What Should Physicians Tell Prostate Cancer Patients About Pomegranate Juice
Patients asking about pomegranate juice or extract consumption should be referred to the Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements âPatient Version at the National Cancer Institute,38 where they will find brief summaries of the source of bioactive compounds in pomegranates, and the results of preclinical studies and clinical trials in biochemically recurrent prostate cancer patient population, concluding with the phase III trial results showing no differences in PSA doubling times between placebo and pomegranate arms. If future studies confirm that pomegranate products benefit patients with the MnSOD AA genotype, testing for MnSOD status may be beneficial in guiding patients. If drug-drug interaction questions arise, in the context of known problems with grapefruit juice, the patient may be told that preclinical data support the possibility of CYP3A4/CYP2C9 inhibition by pomegranate juice.39 However, there is little clinical concern as the data in health volunteers shows little effect of pomegranate juice on the pharmacokinetics of CYP metabolized drugs, while grapefruit juice does affect the clearance of those drugs.40
Not Enough Evidence To Show Plant Polyphenols Benefit Men With Prostate Problems
We take a look at the claims suggesting certain plant chemicals called polyphenols can treat prostate cancer and separate fact from fiction.
Weve recently been alerted to an advert that suggests certain plant chemicals called polyphenols can treat prostate cancer and other prostate problems. The advert makes some bold and inaccurate claims, so weve taken the opportunity to look at the evidence and separate fact from fiction.
What are polyphenols?
Polyphenols are chemicals that are naturally present in certain plant-based foods they can be found in pomegranates, for example. Theyre also an active ingredient in some dietary supplements and herbal remedies .
What does the evidence show?
Overall, there isnt currently enough evidence to say whether polyphenols slow the growth of prostate cancer or have any other benefits for men with prostate problems.
Although there have been several clinical trials looking at the impact of polyphenols on the progression of prostate cancer, these studies havent been robust. This means they either havent included enough people, or they havent followed people for long enough.
The evidence simply isnt strong enough to support claims that polyphenols are beneficial for men with prostate problems so were concerned to see adverts making such bold statements. Lisa O’SullivanSenior Specialist Nurse
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Pomegranate And Colon Cancer
Colorectal cancer is currently one of the most common diagnosed cancer in men and women and it manifests with the uncontrolled proliferating of the epithelial cells and the suppression of their apoptosis . One of the major constituents of pomegranate, the ellagitannin urolithin A plays a key role in the inhibition of proliferation of colon cancer cells through cell cycle arrest and the inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling .
The action of ellagitannins and urolithin on the CYP1 enzymes is important as these enzymes lead to the activation of inactive carcinogens into active carcinogenic chemicals in colon cancer. In the cell line study using HT-29 colon cancer cells, the evaluation of activity of CYP1 enzyme by employing EROD assay showed a reduction of CYP1 enzymes which were induced in the cell line. The extracts were found to show selective inhibition of proliferation of the cells omitting the non-cancer cells in a dose dependent fashion. Further, ellagitannin and urolithin was found to cause an increase in the apoptosis of the cell lines resulting in a reduction of the cell colony .
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Pomegranate Juice Components Could Stop Cancer From Spreading Research Suggests
- University of California – Riverside
- Researchers have identified components in pomegranate juice that both inhibit the movement of cancer cells and weaken their attraction to a chemical signal that promotes the metastasis of prostate cancer to the bone. The research could lead to new therapies for preventing cancer metastasis.
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have identified components in pomegranate juice that both inhibit the movement of cancer cells and weaken their attraction to a chemical signal that promotes the metastasis of prostate cancer to the bone. The research could lead to new therapies for preventing cancer metastasis.
Performed in the lab of Manuela Martins-Green, a professor of cell biology, the research was presented Dec. 12, 2010 at the 50th annual meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology taking place in Philadelphia.
Prostate cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men in the United States. To date, there is no cure for it. If prostate cancer recurs after treatments of surgery and/or radiation, usually the next treatment is the suppression of the male hormone testosterone, which inhibits the growth of the cancer cells because they need this hormone to grow. But over time, the cancer develops ways to resist hormone suppression therapies, becomes very aggressive, and metastasizes to the bone marrow, lungs, and lymph nodes, usually resulting in the patient’s death.
Can Pomegranates Prevent Prostate Cancer A New Study Offers Promise
The juice of the pomegranate, say researchers at University of Wisconsin Medical School, shows major promise to combat prostate cancer the most common invasive cancer and the second-leading cause of cancer death in American men. With more than 230,000 new cases of prostate cancer expected to be diagnosed this year alone in the U.S. and the outlook poor for patients with metastatic disease, researchers are looking for new strategies to combat the disease. Earlier research at Wisconsin and elsewhere has shown that the pomegranate, a fruit native to the Middle East, is rich in anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity and is effective against tumors in mouse skin. In fact, pomegranate juice has higher anti-oxidant activity than do red wine and green tea, both of which appear promising as anti-cancer agents.
