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Copyright: © 2020 Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Uptake Of Cancer Medicines
The uptake of prostate cancer medicines was analysed as sales in standard weekly doses per cancer case in individual countries and is displayed in the below graph cumulatively.3
In 2018, the UK’s cumulative uptake of prostate cancer medicines analysed ranked 16th amongst the 26 European countries studied.
The UK’s cumulative uptake for prostate cancer medicines was the lowest amongst the other EU5 countries Italy, Germany, France and Spain.
- The prostate cancer medicines analysed by IHE were abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide
- IHE selected a range of medicines launched between 2005-2015 that were identified by oncologists to represent accepted standard treatments and had high volumes of use across European countries. This selection process led to the variation in the number of individual medicines selected for each tumour type. Data was then collected from each country to highlight variation in volumes used as presented in these charts
Reference for graphs and text:
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Trend Patterns In Most Recent Period
However, in the latest period, the magnitudes of increase for ASIRs and decrease for ASMRs were attenuated or even reversed. ASIRs have been significantly increasing in only 44 countries in the most recent period compared with 65 countries in the full period, and ASMRs have been significantly decreasing in 32 countries in the most recent period compared with 45 countries in the full period . For instance, the AAPC of ASIR in the United States of America was â0.69% from 2000 to 2019, while the AAPC was 0.49% from 2015 to 2019. And the AAPC of ASMR was â1.22% from 2000 to 2019 but it was 0.48% from 2015 to 2019 .
Figure 4. Comparisons of changing trends in most recent period with that in full period.
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Reducing The Cancer Burden
Between 30 and 50% of cancers can currently be prevented by avoiding risk factors and implementing existing evidence-based prevention strategies. The cancer burden can also be reduced through early detection of cancer and appropriate treatment and care of patients who develop cancer. Many cancers have a high chance of cure if diagnosed early and treated appropriately.
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The European Cancer Burden In : Incidence And Mortality Estimates For 40 Countries And 25 Major Cancers
- 1 These authors contributed equally to the work.Tadeusz Dyba1 These authors contributed equally to the work.Affiliations
- 1 These authors contributed equally to the work.Giorgia Randi1 These authors contributed equally to the work.Affiliations
- 1 These authors contributed equally to the work.
- The 2020 incidence estimates derived from 151 population-based cancer registries’ data.
- Over 4 million new cancer cases and 1.9 million cancer-related deaths are estimated in Europe for 2020.
- Half the overall cancer diagnoses are from breast , colorectal , lung and prostate cancers.
- The most common cancer-related deaths are from lung , colorectal , breast and pancreatic cancers.
- The 2020 estimates are key to assess and monitor cancer-control measures across Europe.
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Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria
All observational studies stated the survival rate of localized prostate cancer in Asian countries were included in the study. Articles of other cancers reported survival in people who reported regional, metastatic, as well as review and meta-analysis studies were excluded. It should be noted that studies that did not report the sample size or confidence interval of survival rates were not included in the meta-analysis.
Prostate Cancer Incidence And Mortality In 2020
The incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in 2020 of the major countries are shown in Table 1. Globally, more than 1.4 million new prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in 2020. The crude incidence rate was 36.0 per 100,000 males and the ASIR was 30.7 per 100,000 males. Data by continents in Figure 1 showed that, ASIRs in Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Northern America and Oceania exceeded 59 per 100,000 males, while ASIRs in Africa and Asia were lower than 30 per 100,000 males. However, the regional distribution of ASMR was quite different, with the highest rate in Africa, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe, Oceania, Northern America and Asia.
Figure 1. Incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in 2020 by continent. Incidence rate Mortality rate ASIR, age-standardized incidence rate ASMR, age-standardized mortality rate.
ASIRs substantially vary more than 123-fold among 174 countries, wherein the highest ASIR was 110.7 per 100,000 males in Ireland from Northern Europe while the lowest ASIR was 0.9 per 100,000 males in Bhutan from South-Central Asia. Similarly, ASMRs varied by more than 77-fold among 174 countries, from the lowest ASMR of 0.54 per 100,000 males in Bhutan from South-Central Asia to the highest ASMR of 41.7 per 100,000 males in Zimbabwe from Eastern Africa, in which the crude mortality rate was only 12.2 per 100,000 .
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Important Facts Related To Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in the world among men and the fourth most common in total worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for around 8% of new cancer cases among men and 15% of new cancer in total worldwide. Of prostate cancer cases worldwide, 68% occurs in more developed countries around the world. Some of the reasons for why men in developed countries are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer include: 1) increased availability of screening for prostate-specific antigen in men who have not shown signs of prostate cancer 2) better medical care 3) The fact they people are more likely to live to advanced ages or be obese . Worldwide prostate cancer acts as the 5th leading cause of mortality among men, accounting for around 6.6% of total deaths.
