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Prostate Cancer And Alcohol Consumption

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Assessment Of Alcohol Consumption And Other Risk Factors

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To assess alcohol consumption in 1988, we asked alumni to report their intake of wine, beer, and liquor by responding to the question, How many servings of the following foods do you eat? We assumed that one serving was equivalent to one unit of alcohol. Seven responses were possible for each alcoholic beverage, including almost never, 13 per month, 12 per week, 36 per week, 12 per day, 35 per day, and 6+ per day. We estimated total alcohol consumption by summing wine, beer, and liquor intake using the midpoints of the first six responses and a conservative midpoint estimate for the seventh response . Based on the distribution of total and beverage-specific intake, we a priori collapsed the seven categories into five categories of intake: almost never, 1/month to < 3/week, 3/week to < 1/day, 1 to < 3/day, and 3/day. Self-reports of alcohol intake using food frequency questions are reasonably reliable and valid, as indicated by previous studies of male health professionals and population-based groups. Total alcohol consumption on the 1977 questionnaire was calculated in an identical manner as done for the 1988 questionnaire, summing intake from wine, beer and liquor. Alcohol consumption from the college physical exam was measured from an overall question without regard to specific beverage intakes.

Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria

The criteria for inclusion were: casecontrol and cohort studies evaluating the relationship between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer original articles published in English up till December 2014 articles that reported findings in odds ratio, hazard ratio, incidence ratio or standardized mortality ratio and articles reporting at least three levels of alcohol consumption with drinking amounts, including the reference level. Articles with no abstainer group or a lowest drinking level greater than 0.33g/d were excluded. Additionally, studies reporting total alcohol consumption were included while studies based on consumption of specific beverages only such as wine, whiskey, vodka, sake or hard liquors were excluded. When the results of the study were published more than once or if the same dataset was used multiple times, only the most recent or more complete data were included in analyses. The primary outcomes of interest were mortality and/or morbidity from prostate cancer .

While published and peer reviewed cohort or casecontrol studies were included in the review, all other article types including narrative reviews, letters, editorials, commentaries, unpublished manuscripts, dissertations, government reports, books and book chapters, conference proceedings, meeting abstracts, lectures and address, and consensus development statement including guideline statements, were excluded.

Is It Safe To Drink Alcohol If Youve Been Diagnosed With Prostate Cancer

Drinking alcohol after being diagnosed with prostate cancer may not be good for you, particularly if youre undergoing cancer treatment. Doing so can have several negative effects, including masking symptoms of metastatic prostate cancer, decreasing the effectiveness of cancer treatment drugs, and worsening the side effects of radiation therapy.

Your doctor may say that occasional, moderate alcohol consumption is acceptable during prostate cancer treatment or if youve been diagnosed with prostate cancer but wont be pursuing treatment. However, you should talk with them about alcohol and prostate cancer risk, including alcohol and prostate cancer recurrence for those who have been successfully treated. You should also keep your doctor informed about how much and how often you drink alcohol.

Next Steps and Useful Resources

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Alcohol During Cancer Surgery

When it comes to prostate cancer surgery, guidelines tend to get strict again. Itâs key to be honest about your drinking habits with your doctor. Theyâll guide you on how much, if any, is safe, and if itâs safe to stop drinking alcohol immediately.

Quitting drinking too suddenly can be dangerous for some people. It can trigger side effects like delirium and seizures and can even be fatal. If needed, your doctor can prescribe meds to keep this from happening.

Even modest drinkers are at risk for complications during and after surgery. These could include heart problems, bleeding, infections, and having to stay in the hospital for longer.

When you attempt to quit, tell your doctor right away if:

  • You have a headache or feel like youâre going to throw up.
  • Your anxiety amps up.
  • You canât sleep without drinking.
  • You canât stop drinking.

These are some of the first signs of alcohol withdrawal and can be treated.

What Happens To Cancer Risk After A Person Stops Drinking Alcohol

(PDF) Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer: A mini review

Most of the studies that have examined whether cancer risk declines after a person stops drinking alcohol have focused on head and neck cancers and on esophageal cancer. In general, these studies have found that stopping alcohol consumption is not associated with immediate reductions in cancer risk. The cancer risks eventually decline, although it may take years for the risks of cancer to return to those of never drinkers.

For example, ex-drinkers still had higher risks of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers than never drinkers even 16 years after they stopped drinking alcohol, although it was lower than before they stopped drinking . One study estimated that it would take more than 35 years for the higher risks of laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers associated with alcohol consumption to decrease to the level of never drinkers .

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Regular Beer Consumption Linked To Higher Prostate Cancer Risk

A study involving 3,927 men in Greater Montreal found that drinking a beer every day over a long period is associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

Many men suffering from advanced-stage prostate cancer appear to share at least one thing in common: they are now or have been heavy drinkers of beer, according to a study by uro-oncologist Pierre Karakiewicz, a professor of urological surgery at UdeMs Faculty of Medicine.

