatening prostate cancer, surgery to remove the prostate gland and surrounding tissues may be recommended.
  • Biological therapy. Biological therapy uses your bodys own immune system to fight cancer. In the case of prostate cancer, your bodys immune cells are engineered in a lab to fight prostate cancer, and then injected back into your body.
  • Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a traditional cancer treatment thats used to stop its spread. It may be needed for prostate cancer that has spread to other areas of the body.
  • Cryosurgery or cryoablation. Freezing prostate tissue and then thawing it out has shown some success in killing prostate cancer when other treatments have failed.

What Can Be Done

Prostate Cancer Symptoms all Men Should Know

If your prostate cancer has recurred, your doctor will likely order some imaging tests to better determine where in your body the cancer has returned. Bone scans, CT scans, and MRIs are the most common tests ordered to find where in the body prostate cancer has recurred.

Many treatment options are available for prostate cancer that has returned. The one that you and your physician choose depends on individual factors such as what treatment you have already received, where in the body your prostate cancer has returned, how your cancer has spread, your general health, and your age.

If your prostate cancer is thought to have recurred in only a small area and has not spread to other areas of the body, then radiation therapy to that area may be an option.

If your prostate cancer has most likely spread to multiple areas of the body, then hormonal therapy would likely be an option. Chemotherapy can also be used when the cancer has spread to multiple sites.

  • Geller J. Basis for Hormonal Management of Advanced Prostate Cancer. Cancer. 1993 Feb 1;71:1039-45.

  • Kupelian PA, Buchsbaum JC, Elshaikh M, et al. Factors Affecting Recurrence Rates After Prostatectomy or Radiotherapy in Localized Prostate Carcinoma Patients With Biopsy Gleason Score 8 or Above. Cancer. 2002 Dec 1;95:2302-7.

  • Vickers AJ, Bianco FJ Jr, Boorjian S, et al. Does a Delay Between Diagnosis and Radical Prostatectomy Increase the Risk of Disease Recurrence? Cancer. 2006 Feb 1;106:576-80.

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What Happens If My Cancer Starts To Grow Again

Your first treatment may help keep your cancer under control. But over time, the cancer may change and it may start to grow again.

You will usually stay on your first type of hormone therapy, even if its not working so well. This is because it will still help to keep the amount of testosterone in your body low. But there are other treatments that you can have alongside your usual treatment, to help control the cancer and manage any symptoms. Other treatments include:

Which treatments are suitable for me?

Which treatments are suitable for you will depend on many things, including your general health, how your cancer responds to treatment, and which treatments youve already had. Talk to your doctor or nurse about your own situation, or speak to our;Specialist Nurses.

How Can I Prevent Prostate Cancer

The best way to try and prevent prostate cancer is to modify the risk factors for prostate cancer that you have control over. Eat a low-fat diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables and low in animal fats. It is always a good idea to maintain a healthy weight, get plenty of exercise and not to smoke or to quit smoking.

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How Serious Is My Cancer

If you have prostate cancer, the doctor will want to find out how far it has spread. This is called the stage of the cancer. You may have heard other people say that their cancer was stage 1 or stage 2. Your doctor will want to find out the stage of your cancer to help decide what types of treatment might be best for you.

The stage is based on the growth or spread of the cancer through the prostate, and if it has spread to other parts of your body. It also includes your blood PSA level and the grade of the cancer. The prostate cancer cells are given a grade, based on how they look under a microscope. Those that look very different from normal cells are given a higher grade and are likely to grow faster. The grade of your cancer might be given as a Gleason score or a Grade Group . Ask your doctor to explain the grade of your cancer. The grade also can helpdecide which treatments might be best for you.

Your cancer can be stage 1, 2, 3, or 4. The lower the number, the less the cancer has spread. A higher number, like stage 4, means a more serious cancer that has spread outside the prostate.

If your cancer hasn’t spread to other parts of the body, it might also be given a risk group. The risk group is based on the extent of the cancer in the prostate, your PSA level, and the results of the prostate biopsy. The risk group can help tell if other tests should be done, and what the best treatment options might be.

