Discuss Prostate Cancer Testing With Your Doctor
Medical authorities do not recommend that all men should be tested for prostate cancer. In fact, most authorities suggest that men should make their own choice about whether or not to have a PSA test. If you decide to be tested, it is recommended that it should be done every two years from 50 to 69 years of age, and only if your health is such that you expect to live for at least another seven years.
Men at high risk of prostate cancer, such as men with a family history of prostate cancer , or men who have previously had an elevated test result, can start two-yearly testing from age 45. Your doctor can help you decide whether this is necessary.
While there is now some evidence that regular testing may prevent prostate cancer deaths, there are concerns that many men may be diagnosed and treated unnecessarily as a result of being screened, with a high cost to their health and quality of life .
However, the option of active surveillance, where a low-risk cancer is watched closely instead of being treated, helps to lower these risks. Active surveillance is now used quite commonly in Australia for men with low-risk prostate cancer.
If you are unsure whether or not to be tested after considering the benefits and uncertainties of testing and your own risk of prostate cancer, discuss it with your doctor.
In Australia, if you choose to be tested for prostate cancer the tests are covered by Medicare.
Should I Have A Prostate Cancer Screening Test
Routine testing for prostate cancer in all men without symptoms is not recommended in New Zealand at present. Being tested for prostate cancer is your choice. Learning about the pros and cons of prostate testing can help you decide if it is right for you.
To help you decide if a prostate check is right for you, the Ministry of Health has developed the Kupe website. It will help you understand the risks, benefits and implications of prostate testing, so you can have an informed conversation with your doctor.
If you are unsure about whether you need to get tested for prostate cancer, contact your GP for a discussion on the risks and benefits of testing.
How To Check For Prostate Cancer At Home
Medically Reviewed by: Dr. BautistaUpdated on: November 18, 2019
Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men, but the good news is its also one of the most successfully treated through both conventional and holistic prostate cancer treatment. Prostate cancer develops in the walnut-shaped gland that is responsible for producing semen and transporting sperm. Many men, and some women, question, can prostate cancer spread?. Although its not always the case, this type of cancer is typically slow-growing. It lingers in the prostate gland without spreading or causing major damage.
However, if prostate cancer is left untreated, it will eventually destroy the prostate and spread to local and distant organs. The best thing you can do is be proactive, take control of your health, and be familiar with any changes going on in your body. With that said, regular checkups are important, but you can also do this yourself. If youre wondering how to check for prostate cancer at home, the best thing you can do is know what symptoms to look for, and stay knowledgeable about what the four stages of prostate cancer are.
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Other Tests To Detect Cancer
Can ultrasound detect cancer? It can detect changes that appear to be cancerous. If an ultrasound detects abnormalities that look like cancer changes in tissues, more tests will be needed to confirm the diagnosis. The following tests may be used to get a better look at things:
- CT Scan
- Surgical Intervention
Prostate Cancer Urine Test
This test detects the gene PCA3 in your urine and can also help your doctorbetter assess your prostate cancer risk.
PCA3 is a prostate-specific noncoding RNA. Its a gene thats only in yourprostate. If the gene is overexpressed , then theres a greater chance you have prostate cancer.
Like PSA and PHI tests, this isnt definitive, either. But data suggestthat when cancer is present, the PCA3 will be positive 80 percent of thetime. This test can also help your doctor determine whether a biopsy isnecessary.
Both of these new tests are more accurate than the PSA test. Your doctormay recommend one or more than one, based on the specifics of your case.
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Can Blood Tests Detect Cancer Anywhere In The Body
Once in a while, you have had your friend, relative or even prominent personnel have passed on due to cancer, have you ever wondered what this cancer is? Actually, cancer also is known commonly as Malignancy is a condition where there is an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in any part of the body.
Research done show that there are more than 100 different types of cancer among them include lung cancer, lymphoma, breast cancer, colon cancer among others. An individual with cancer will show different sign since different cancers have different symptoms. Since cancer can affect anyone routine blood testing is required. Most people wonder if blood tests detect cancer anywhere in the body. The answer is yes.
When one is diagnosed to be having a cancer different treatment can be carried depending on the position of the cancer and the type of the that cancer. Some of the treatment used includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. All different types of cancer can be treated successfully if at all the diagnosis is done while cancer is at an early stage.
Special Types Of Psa Tests
The PSA level from a screening test is sometimes referred to as total PSA, because it includes the different forms of PSA . If you decide to get a PSA screening test and the result isnt normal, some doctors might consider using different types of PSA tests to help decide if you need a prostate biopsy, although not all doctors agree on how to use these tests. If your PSA test result isnt normal, ask your doctor to discuss your cancer risk and your need for further tests.
