Deformation Of The Prostate Due To Pca
We considered three artificial tumors placed in characteristic locations within the prostate: the basal PZ, the apical PZ, and the CG. Each tumor had ellipsoidal geometry with one semiaxis measuring 4 mm and the others 3 mm. The largest dimension was oriented in anteroposterior direction. We selected the parameters that regulate tumor dynamics so that these tumors were aggressive and showed the typical morphologies of localized PCa: massive and fingered . shows the growth of these artificial tumors and how they deformed the patients prostate .
Deformation of the prostate over 1 y produced by a tumor originated on basal PZ , apical PZ , and median CG . Tumor growth over the original prostate geometry. Length of the displacement field vector over original anatomy at t = 1 y. The contour of the tumor is depicted with black curves. Original and deformed geometries of the prostate at t 1 y.
The CG tumor grew faster and larger than the PZ tumors, whose growth rates and initial volumes were similar. Because the tumor in apical PZ underwent the change in morphology earlier, its volume was larger than that of the basal PZ tumor for the second half of the simulation. The final volumes of the basal PZ tumor, the apical PZ tumor, and the CG tumor were 5.43 cc, 6.82 cc, and 9.02 cc, respectively.
Treating Advanced Prostate Cancer
If the cancer has reached an advanced stage, it’s no longer possible to cure it. But it may be possible to slow its progression, prolong your life and relieve symptoms.
Treatment options include:
- hormone treatment
If the cancer has spread to your bones, medicines called bisphosphonates may be used. Bisphosphonates help reduce bone pain and bone loss.
What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
If you have prostate cancer, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:
- Why did I get prostate cancer?
- What is my Gleason score? What is my Grade Group? What do these numbers mean for me?
- Has the cancer spread outside of the prostate gland?
- What is the best treatment for the stage of prostate cancer I have?
- If I choose active surveillance, what can I expect? What signs of cancer should I look out for?
- What are the treatment risks and side effects?
- Is my family at risk for developing prostate cancer? If so, should we get genetic tests?
- Am I at risk for other types of cancer?
- What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
- Should I look out for signs of complications?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects males. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and remain in the prostate gland. For a small number, the disease can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. Men with slow-growing prostate cancers may choose active surveillance. With this approach, you can postpone, and sometimes completely forego, treatments. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best treatment option for you based on your Gleason score and Group Grade.
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Which Men Are At Risk For Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. It is thought that virtually all men with circulating androgens will develop microscopic prostate cancer if they live long enough. In fact, when prostatic tissue is scrutinized under a microscope after surgery , cancer is found in 50% of men older than age 70. And it’s found in virtually all men over age 90.
What Causes Prostate Cancer
Doctors dont know exactly what causes prostate cancer. However, they do know that certain risk factors may increase your risk for the disease. Those risk factors include:
- Older age. Men of any age can get prostate cancer. However, its most common in men older than 65 years of age.
- African-American men are more likely to develop prostate cancer than Caucasian men.
- Family history. Men who have had a father or brother with prostate cancer are at increased risk of developing the disease.
- Obesity. Obese men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer are more likely to have an advanced or aggressive cancer.
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Will I Need To See My Doctor During And After Hormone Therapy
Yes, you will need regular medical checkups while getting hormone therapy. During these checkups your doctor will look at your medical history and give you a physical exam. Your checkup may include blood tests and imaging tests. For example:
- Some hormone therapy medicines can cause problems with your liver. So your doctor will watch your liver function with a blood test before you start treatment and at regular time points during the first four months of your treatment, and at regular times after that.
- Other hormone therapy medicines can cause you to get diabetes or become insulin resistant. In this case, your doctor may watch your blood sugar during your treatment. Insulin is a hormone produced by your body that helps change the food you eat into energy. When you are insulin resistant your body needs to make more and more insulin. Over time, this can cause you to have diabetes.
- Some hormone therapy medicines can increase your risk for cardiovascular problems. When your testosterone level drops your blood pressure and cholesterol may increase. This can put you at risk for cardiovascular problems such as a heart attack. Your doctor will watch your blood pressure and cholesterol.
- Your doctor will also check to make sure you dont have anemia. This is done with a simple blood test.
- Your doctor may also order a bone density test to check if you have osteoporosis.