Regional Differences In Prostate Cancer Incidence And Mortality
The incidence and mortality number, age standardized rate , crude rate , and MIR for prostate cancer are summarized in Table 1. When ranking regions based on the HDI, very high-HDI regions had the highest CR for prostate cancer incidence and mortality , but the lowest MIR . Medium-HDI regions had the lowest CR for incidence and mortality , while the MIR was highest in the low-HDI regions . When arranging these regions by continent, three regions had a CR for prostate cancer incidence greater than 100, North America , Europe and Oceania . The CR for mortality in the latter two regions was also greater than 20.0, though not for North America . Regions with a lower CR for prostate cancer incidence and mortality included Africa and Asia . Africa had the highest MIR , while North America had the lowest MIR .
Table 1. Summary of the regional prostate cancer incidences, mortality rates, and mortality-to-incidence ratios.
|ASR, age-standardized rate CR, crude rate HDI, human development index MIR, mortality-to-incidence ratio|
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Trend Patterns From 2000 To 2019
Table 2. Patterns of trends in incidence and mortality for prostate cancer from 2000 to 2019 among 89 countries.
In the past two decades, an increasing trend of ASIR for prostate cancer was observed in 65 countries, nearly all countries had high or very high HDI except Tajikistan, and the AAPCs ranged from 0.23% to 4.54% . Meanwhile, significantly increasing mortality trends were also observed in 19 of the 65 countries, with the AAPCs ranging from 0.36% to 3.63% while significantly decreasing mortality trends were also observed in 25 of the 65 countries, with AAPCs ranging from â1.85% to â0.32% . In addition, ASIR and ASMR have been significantly decreasing from 2000 to 2019 in nine countries with a very high HDI, including the Austria, Canada, France, Iceland, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, and United States of America .
Table 3. Trend analysis of age-standardized incidence for prostate cancer from 2000 to 2019.
Table 4. Trend analysis of age-standardized mortality for prostate cancer from 2000 to 2019.
Figure 3. The AAPC of the ASIR and ASMR of prostate cancer. *P< 0.05. AAPC, Average annual percent change ASIR, age-standardized incidence rate ASMR, age-standardized mortality rate.
Incidences Mortalities And Mirs For Prostate Cancer As Well As Hdis In Different Countries
Supplementary Table 1 summarizes the HDI, CHE, incidence, mortality, and MIR for prostate cancer in selected countries. The five countries with the highest CR for incidence were Ireland , Sweden , Estonia , Norway and France . The five countries with the highest CR for mortality were Estonia , Latvia , Trinidad and Tobago , Lithuania and Denmark . Two countries have MIRs over 0.40, Ukraine and Thailand , while three have MIRs below 0.10, Luxembourg , Ireland and France . Comparison of the 2012-2018 MIRs revealed that the five countries with the highest MIRs were the Philippines , Argentina , Thailand , Belarus and Costa Rica . The countries with the lowest MIRs were Canada , Finland , Israel , Latvia and Germany .
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Asian Americans Native Hawaiians And Pacific Islanders
PCa is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among Asian American , Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander men A total of 4,550 new cases were expected in 2016, which would have accounted for approximately 18% of all cancers in this group during that period. As illustrated in Figure 3 and Table 1, incidence rates are approximately two times higher in NHWs and three times higher in Blacks than in AANHPIs. Similar to the trend in other U.S. racial groups, PCa incidence rates peaked among AANHPIs in the early 1990s because of the rapid uptake of PSA testing, followed by a steady decline .
Temporal Trends And Recent Patterns For All Age Groups Combined
The annual number of prostate cancer cases and age-adjusted rates among the 43 populations across five continents are presented in Supplementary Table 1 and the age-adjusted rates are plotted in Figure 1. Incidence rates were consistently highest in North America and Oceania, and lowest in Asia. We semi-quantitatively summarized temporal patterns into five groups:
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Latest Prostate Cancer Data
Prostate cancer is the 2nd most commonly occurring cancer in men and the 4th most common cancer overall. There were more than 1.4 million new cases of prostate cancer in 2020.
The 10 countries with the highest rates of prostate cancer and the highest number of deaths from prostate cancer in 2020 are shown in the tables below.
ASR = age-standardised rates. These are a summary measure of the rate of disease that a population would have if it had a standard age structure. Standardisation is necessary when comparing populations that differ with respect to age because age has a powerful influence on the risk of dying from cancer.
Vitamin And Mineral Supplements
An inverse relationship was observed between sunlight, or UVB exposure, and incidence of prostate cancer , suggesting that vitamin D deficiency might increase prostate cancer risk development . Similarly, discoveries were made by Barnett and Beer who found that people living in âsunnyâ countries were at lower risk of developing secondary solid cancer after melanoma compared to people living in âless sunnyâ countries.