Percent-free PSA: PSA occurs in 2 major forms in the blood. One form is attached to blood proteins, while the other circulates free . The percent-free PSA is the ratio of how much PSA circulates free compared to the total PSA level. The percentage of free PSA is lower in men who have prostate cancer than in men who do not.
If your PSA test result is in the borderline range , the percent-free PSA might be used to help decide if you should have a prostate biopsy. A lower percent-free PSA means that your chance of having prostate cancer is higher and you should probably have a biopsy.
Many doctors recommend a prostate biopsy for men whose percent-free PSA is 10% or less, and advise that men consider a biopsy if it is between 10% and 25%. Using these cutoffs detects most cancers and helps some men avoid unnecessary biopsies. This test is widely used, but not all doctors agree that 25% is the best cutoff point to decide on a biopsy, and the cutoff may change depending on the overall PSA level.
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Prostate Cancer: Advancements In Screenings
You may know thatprostate canceris one of the most common cancer types in men. The good news is that thereare many treatment and management options, even if the cancer is caught ata later stage.
What you may not know: There are several options when it comes toprostate cancer screening. After considering multiple factors, your doctor may recommend theprostate-specific antigen test, and/or one of the newer screeningtests that are now available.
Johns Hopkins urologistChristian Pavlovich, M.D., explains what you should know.
Getting The Results Of The Biopsy
Your biopsy samples will be sent to a lab, where they will be looked at with a microscope to see if they contain cancer cells. Getting the results usually takes at least 1 to 3 days, but it can sometimes take longer. The results might be reported as:
- Positive for cancer: Cancer cells were seen in the biopsy samples.
- Negative for cancer: No cancer cells were seen in the biopsy samples.
- Suspicious: Something abnormal was seen, but it might not be cancer.
If the biopsy is negative
If the prostate biopsy results are negative , and the chance that you have prostate cancer isnt very high based on your PSA level and other tests, you might not need any more tests, other than repeat PSA tests sometime later.
But even if many samples are taken, biopsies can still sometimes miss a cancer if none of the biopsy needles pass through it. This is known as a false-negative result. If your doctor still strongly suspects you have prostate cancer , your doctor might suggest:
- Getting other lab tests to help get a better idea of whether or not you might have prostate cancer. Examples of such tests include the Prostate Health Index , 4Kscore test, PCA3 tests , and ConfirmMDx. These tests are discussed in Whats New in Prostate Cancer Research?
- Getting a repeat prostate biopsy. This might include getting additional samples of parts of the prostate not biopsied the first time, or using imaging tests such as MRI to look more closely for abnormal areas to target.
Prostate cancer grade
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What If My Test Results Are Abnormal
If the results of early detection tests like the PSA test or the digital rectal exam suggest that you might have prostate cancer, your doctor will conduct further testing. The PSA may be repeated, or you may be sent to a specialist for more tests such as a transrectal ultrasound and a prostate biopsy.
In a prostate biopsy, a tissue sample is taken from your prostate. Cancer can only be diagnosed with a tissue sample.
In addition to a PSA test, DRE , and a biopsy, research has yielded additional tests that can detect if cancer is present, and if so, how aggressive that cancer might be:
- The Prostate Health Index combines three blood tests that give a more accurate Phi Score, which gives accurate information based on a high PSA to better determine the probability of finding cancer during a biopsy.
Why Is A Prostate
A PSA blood test is performed to detect or rule out prostate cancer. The amount of PSA in the blood is often higher in men who have prostate cancer. However, an elevated PSA level does not necessarily indicate prostate cancer. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the PSA blood test for use in conjunction with a DRE to help detect prostate cancer in men age 50 or older and for monitoring men with prostate cancer after treatment. However, much remains unknown about how to interpret a PSA blood test, its ability to discriminate between cancer and problems such as BPH and prostatitis, and the best course of action if the PSA level is high.
When done in addition to a DRE, a PSA blood test enhances detection of prostate cancer. However, the test is known to have relatively high false-positive rates. A PSA blood test also may identify a greater number of medically insignificant lumps or growths, called tumors, in the prostate. Health care providers and patients should weigh the benefits of PSA blood testing against the risks of follow-up diagnostic tests. The procedures used to diagnose prostate cancer may cause significant side effects, including bleeding and infection.
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How To Check Prostate Cancer
When youre checking for prostate cancer, its important to know the symptoms. When youre aware of the signs, prostate cancer can be caught early. Because prostate cancer doesnt typically show signs early on, this particular cancer is typically found through PSA blood test or digital rectal exams.