About The Prostate And Prostate Cancer
The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system and produces fluid that mixes with semen during ejaculation to help sperm travel. The prostate is a walnut-sized, rubbery organ that surrounds the urethrathe urinary duct that carries urine from the bladder out of the bodyand sits directly below the bladder.
The prostate gland, which grows during puberty, is considered an organ and is made up of several dozen lobules or saclike glands, held together with connective prostate tissue and muscle between them. The glands are called exocrine glands, because they secrete liquid to outside the body.
An enlarged prostate, called benign prostatic hyperplasia , is common in men over the age of 40 and may obstruct the urinary tract. The abnormal prostate cell growth in BPH is not cancerous and doesnt increase your risk of getting prostate cancer. However, symptoms for BPH and prostate cancer can be similar.
A condition called prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia , where prostate gland cells look abnormal when examined under a microscope, may be connected to an increased risk of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is often caught by a doctor performing a digital rectal exam , through a prostate-specific antigen blood test, through a prostate biopsy;or with a CT scan.
Another condition, prostatitis, is the inflammation of the prostate. While not cancerous, it may cause higher PSA levels in the blood.
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Drugs That Stop Androgens From Working
For most prostate cancer cells to grow, androgens have to attach to a protein in the prostate cancer cell called an androgen receptor. Anti-androgens are drugs that also connect;to these receptors, keeping the androgens from causing tumor growth. Anti-androgens are also sometimes called androgen receptor antagonists.
Drugs of this type include:
They are taken daily as pills.
In the United States, anti-androgens are not often used by themselves:
- An anti-androgen may be added to treatment if orchiectomy or an LHRH agonist or antagonist is no longer working by itself.
- An anti-androgen is also sometimes given for a few weeks when an LHRH agonist is first started to prevent a tumor flare.
- An anti-androgen can also be combined with orchiectomy or an LHRH agonist as first-line hormone therapy. This is called combined androgen blockade . There is still some debate as to whether CAB is more effective in this setting than using orchiectomy or an LHRH agonist alone. If there is a benefit, it appears to be small.
- In some men, if an anti-androgen is no longer working, simply stopping the anti-androgen can cause the cancer to stop growing for a short time. This is called the anti-androgen withdrawal effect, although they are not sure why it happens.
Enzalutamide , apalutamide and darolutamide are newer types of anti-androgens.
These drugs are taken as pills each day.
Are Prostate Problems Always A Sign Of Prostate Cancer
Not all growths in the prostate are cancerous, and not all prostate problems indicate cancer. Other conditions that cause similar prostate cancer symptoms include:
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia : At some point, almost every man will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia . This condition enlarges the prostate gland but doesnt increase cancer risk. The swollen gland squeezes the urethra and blocks the flow of semen and urine. Medications, and sometimes surgery, can help.
- Prostatitis: Men younger than 50 are more prone to prostatitis, inflammation and swelling of the prostate gland. Bacterial infections are often the cause. Treatments include antibiotics or other medications.
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How To Reduce Prostate Size
This article was medically reviewed by . Dr. Litza is a board certified Family Medicine Physician in Wisconsin. She is a practicing Physician and taught as a Clinical Professor for 13 years, after receiving her MD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health in 1998.There are 13 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 65,131 times.
The prostate gland is a part of the male reproductive system that can enlarge with age, putting uncomfortable pressure on the urethra. This can cause urinary difficulties, urinary tract infections , and even bladder stones. By making lifestyle changes and using medication, most men can reduce their urinary troubles. A few men, though, may need to consider minimally invasive or traditional surgery options to feel their best.
Using Medication To Reduce Symptoms
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The Facts Of Prostate Cancer
The prostate, an organ located under the bladder, produces semen. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men in the United States. About 1 in 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime.
The risk of developing prostate cancer progressively increases with age. About 60 percent of all prostate cancers in the United States are diagnosed in men aged 65 or older. It is rare for men to develop prostate cancer before age 40.
Theres no absolute prostate cancer prevention, but evidence suggests diet plays a key role. Keep reading for diet tips and more information.