In the study, in Cancer Epidemiology in December 2016, Karakiewicz and his co-authors employ a variable called “drink years” that is, the average number of beers consumed in a day multiplied by the number of years of consumption.

Using this measurement, beer drinkers risk reaching an advanced stage of prostate cancer if they consume one beer a day for 63 years, two beers a day for 31 years or three beers a day for 21 years, and so on.

The study is based on a sample of 3,927 men living in Greater Montreal, with an average age of 64 years.

Can Drinking Alcohol Affect Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

Although the link between heavy drinking and prostate cancer is unclear, the dangers of heavy drinking are not.

Drinking heavy amounts of alcohol is a sign of alcohol use, which can lead to dependence and addiction. This can have negative effects on a persons health throughout the body and the brain, with consequences such as:

  • heart disease
  • swelling of the legs or feet
  • shoulder, thigh, or hip pain

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Is It Harmful To Drink Alcohol If You Have Prostate Cancer

Drinking alcohol while undergoing cancer treatment can be risky and may cause greater discomfort throughout the treatment process.

The most concerning risks of drinking while undergoing treatment can include:

  • worsened side effects of radiation therapy
  • masking symptoms of metastatic prostate cancer
  • increasing other health risks
  • greater risk for prostate cancer-related death

These risks can be even greater for people who are drinking heavy amounts of alcohol or are addicted to alcohol. Alcohol use and addiction can wreak havoc throughout the body, and lead to other struggles commonly experienced by people with cancer such as depression and anxiety.

Heavy drinking is a serious concern that can pose severe dangers for people with or without prostate cancer. If you are struggling with alcohol use or addiction, the best way to prevent or treat serious health concerns is to seek professional treatment.

Does Alcohol Cause Prostate Cancer

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Even though there isnt yet definitive evidence regarding alcohol and prostate cancer risk, there have been several studies in the U.S. and abroad that point to that result. For example, a Harvard Alumni Health study found a positive association between moderate alcohol consumption and prostate cancer, with liquor but not wine or beer producing that result.

Its also known that alcohol consumption increases the risk of breast cancer and several types of digestive system cancers, which makes it reasonable to expect that it can also elevate the risk of prostate cancer. In addition, its proven that excessive alcohol consumption can harm a persons overall health and that, too, may increase their prostate cancer risk.

As a result, despite the absence of incontrovertible evidence linking alcohol and prostate cancer, its important to consider the potential health impact of drinking alcohol regularly.

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Can Alcohol Mask Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

Testing for elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen in blood plasma is one of the techniques used for diagnosing prostate cancer. A study on Alcohol Consumption and PSA-detected Prostate Cancer Risk by NIH researchers found that excessive drinking can depress PSA levels, thus reducing the reliability of PSA based tests for heavy drinkers. Therefore, if the patient has a history of heavy drinking, other techniques like biopsy and medical imaging must be used to diagnose prostate cancer.

Heavy drinking can also contribute to many symptoms that overlap with prostate cancer. This can mask prostate cancer symptoms, make them worse, or potentially delay receiving appropriate treatment. These overlapping symptoms are:

  • More frequent urination at night and weak urine flow
  • Erectile dysfunction

Does Alcohol Induce Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

Its unclear whether prostate cancer and alcohol abuse are related. However, regular heavy alcohol consumption can cause symptoms that overlap with those of prostate cancer.

This can be a problem for multiple reasons, including that prostate cancer symptoms can be incorrectly attributed to excessive drinking, which can delay treatment. Heavy drinking may also worsen prostate cancer symptoms.

Symptoms that overlap between the two conditions include:

  • Swelling of the feet or legs

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New Study Finds Link Between Teenage Drinking And High

Study participants who drank heavily early in life were three times more likely to be diagnosed with an aggressive form of prostate cancer.

A new study out of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has found a link between early-life alcohol consumption and aggressive, high-grade prostate cancer. The study also found that heavy cumulative alcohol consumption over the course of a mans life had a similar association with this type of prostate cancer.

The research was published in the journal Cancer Prevention Research on August 23.

Theres been relatively little progress in identifying risk factors for prostate cancer, said Emma Allott, senior author for the study. Other hormonally regulated cancers, like breast cancer, already have a known association with alcohol use. But the role that alcohol consumption may have in the development of prostate cancer, especially over the life course, isnt as well understood, so it remains an important area of study.

Allott led the research, along with her collaborators, while she was an assistant professor of nutrition in the Gillings School of Global Public Health at UNC-Chapel Hill. Allott has since joined Queens University Belfast as a lecturer in molecular cancer epidemiology at the Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology.

The research was funded by the American Institute for Cancer Research, the Irish Cancer Society and the National Institutes of Health.


How Does The Combination Of Alcohol And Tobacco Affect Cancer Risk

(PDF) Is alcohol consumption a risk factor for prostate cancer? A ...

Epidemiologic research shows that people who use both alcohol and tobacco have much greater risks of developing cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx , larynx, and esophagus than people who use either alcohol or tobacco alone. In fact, for oral and pharyngeal cancers, the risks associated with using both alcohol and tobacco are multiplicative that is, they are greater than would be expected from adding the individual risks associated with alcohol and tobacco together .