The UW research team aimed to find out if the extract from pomegranates would not only kill existing cancer, but help prevent cancer from starting or progressing. Using human prostate cancer cells, the team first evaluated the fruit extracts effect, at various doses, on those cells cultured in laboratory dishes. They found a dose-dependent effect in other words, the higher the dose of pomegranate extract the cells received, the more cells died.
The next step in the evaluation of pomegranates for cancer prevention and treatment is to conduct tests in humans, according to Mukhtar.
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Pomegranate Green Tea Turmeric And Broccoli May Help Fight Prostate Cancer
British researchers have scientifically proven that broccoli, turmeric, green tea and pomegranate help fight the most common cancer in men in the United States and the United Kingdom prostate cancer.
Professor Robert Thomas, who works as an oncologist at Bedford Hospital and Addenbrookes, part of Cambridge University Hospitals, and team conducted a six-month human study involving 203 adult males, all of them with prostate cancer.
The men were split into two groups:
They all took a capsule each day, with either the target ingredients or placebo. After six months, the researchers found that PSA levels were 63% lower among those taking capsules containing essence of pomegranate, turmeric, green tea and broccoli compared to those in the placebo group.
Pomegranate Juice And Prostate Health
Pomegranate juice contains plenty of antioxidants, but does it improve health, as the ads imply? Pom Wonderful, a large company that makes pomegranate juice and other products from pomegranates, would like you to believe that the juice can prevent or treat a number of health problems, including prostate cancer and erectile dysfunction. However, a close look at the science behind these claims shows that drinking pomegranate juice to treat or prevent prostate cancer and erectile dysfunction might not be worth the cost or the calories.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men, other than skin cancer. Since almost everyone knows someone with prostate cancer, and since treatments can cause erectile dysfunction and incontinence, there is a tremendous desire to find a way to prevent the disease.
Drinking pomegranate juice has been touted as an easy solution to decreasing the risk of prostate cancer and improving erectile dysfunction, but does it work? Nearly all of the studies are sponsored by Pom Wonderful, which is selling the products that the studies are evaluating. The company reports having spent at least $35 million on the research unfortunately, studies sponsored by a products manufacturer tend to be biased in favor of the products.
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Pomegranate Juice May Slow Prostate Cancer Progression
According to a study presented at the American Urological Associations annual meeting in 2009, drinking 8 ounces of pomegranate juice a day may slow the progression of prostate cancer.
The study included 48 men who had a rising prostate-specific antigen level following radiation therapy or surgery to treat localized prostate cancer. At the start of the study in 2003, the men had PSA levels greater than 0.2 and less than 5.0 ng/ml, and an average PSA doubling time of 15.4 months. In 2006, researchers reported that the men who drank 8 ounces of pomegranate juice daily had slower PSA doubling times.
Since then, researchers continued to follow the participants, 15 of whom stuck with the study for as long as 64 months. They found that the PSA doubling times of the men who kept drinking pomegranate juice were about four times longer than the PSA doubling times at the studys start and longer than the PSA doubling times of the men who stopped drinking the juice.
For those who want to try pomegranate juice, one note of caution: its high in calories. An 8-ounce glass of POM Wonderful, the juice used in the study, contains 160 calories, 50 calories more than a typical glass of orange juice.
SOURCE: Pantuck AJ, Zomorodian N, Rettig M, et al. Long-term Follow-Up of Phase 2 Study of Pomegranate Juice for Men with Prostate Cancer Shows Durable Prolongation of PSA Doubling Time. Journal of Urology 2009 181: abstract 826.
Originally published July 1, 2009 Last reviewed April 11, 2011
Pomegranate Juice: Tart Trendy And Targeted On Prostate Cancer Cells
- American Chemical Society
- Researchers in California are reporting new evidence explaining pomegranate juice’s mysterious beneficial effects in fighting prostate cancer. In a new study scientists have found that the tart, trendy beverage also uses a search-and-destroy strategy to target prostate cancer cells.
Researchers in California are reporting new evidence explaining pomegranate juice’s mysterious beneficial effects in fighting prostate cancer.
In a new study, Navindra Seeram and colleagues have found that the tart, trendy beverage also uses a search-and-destroy strategy to target prostate cancer cells.
In previous research, Seeram’s group found that pomegranate juice consumption had a beneficial effect for prostate cancer patients with rising prostate-specific antigen levels. Such increases in PSA signal that the cancer is progressing, “doubling time” a key indicator of prognosis. Men whose PSA levels double in a short period are more likely to die from their cancer. Pomegranate juice increased doubling times by almost fourfold.
“The chemopreventive potential of pomegranate ellagitannins and localization of their bioactive metabolites in mouse prostate tissue suggest that pomegranate may play a role in prostate cancer treatment and chemoprevention,” the researchers state, recommending further clinical studies with pomegranate and prostate cancer patients.
