Tests Used To Check The Prostate
This first step lets your doctor hear and understand the “story” of your prostate concerns. You’ll be asked whether you have symptoms, how long you’ve had them, and how much they affect your lifestyle. Your personal medical history also includes any risk factors, pain, fever, or trouble passing urine. You may be asked to give a urine sample for testing.
Psa Tests And Screening
Testing for cancer when you have no symptoms is called screening. There is no national screening programme in Ireland, as theres little evidence that screening would reduce deaths from prostate cancer. It also could mean men having unnecessary treatment for very slow-growing prostate cancer, which could cause side-effects that affect their lives more than the cancer would.
If youre worried
Talk to your GP about:
- Your risk of prostate cancer eg if you have close family members with prostate cancer
- The pros and cons of prostate cancer screening
- What the tests involve
- The decisions you might have to make if your PSA was raised
- How these decisions might affect your life. Eg having treatment and getting side-effects
Should I use a home PSA test kit?
Prostate problems are best diagnosed by your GP, who can take your medical history and carry out a physical examination, as well as doing the PSA test.
Remember – your PSA level can be raised for other reasons it doesnt mean you have prostate cancer. Its also possible to have cancer and a normal PSA level. Read more about understanding PSA test results.
Diagnosing prostate cancer
Your family doctor will talk to you about your symptoms. He or she may do some tests. For example:
Digital rectal examination Inserting a gloved finger into your back passage to see if your prostate feels normal. It can be a little uncomfortable but it doesnt take long.
Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series
We are proud to announce a new podcast series geared toward helping give support, hope and guidance to prostate cancer caregivers. The goal of this Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series is to help others connect with a diverse group of people who have felt the impact of prostate cancer in their lives and empower them on their journey.
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How Is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treated
Treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia may include
- lifestyle changes
- minimally invasive procedures
A health care provider treats benign prostatic hyperplasia based on the severity of symptoms, how much the symptoms affect a mans daily life, and a mans preferences.
Men may not need treatment for a mildly enlarged prostate unless their symptoms are bothersome and affecting their quality of life. In these cases, instead of treatment, a urologist may recommend regular checkups. If benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms become bothersome or present a health risk, a urologist most often recommends treatment.
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How Should Caregivers Talk To Children About A Family Members Advanced Cancer
Children deserve to be told the truth about a family members prognosis so they can be prepared if their loved one dies. Its important to answer all of their questions gently and honestly so they dont imagine things that are worse than reality. They need to be reassured that they will be taken care of no matter what happens.
Caregivers need to be prepared to answer tough questions. To do this, they should know what their own feelings and thoughts are about the situation. They need to be able to show children how to hope for the best while preparing for and accepting that their loved one may die.
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How Common Is It
Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer among men in the UK, Prostate Cancer UK states.
Around 47,500 men across the UK are diagnosed with prostate cancer on an annual basis.
Approximately 35 per cent of new cases of prostate cancer every year are among men aged 75 and over.
Prostate cancer can affect anyone with a prostate gland, which can include men, transgender and non-binary people.
Are There Prostate Cancer Risk Factors To Consider
Cancer researchers have identified several factors that could increase a mans risk of developing prostate cancer. In considering whether any of these risk factors apply to you, remember that having one or more of them does not mean you will get the disease. However, you should be sure to get all the prostate cancer screenings your physician recommends. It is also important to know that men without these risk factors may also have prostate cancer.
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Treatment Options For Prostatitis
Your treatment for prostatitis will depend on the cause. Antibiotics are often used to treat bacterial prostatitis. If you have a more severe infection, you may need to get antibiotics through your vein. You may have to take antibiotics for two weeks or longer until the infection clears up.
Other treatments you and your doctor may consider include:
- alpha-blockers, which are medicines that relax the muscles around the prostate and help you urinate more easily
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , such as ibuprofen or aspirin , for pain relief
- prostate massage
You can also soak in a warm bath or sit on a cushion to ease the pressure on your prostate.
What Are The Symptoms
Symptoms of prostate cancer may include needing to urinate more frequently having to rush to the toilet straining to urinate feeling as though your bladder hasn’t fully emptied while going to the toilet and blood in urine or semen, the NHS outlines.