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Alcohol Consumption And Prostate Cancer

Reviewed by: Dr. Thomas Hunter Radiation Oncology specialist

Cancer of the prostate a walnut-sized gland in men that produces seminal fluid is the most common cancer in U.S. men other than skin cancers. The risk of prostate cancer increases as a man gets older, with most cases occurring in men who are 65 or older.

Is drinking alcohol bad for your prostate, or more specifically, does drinking cause prostate cancer? Research continues on this question, but the results seem to indicate that drinking alcohol does increase a mans prostate cancer risk.

Alcohol During Radiation Treatment

The same goes if you get radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Some hospitals stick to the âmoderationâ route. As always, your doctor will give you the best advice.

Show Sources

Cancer Prevention Research: âEarly-Life Alcohol Intake and High-Grade Prostate Cancer: Results from an Equal-Access, Racially Diverse Biopsy Cohort.â

Biomolecules: âAlcohol and Prostate Cancer: Time to Draw Conclusions.â

American System of Clinical Oncology : âProstate Cancer: Stages and Grades.â

International Journal of Cancer: âPost-diagnosis alcohol intake and prostate cancer survival: A population-based cohort study.â

Prostate Cancer Foundation: âWhat is Metastatic Prostate Cancer?â

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center: âAbout Your Prostate Surgery.â

Prostate Cancer Foundation: âTop 10 Things to Know: Lifestyle Factors and Chronic Disease.â

Cleveland Clinic: âHealth Benefits of Resveratrol â And Should You Take It?â

UNC School of Medicine: âI Have Cancer, Can I Drink Alcohol?â

Mayo Clinic: âDelirium.â

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center: âHow Radiation Therapy May Affect Your Daily Routine.â

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What If I’m Under 50

Prostate cancer isn’t common in men under 50. If youre under 50 and dont have any symptoms, your GP doesnt have to give you a PSA test. But you may still want to talk to your GP about having a test if youre over 45 and youre at higher risk for example if you have a family history of prostate cancer or youre Black.

Weve been working with health professionals across the UK to develop agreement about when men should be able to have a PSA test, if they want one. Read more about this work.

To be updated March 2018

This involves having a single PSA blood test while your risk of getting prostate cancer is still low for example in your 40s. The aim of a baseline test is not to help diagnose prostate cancer, but to help work out your risk of getting prostate cancer in the future.

There is some research suggesting that your PSA level in your 40s could be used to predict how likely you are to get prostate cancer, or fast-growing prostate cancer, later in life. If the test suggests youre at higher risk, you and your doctor may decide to do regular PSA tests in the future. This might be a good way to spot any changes in your PSA level that might suggest prostate cancer.

However, we dont yet know exactly what PSA level in your 40s would show an increased risk of prostate cancer, or how often you should have more tests. Because of this, baseline testing isnt very common in the UK.

For more information about baseline testing, speak to your GP.

To be updated March 2018

Prostate Cancer And Alcohol: What We Need To Know

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4 min read

It has been established by cancer researchers that alcohol is a risk factor for many types of cancers. What may not be that well known is the fact that alcohol is not a risk factor, maybe even be a risk reducer for other types cancers. So how does alcohol specifically affect prostate cancer? This blog is going to take a look at the relation between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer.

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Results From The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California

Fax: 563-4602

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California

Fax: 563-4602

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Is It Safe For Someone To Drink Alcohol While Undergoing Cancer Chemotherapy

As with most questions related to a specific individuals cancer treatment, it is best for patients to check with their health care team about whether it is safe to drink alcohol during or immediately following chemotherapy treatment. The doctors and nurses administering the treatment will be able to give specific advice about whether it is safe to consume alcohol while undergoing specific cancer treatments.

Selected References
  • IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Alcohol consumption and ethyl carbamate. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks in Humans 2010 96:31383.

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    The More You Drink The Greater Your Risk Of Prostate Cancer

    An international collaborative study conducted by researchers at the National Drug Research Institute and the Centre for Addictions Research of BC at the University of Victoria in Canada, has provided new evidence of a significant link between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer.

    The study, published recently in the journal BMC Cancer, found that even low volume drinking can increase the risk of prostate cancer. Consuming as little as one alcoholic drink every 10 days gives men an 8 per cent greater risk of prostate cancer compared to lifetime abstainers. Drinking more than five alcoholic drinks a day increases the risk to 18 per cent.

    Given the high prevalence of prostate cancer, the public health implications of these findings are significant. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in Australia, killing more than 3,000 men annually, and is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in men worldwide.

    “This new study contributes to the growing evidence that alcohol consumption is a causal factor for prostate cancer. Alcohols contribution to prostate cancer will need to be factored in to future estimates of the global burden of disease,” said NDRI Alcohol Policy team leader Professor Tanya Chikritzhs.

    “These findings also highlight the need for better methods in research on alcohol and health. Past and future studies which demonstrate protection from disease due to low level drinking should be treated with caution.”

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