Herbs To Shrink Tumors And Kill Cancer Cells
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We usually use various herbs as addition to meals we make, to improve the flavor and mix things up. Throughout the history, herbs have been also used for their medicinal properties. They are associated with a positive effect on relieving various diseases, including the most dangerous ones tumors and cancers. Keep reading this article and find out why you should definitely include more herbs into your diet and stay cancer free by avoiding foods in your diet.
Garlic contains sulfur compounds which may stimulate the immune systems natural defenses against cancer. Moreover, garlic is associated with reduced tumor growth as well. Numerous studies have confirmed garlics beneficial effect on prevention of cancer. For example, The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition is a long-going multinational study that involves male and female participants from 10 different countries, and it inspects effects of nutrition on cancer. The study revealed that high intake of garlic was associated with reduced risk of intestinal cancer. Consumption of garlic is also linked with a colon, esophagus, pancreas, and based cancer prevention. Therefore, to reduce chances of developing tumor or cancer, include garlic into your meals. This herb is both delicious and healthy.
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What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Prostate Cancer
Because prostate cancer tends to grow slowly, most men die from something other than the disease. Early detection is key to better outcomes. Almost all men 97% to 98% diagnosed with localized cancer that hasnt spread outside of the prostate live at least five years after diagnosis. When metastatic cancer has spread outside of the gland, one-third of men continue to survive after five years.
How Is This Cancer Diagnosed
Your veterinarian may feel an enlarged prostate during a physical examination. With this finding, your veterinarian may recommend certain diagnostics to determine why the prostate is enlarged and if it could be due to a tumor. This may include obtaining a sample of cells from the prostate either by catheterization or by performing an ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the prostate.
“Your veterinarian may feel an enlarged prostate during a physical examination.”
FNA involves taking a small needle with a syringe and suctioning a sample of cells directly from the prostate. The cells are placed on a microscope slide. A veterinary pathologist then examines the slide under a microscope. When a diagnosis cannot be made with either of these procedures, a surgical biopsy may need to be considered.
Bloodwork may also be recommended. This may show a higher than normal calcium level due to a protein produced by the tumor.
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What Side Effects May I Have After I Start Hormone Therapy
The side effects that you may have after you start hormone therapy include: erectile dysfunction or impotence , lower sexual desire , hot flashes, fatigue , weight gain, breast enlargement, osteoporosis, anemia, memory loss, and cardiovascular problems. The following side effects can happen as soon as you start your treatment.
Difficulty getting or keeping an erection is a common side effect of hormone therapy for prostate cancer. This is also called impotence. Hormone therapy lowers the amount of testosterone in your body or stops your body from making testosterone.
Lower sex drive
Hot flashes and sweating
Breast tenderness or growth
Some men may find that their chest becomes sore and that their breasts get a little bit swollen. This is called gynecomastia . There are medicines and treatments that you doctor or health care team can give you to help with this side effect.
The drop in your testosterone level may make you feel very tired. You may feel tired all the time or you may get tired more easily when you do your daily activities. This is known as fatigue or tiredness. There are things you can do to help deal with this treatment side effect.
Tumor flare pain
The following side effects may happen if you take hormone treatment for a long period of time. These are:
There are several ways you can help to lower your osteoporosis risk
What If I Can’t Have Surgery
Surgery isnt always an option you may not be fit or well enough for an operation, or you may not like the idea of it. If surgery isnt suitable for you and lifestyle changes and medicines havent worked, your doctor or nurse may suggest using a catheter. This is a thin, flexible tube used to drain urine from your bladder. The catheter may be permanent or temporary.
A permanent catheter;is passed up into the bladder through your penis, or through a small cut in your abdomen. The catheter is usually attached to a drainage bag, which you strap on to your body under your clothing. Your doctor or nurse will usually change your catheter every 12 weeks.
A temporary catheter; is where you put a catheter in yourself when you need to urinate, rather than leaving one in all the time. Your doctor or nurse will show you how to put the catheter in and tell you how often to use it. Some men can urinate quite well without a catheter and only use it once a day to make sure they empty their bladder regularly. Other men need to use a temporary catheter several times a day.
You can lower your chances of getting a urine infection by keeping your catheter and the area around it clean. You may find the following tips helpful.
Let your nurse know if your catheter isnt draining properly. If urine hasnt drained from your bladder for 2 to 3 hours, contact your GP or district nurse straight away.
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