But, there are typically five major warning signs of prostate cancer however, as cancer progresses, symptoms typically involve the urinary system. Because the prostate is located close to the urethra and bladder, symptoms might include 1 :
- Frequent urination
- Hip or back pain
- Leg swelling or weakness
Contact your doctor if you notice any of the above symptoms. And if you do catch any of these symptoms, try not to panic. These particular symptoms can often have to do with non-cancerous conditions of the prostate, as well as bladder infections.
Its important to know that there are also several different types of prostate cancer. The most common types found in prostate cancer patients include:
How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
A prostate exam is often done through a digital rectal exam . Your doctor wears a lubricated glove and inserts a finger in your rectum to feel any bumps or harden mass. The DRE locates the specific area where an abnormality might be occurring.
If your doctor suspects prostate cancer or any problems in the gland, a biopsy or a blood test will be ordered.
A biopsy is often ordered to confirm prostate cancer. A small sample from your prostate gland tissue is collected and analyzed in the lab in this procedure.
A biopsy can be uncomfortable for some men as it involves the insertion of a certain device, usually through the anus near the scrotum. That is why some men prefer a blood test to detect prostate cancer.
These procedures are not meant to be compared as they are performed in a string and a specific sequence.
A blood test is often ordered to measure the likelihood of prostate cancer, especially if there are no symptoms observed. This is followed by a biopsy which ultimately validates the condition.
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Can A Simple Blood Test Detect Cancer
It is estimated that one out of four deaths is caused by cancer, making cancer the second leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer is, when untreated, a chronic disease that involves abnormal cell multiplication, which can disrupt the anatomy and function of an organ. Cancer can start as a small group of abnormal cells that can develop into a solid tumor. In its advanced stages, these abnormal cells can also begin to affect neighboring tissues and organs, slough off, or break off from the primary tumor, and travel through the bloodstream to seed distant organs, such as the lymph nodes, the brain, the bones and the liver. Death usually occurs from complications involving these affected organs.
Preventive Measures For Prostate Cancer
If several risk factors for prostate cancer apply to you, you dont necessarily have to fret. There are certain actions you can undertake to protect yourself from the condition.
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How To Tell If Your Cancer Has Metastasized
Prostate cancer metastasis may be suspected if you have specific symptoms such as new lower back pain or elevated liver enzymes. These may be signs your cancer has spread to your spine or your liver, respectively. If your prostate-specific antigen levels continue to rise despite treatment, especially if they are rising particularly fast, this may be a sign that cancer is metastasizing somewhere in your body.
Psa Test For Prostate Cancer
The prostate gland makes a protein called prostate specific antigen . This protein helps to nourish sperm. Normally, only tiny amounts of it enter the bloodstream.
Cancer cells in the prostate interfere with proper functioning and can cause large amounts of PSA to enter the bloodstream. Therefore, when high levels of PSA are detected in the bloodstream, this may indicate cancer.
Early prostate cancer often has no symptoms. However, high PSA levels can occur five to 10 years before the onset of prostate cancer symptoms. In such circumstances, the PSA test can help to indicate the presence of cancer at an early stage.
Other tests are needed to confirm a diagnosis because an abnormal PSA test can be due to non-cancerous causes. Equally, it is possible for a man to have a normal PSA level when cancer is present.
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Checking For Psa At Home
Itâs best to look for prostate symptoms and then screen using a Prostate Specific Antigen blood test. While there is no physical way for you to check for prostate cancer at home, there are at-home screening options for PSA. imawareâ¢ at-home test for PSA can help screen you for prostate issues.
Advanced Genomic Testing For Prostate Cancer
The most common lab test for prostate cancer is advanced genomic testing, which examines a tumor to look for DNA alterations that may be driving the growth of the cancer. By identifying the mutations that occur in a cancer cells genome, doctors may get a clearer picture of the tumors behavior and be able to tailor a patients treatment based on the findings.
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How Are Prostate Problems Diagnosed
To diagnose prostate problems, the health care provider will perform a digital rectal exam . The health care provider will also ask the patient
- when the problem began and how often it occurs
- what symptoms are present
- whether he has a history of recurrent urinary tract infections
- what medications he takes, both prescription and those bought over the counter
- the amount of fluid he typically drinks each day
- whether he consumes caffeine and alcohol
- about his general medical history, including any major illnesses or surgeries
Answers to these questions will help the health care provider identify the problem or determine what medical tests are needed. Diagnosing BPH may require a series of medical exams and tests.