What Causes Prostate Cancer And Am I At Risk

Living with prostate cancer that has spread: Thomas story

Every man is at risk for prostate cancer as he ages. Although prostate cancer can affect younger men, about 6 out of 10 cases are diagnosed in men over the age of 65. The average age of diagnosis is 66. After non-melanoma skin cancer, prostate is the most common cancer diagnosed in men in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates there will be;248,530;new cases of prostate cancer each year.

Although there are several known risk factors for getting prostate cancer, no one knows exactly why one man gets it and another doesn’t. Some important risk factors for prostate cancer are:;

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What Will Happen After Treatment

Youll be glad when treatment is over. But its hard not to worry about cancer coming back. When cancer comes back it is called a recurrence. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry about it. For years after treatment ends, you will see your cancer doctor. At first, your visits may be every few months. Then, the longer youre cancer-free, the less often the visits are needed.

Be sure to go to all follow-up visits. Your doctors will ask about your symptoms, examine you, and might order blood tests and maybe other tests to see if the cancer has come back.

Having cancer and dealing with treatment can be hard, but it can also be a time to look at your life in new ways. You might be thinking about how to improve your health. Call us at 1-800-227-2345 or talk to your doctor to find out what you can do to feel better.

You cant change the fact that you have cancer. What you can change is how you live the rest of your life,;making healthy choices and feeling as good as you can.

Urinary Prostate Cancer Symptoms

Often, the first noticeable symptoms of prostate cancer are urinary in nature. As the cancer develops, tumors grow, the prostate gland enlarges and pressure can be put on the urethra which passes through it. The urethra is a tube in which urine flows from the bladder out of the body through the tip of the penis. Pressure on the urethra interrupts the flow of urine.This can lead to symptoms of:

  • A Reduced & Weaker Flow When Urinating
  • Frequent Urination
  • A Burning Sensation Or Pain When Urinating
  • Difficulties Beginning Urination
  • A Feeling That You Still Need To Urinate When You Have Just Done So
  • A Longer Time Taken When Urinating
  • Straining When Urinating
  • Blood Within The Urine*

These symptoms can also result from an enlarged prostate caused by a less serious condition known as benign prostatic hyperplasia. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms please visit a doctor and keep in mind that they may result from another condition.

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Treatment For Advanced Prostate Cancer

Although advanced prostate cancer cannot be cured, it can be controlled with treatment, sometimes for several years. Treatments can also help relieve symptoms and improve your quality of life.

A multidisciplinary team ;will meet to discuss the best possible treatment for you. This will depend on different factors, like your general health. Your cancer doctor will talk to you about the advantages and disadvantages of these treatments.

The main treatments are:

  • Hormonal therapy

    Hormonal therapies reduce the amount of testosterone in the body. This may slow the growth of the cancer or stop it growing for a while.

  • Chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer drugs to destroy cancer cells. You may have it with hormonal therapy when you are first diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer. Or, it can be given when hormonal therapy is no longer controlling the cancer.

  • Radiotherapy

    Radiotherapy is most often used to shrink cancer that has spread to the bones. External beam radiotherapy uses high energy rays to destroy cancer cells. Its given using a large machine. Radioisotope therapy is a type of internal radiotherapy given as an injection.

  • Surgery

    Surgery to remove the prostate is not suitable for advanced prostate cancer. Surgery may be used to help control symptoms or to help stabilise a bone that is at risk of breaking.

Your doctor or nurse will usually ask you to sign a form giving your permission for them to give you the treatment. They cannot give treatment without your consent.

What Screening Tests Are Used For Prostate Cancer

File:Diagram showing prostate cancer that has spread to ...