The NHS adds that these symptoms may not necessarily be indicative of prostate cancer.
Older men may experience similar symptoms due to prostate enlargement, which is a non-cancerous condition.
Signs that prostate cancer has spread to other areas of the body may include back, hip or pelvis pain erectile dysfunction blood in urine or semen and unexplained weight loss, Prostate Cancer UK states.
For more information about prostate cancer symptoms, visit the Prostate Cancer UK website here.
What Symptoms Might I Get With Advanced Prostate Cancer
Depending on where the cancer has traveled to, the symptoms you may have will vary. If you dont have many symptoms you will have more once the cancer begins to spread again. You may not experience this at all as not everyones cancer creates symptoms that affect you on a day-to-day basis. Here are some symptoms you may experience when you have advanced prostate cancer.
What Are The 5 Warning Signs Of Prostate Cancer
Each year, almost 250,000 men in the United States are diagnosed with prostate cancer. As with other forms of cancer, this is a dangerous disease that is more easily treated if detected early. Let’s discuss what may cause prostate cancer, the 5 common warning signs associated with it, and what to do if you suspect that you have it.
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How Can I Prevent Prostate Cancer
There are no specific lifestyle recommendations to prevent prostate cancer. However, it is recommended that men over 50 have their PSA levels checked at least once a year. Most cases of prostate cancer are asymptomatic. However, some men may experience Tenderness or bleeding from the prostate. Urination problems. Weakness or a sense of inability to pass urine. Unexplained weight loss. An appointment for a prostate check should be arranged at the first possible opportunity, as prostate cancer is often only diagnosed late when it is at an advanced stage. What are the complications of prostate cancer treatment?
What Causes Prostate Cancer
Experts arent sure why some cells in the prostate gland become cancerous . Genetics appear to play a role. For example:
- Youre two to three times more likely to get prostate cancer if your father, brother or son has the disease.
- Inherited mutated breast cancer genes and other gene mutations contribute to a small number of prostate cancers.
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Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer may not cause any signs or symptoms in its early stages. Signs and symptoms often appear as the tumour grows and causes changes in the body such as changes in bladder habits. Other health conditions can cause the same symptoms as prostate cancer.
The signs or symptoms of prostate cancer include:
- more frequent urination , especially at night
- a strong or sudden urge to urinate
- difficulty starting the flow of urine
- weak or slow urine stream
- interrupted urine stream
- being unable to empty the bladder completely
- having difficulty controlling the bladder , which can cause urine to leak and dribble
- blood in the urine or semen
- burning or pain during urination
- discomfort or pain when sitting, caused by an enlarged prostate
- painful ejaculation
- pain or stiffness in back, hips or pelvis that doesn’t go away
In rare cases, prostate cancer can cause paraneoplastic syndrome. This is a group of symptoms including high blood pressure, fatigue and weight loss that may happen when substances released by cancer cells disrupt the normal function of nearby or distant organs or tissues.
In some cases, prostate cancer can cause serious problems. These cancer-related emergencies are uncommon but need to be treated right away and are usually a sign of advanced cancer:
Who Is More Likely To Develop Prostate Cancer
Anyone who has a prostate can develop prostate cancer. But certain factors can make you more likely to develop it:
- Age. Your chance of developing prostate cancer increases as you get older. Prostate cancer is rare in people under age 50.
- Family health history. Your risk of prostate cancer is higher if you have a parent, sibling, or child who has or has had prostate cancer.
- Race. African Americans are more likely to get prostate cancer. They’re also more likely to:
- Get prostate cancer at a younger age.
- Have more serious prostate cancer.
- Die from prostate cancer.
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Tests At The Hospital
Your GP will refer you to hospital if they think you need more tests. You may have tests at a Rapid Access Prostate Clinic. These are special clinics set up to reduce waiting times for prostate cancer testing. Find out more about Rapid Access Prostate Clinics.
Tests you might have include:
- Mp-MRI This is a type of MRI scan that creates more detailed pictures of your prostate than a standard MRI. It may be done before you have a biopsy to help your doctors decide where to take samples of cells from.
- Trans-rectal ultrasound An ultrasound probe is put into your back passage. It uses sound waves to produce pictures of your prostate.