Summary Of Clinical Trial Results
Clinical trials confirmed that pomegranate juice and extract are safe. Early promising results in BCR prostate cancer patients in phase II trials without placebo arms were not confirmed in a larger, placebo controlled trial. An exploratory analysis showed a subset of BCR patients with the MnSOD AA genotype appeared to respond positively to the antioxidant effects of pomegranate treatment. In Phase II trials of neoadjuvant patients and mCRPC patients, results using 100% pomegranate products were negative. A multi-component food supplement with pomegranate content showed promising results in a placebo-controlled phase II study in active surveillance and BCR prostate cancer patients.
Dairy Foods And Calcium
Some research has shown that men who have a diet high in calcium may have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. And men may be more likely to have prostate cancer that is more advanced or aggressive. But there is no evidence to say that excluding dairy foods and calcium from the diet will slow the growth of prostate cancer, or reduce the risk of the cancer coming back.
Men with prostate cancer should aim for a healthy balanced diet that includes adequate amounts of calcium. It plays an important part in the way our bodies work. For example it helps keep our bones strong and healthy and helps our muscle to work.
Adults need 700 mg of calcium each day, which most people can get from a balanced healthy diet. Choose low fat and low sugar dairy products.
Good sources of calcium include
- dairy foods such as milk, cheese and yoghurts
- tinned fish that contains the bones, for example, salmon or sardines
- green leafy vegetables
- nuts such as almonds and brazil nuts
- seeds such as sesame seeds
Its difficult to give examples of specific amounts. But a daily 700mg of calcium could include all of the following:
- a small tin of pilchards or sardines
- a 50g portion of broccoli
- 200 mls of milk
It is particularly important if you are having hormone therapy to have adequate amounts of calcium. This is because bone thinning is a side effect of this treatment.
Talk to your GP if you are struggling to eat a balanced diet and ask whether you need to take supplements.
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What The Science Says About Erectile Dysfunction And Pomegranate Juice
There is even less evidence behind Pom Wonderfuls claims that drinking pomegranate juice decreases erectile dysfunction than there is about prostate cancer or other illnesses. Two studies used by Pom Wonderful to back these claims were conducted on rabbits not humans. These studies found that antioxidants may be useful against erectile dysfunction, although no definite conclusions were made even for rabbits, and certainly not for humans.
Pomegranates Power Over Prostate Cancer
Pomegranates Power Over Prostate Cancer
A new randomized study has added to the body of research on the efficacy of pomegranate in slowing the progression of prostate cancer. The study, conducted at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, indicates that taking one, 1-gram pomegranate pill a day may help slow the progression of prostate cancer.
In the study, 104 men with rising PSA scores after local therapy and no metastases were divided into two study arms. One arm took three grams of pomegranate extract while the other took one gram of extract in one pill and two placebo pills. The men were treated for 18 months or to progression of their cancer.
Both arms showed evidence of slower tumor growth as measured by PSA doubling time. The low-dose group increased from 11.9 months before therapy to 18.8 at the end of therapy, and the high-dose arm rose from 12.2 months to 17.5. PSA levels actually declined in 13 patients.
Pomegranate has been identified as a significant nutraceutical by researchers who point to its high antioxidant and flavonoid content.
Simon Yeung, PharmD, an herbalist and expert in botanicals at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City, says studies involving pomegranate have shown it may increase the rate of cell death in prostate cancer, but he advises that much larger, randomized studies are needed.
We cant recommend pomegranate as cancer prevention yet because we need a good, large trial to see what the facts are, Yeung says.
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Apart From Being Effective Pomi
Not only did the Pomi-t capsules significantly control PSA levels, there were also virtually no adverse effects.
Previous studies, which had focused on putting minerals, lycopene and vitamins extracted from foods into supplements, found that they did more harm than good.
Laboratory tests and very small randomized trials had demonstrated the anti-cancer effects of polyphenol-rich foods, such as broccoli, turmeric, green tea and pomegranate. This study, Prof. Thomas explained, is the first to clearly establish an influence on cancer progression markers within a scientifically robust evaluation.
Thomas and team presented their findings at the ASCO conference, Chicago, Illinois.
Professor Thomas said:
Our experience in offering high-quality clinical care, collaboration with cancer charities and world-class research with the University of Cambridge has resulted in findings which will have a worldwide impact. We hope this will help millions of men to help combat the onset of prostate cancer. At the Primrose Unit in Bedford there is a long track record of designing and evaluating lifestyle strategies so this was a natural progression.
Healthy eating and lifestyle is the main way of helping to combat the development of cancer but men can now also turn to a whole food supplement which has been shown to work.
Previous studies have demonstrated pomegranates qualities:
Pomegranate And Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death related to cancer worldwide in both men and women. Cigarette smoking is attributed to e the major cause of the condition. Along with lung cancer, cigarette smoke causes an increase in oxidative stress and DNA damage. From the animal studies conducted on the formation of lung nodules associated with lung cancer and other cancer related factors like the attenuation of mitosis and the levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1Î± or HIF1 Î± because of cigarette smoke, it was found that pomegranate juice supplements wee able to reduce the formation of lung nodules which is a common observation in the case of cigarette smoke exposure along with the reduction of mitosis and HIF-1 Î± .
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