There are two tests used for prostate cancer screening:

The American Cancer Society recommends that men make an informed decision on whether or not they should be screened after talking about the risks and benefits of screening with their healthcare provider. Screening is not recommended in men without symptoms of prostate cancer if they have a life expectancy of less than ten years. Men at average risk of developing prostate cancer should begin this conversation at age 50. African American men and men with one relative with prostate cancer should talk with their healthcare provider about screening beginning at age 45. Men at the highest risk, those with more than one first degree relative with prostate cancer at an early age should begin talking about screening at age 40. Repeat screening is based on baseline PSA results, but typically occurs every 1-2 years.

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What Is The Life Expectancy When Prostate Cancer Spreads To Bones Topic Guide

Receiving Treatment For Prostate Cancer That Has Spread

At Moffitt Cancer Center, the experts within our Urologic Oncology Program treat patients with all stages of prostate cancer, including advanced-stage cancers that have metastasized to other areas of the body. Our multispecialty team collaborates as a tumor board, ensuring each patient receives a treatment plan tailored to his unique needs. For individuals with metastatic prostate cancer, treatment plans aim to alleviate symptoms, slow the rate of cancer growth and shrink tumors to help improve quality of life.

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If Prostate Cancer Spreads

Cancer cells can spread from the prostate to other parts of the body. This spread is called metastasis.

Understanding how a type of cancer usually grows and spreads helps your healthcare team plan your treatment and future care. If prostate cancer spreads, it can spread to the:

  • bladder
  • urethra
  • ejaculatory ducts
  • seminal vesicles
  • rectum
  • lymph nodes in the pelvis
  • lymph nodes outside the pelvis
  • American Joint Committee on Cancer. AJCC Cancer Staging Handbook. 7th ed. Chicago: Springer; 2010.
  • Brierley JD, Gospodarowicz MK, Wittekind C . TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours. 8th ed. Wiley Blackwell; 2017.
  • Hermanns T, Kuk C, Zlotta AR. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and staging. Nargund VH, Raghavan D, Sandler HM . Urological Oncology. Springer; 2015: 40: 697-718.
  • National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Prostate Cancer . .
  • Scher HI, Scardino PT, Zelefsky. Cancer of the prostate. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2015: 68:932-980.

Treatments For Prostate Cancer Spread To Bones

What are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?

If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it nearly always goes to the bones first. Bone metastasis can be painful and can cause other problems, such as fractures , spinal cord compression ,;or high blood calcium levels, which can be dangerous or even life threatening.

If the cancer has grown outside the prostate, preventing or slowing the spread of the cancer to the bones is a major goal of treatment. If the cancer has already reached the bones, controlling or relieving pain and other complications is also a very important part of treatment.

Treatments such as hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and vaccines may help with this, but other treatments specifically target bone metastasis and the problems it may cause.

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Drugs To Treat Cancer Spread To Bone

If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it almost always goes to the bones first. These areas of cancer spread can cause pain and weak bones that might break. Medicines that can help strengthen the bones and lower the chance of fracture are bisphosphonates and denosumab. Sometimes, radiation, radiopharmaceuticals, or pain medicines are given for pain control.

Side effects of bone medicines

A serious side effect of bisphosphonates and denosumab is damage to the jaw, also called osteonecrosis of the jaw . Most people will need to get approval from their dentist before starting one of these drugs.

What Are My Treatment Options With Advanced Prostate Cancer

The treatments your doctor recommends will depend on factors specific to you, from your overall health to how advanced your cancer was when it was first diagnosed.

Many men receive ADT, a type of hormone therapy, which deprives the body of the male hormones that the cancer needs to keep growing.

For most men, however, hormone therapy stops working at some point. Alternatives to hormone therapy were approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2018, and Tagawa often starts men on these therapies as soon as theyre diagnosed with bone metastases. Other treatment options may be available through clinical trials.

In addition, chemotherapy, surgery, and immunotherapy as well as radiation treatments, like external beam radiation, which directly target bone problems may be considered. Major cancer centers, such as Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City and MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, have teams of prostate cancer specialists, as well as sophisticated radiation and other treatment equipment consolidated in one place, which can help with the coordination of care.

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