The incidence of prostate cancer in African-American men is twice that of Caucasians, suggesting that race might play a role. There might be a role for vitamin D deficiency in this as UV radiation is blocked in darkly pigmented skin due to high melanin levels and this mechanism inhibits the conversion to vitamin D3 .
Vitamin E is a vitamin which is fat soluble. Vegetable oils, egg yolks, and nuts are the important dietary sources of vitamin E. Tocopherols present in vitamin E have both potent cellular anti-oxidant with anticancer properties . Studies investigating the relationship between vitamin E and prostate cancer risk have shown contradicting results. The ATBC trial showed that in men who smoked supplementing daily vitamin E was not able to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer . In another large clinical trial , vitamin E supplementation did not show any benefit in 31,000 men with incident prostate cancer .
Folate and vitamin B12
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Family History And Genetic Factors
It is estimated that about 20% of patients with prostate cancer report a family history, which may develop not only because of shared genes but also for a similar pattern of exposure to certain environmental carcinogens and common lifestyle habits . Several studies reported that inherited genetic background is associated with increased risk for prostate cancer, contributing to about 5% of disease risks . Particularly, this risk is increased by several folds when high-penetrance genetic âriskâ alleles are inherited, conversely to more common low-penetrance loci that increase the risk only modestly.
The X chromosome is also believed to have a role in prostate cancer inheritance, because it contains the androgen receptor and because small deletions in Xq26.3-q27.3 region were noted in sporadic and hereditary forms of prostate cancer . More recent studies in 301 hereditary prostate cancer affected families defined a number of other loci that may contribute to hereditary prostate cancer .
Prostate Cancer Incidence Mortality Declines Or Stabilizes In Most Countries
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ATLANTA Rates of prostate cancer incidence and mortality are decreasing or remaining steady in most parts of the world, according to study results presented at American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting.
In 2012, prostate cancer was the most prevalent cancer among men in 96 countries and the leading cause of death in 51 countries. It remains the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer death among men worldwide, according to study author senior associate scientist of surveillance research at the American Cancer Society.Previous studies have indicated significant variation in prostate cancer rates, due to factors including detection practices, availability of treatment and genetic factors, Freeman said in a press release. By comparing rates from different countries, we can assess differences in detection practices and improvements in treatment.
In the study, Freeman and colleagues estimated age-standardized incidence of prostate cancer and mortality rates by country and WHO regions for 2012 based on GLOBOCAN data. They assessed long-term trends in incidence and mortality for 38 countries with high-quality, population-based data.
The researchers noted that their study is limited by the variability in data collection among the countries.
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Surgical procedures to remove the diseased prostate are usually necessary. Surgical procedures are not always necessary. If the disease is caused by bacterial infections, a doctor can treat the symptoms using alpha-blockers or surgery. Physical therapy, relaxation exercises, and warm baths are all recommended. A physician may also prescribe antibiotics to cure the infection. A bacterial infection can also cause a recurrence of the condition.
An enlarged prostate can be uncomfortable for both men and women. Some of the symptoms of an enlarged male reproductive organ include a weakened urine stream, urgent need to urinate, and urinary tract infections. BPH can also cause damage to the kidneys. A sudden inability to urinate can be life-threatening, as it can lead to bladder and kidney damage. Unfortunately, most men with enlarged prostrates put up with the symptoms for years before they seek treatment. However, many of the men with symptoms finally decide to go to a doctor for proper gynecological evaluation and to begin enlarged prostatic therapy.
Implications Of Available Evidence
PCa screening can detect early disease and it offers the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality. Despite potential and expected better outcomes from early detection, benefits from PCa screening remained unproven prior to 2018. Recent data from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force report documented that PSA screening offers a potential benefit of reducing the chance of death from PCa in some men aged 5569 years. The Task Force now recommends that men should discuss the benefits and harms of screening with their doctor, so they can make the best choice for themselves based on their individual circumstances.
Figure 1 illustrates incidence and mortality rates by geographical area. The comparison of mortality to incidence ratio is quite striking between developed and less developed countries. For example, the Caribbean has an MR/IR of 37%, while in Middle Africa, the ratio is as high as 90%. Conversely, the MR/IR ratio is 12% for Australia and New Zealand and 10% for Northern America. Even in regions where incidence rates are documented to be quite low such as South Central and Southeast Asia, the MR/IR ratio is as high as 64%.
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Treatment Of Prostate Cancer
The treatments that someone who has to undergo for prostate cancer varies depending on how severe the cancer is and how much it has progressed. If diagnosed early enough then a doctor may just recommend active surveillance in which regular blood tests, rectal exams, and even biopsies may be performed to monitor the disease. If the cancer is progressing then other, more extreme treatment option are taken. These can include external beam radiation therapy, brachytherapy , various hormone therapies, cryosurgery , chemotherapy and biological therapy. Depending on what stage a personâs prostate cancer is at and what a personâs doctor recommends will decide what treatment or treatments are done.