- Prostate biopsy A sample of the cells is taken from the prostate through your back passage using a needle. The cells are looked at under a microscope in the lab to see if there are any cancer cells. The biopsy can be done during the TRUS.
- Template biopsyA template biopsy takes more samples than a TRUS biopsy. It is done through the skin between your testicles and back passage . You doctor may recommend this test if your biopsy results show no sign of cancer but your doctor is still suspicious.
A urologist is a doctor who specialises in treating prostate, bladder and kidney problems.
Questions You May Want To Consider Asking Your Doctor Include:
- What type of prostate problem do I have?
- Is more testing needed and what will it tell me?
- If I decide on watchful waiting, what changes in my symptoms should I look for and how often should I be tested?
- What type of treatment do you recommend for my prostate problem?
- For men like me, has this treatment worked?
- How soon would I need to start treatment and how long would it last?
- Do I need medicine and how long would I need to take it before seeing improvement in my symptoms?
- What are the side effects of the medicine?
- Are there other medicines that could interfere with this medication?
- If I need surgery, what are the benefits and risks?
- Would I have any side effects from surgery that could affect my quality of life?
- Are these side effects temporary or permanent?
- How long is recovery time after surgery?
- Will I be able to fully return to normal?
- How will this affect my sex life?
- How often should I visit the doctor to monitor my condition?
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Palliative Care For Prostate Cancer Patients
Prostate cancer is a condition where the cells in a mans prostate start to grow and change rapidly, creating a tumor that can spread throughout the body. The prostate is a gland located in the lower abdomen in front of the rectum and just below the bladder. The purpose of the prostate is to manufacture seminal fluid that helps nourish the sperm and carry it from the body in the mans semen.
What Is A Prostate
Men have prostates that are about the size of walnuts. A mans prostate is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It has various important functions in the body, but one of the main functions of the prostate is to produce seminal fluid that helps transport semen. As men age, there are certain people who are at risk of cancer. Men who are over 50 are more likely to develop prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is a treatable disease and is commonly treated by many doctors. Learn about the early signs and symptoms of prostate cancer.
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What Other Problems Might An Enlarged Prostate Cause
A small number of men may find it difficult to empty their bladder properly this is called urine retention. If youve been diagnosed with an enlarged prostate, your doctor will look at your test results to see if youre at risk of urine retention. You may be more likely to get urine retention if:
- youre aged 70 or over
- your prostate is very large
- you have a raised prostate specific antigen level
- you have severe urinary symptoms and a very slow flow.
Chronic urine retention
This is where you cant empty your bladder fully, but can still urinate a little. It usually develops slowly over time. Chronic means long-lasting. The first signs often include a weak flow when you urinate, or leaking urine at night. You may feel that your abdomen is swollen, or that youre not emptying your bladder fully.
Chronic urine retention is usually painless. But the pressure of the urine can slowly stretch your bladder muscle and make it weaker. This can cause urine to be left behind in the bladder when you urinate. If you dont empty your bladder fully, you might get a urine infection, need to urinate more often, leak urine at night, or get painful bladder stones. You might also see some blood in your urine. Chronic urine retention can damage your bladder and kidneys if it isnt treated.
There are treatments for chronic urine retention, including:
- passing a thin, flexible tube called a catheter to drain urine from your bladder
- surgery to widen the urethra.
Acute urine retention
What Causes Prostatitis Vs Bph
The cause of BPH or enlarged prostate is by benign growth that enlarges the prostate gland. Researchers do not know exactly what causes the gland to enlarge, but they have speculated that it might be related to hormonal changes as men age.
In men under the age of 35, the most common type of prostatitis is acute bacterial prostatitis, while in older patients non-bacterial prostatitis is the most common type. There are four types or syndromes of prostatitis.
- Type I Acute bacterial prostatitis
- Type II Chronic bacterial prostatitis
- Type III Chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome
- Type IV is asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis.
The cause of acute bacterial prostatitis is by bacteria that may be present in the urethra and then infect the prostate gland. Chronic bacterial prostatitis occurs because of inadequate treatment or because of a structural/functional problem in the urinary tract. Researchers and doctors do not completely understand the cause of chronic prostatitis, but it is speculated that the cause may be initiated by neurological injury and/or related to infection.
BPH and prostate cancer are disorders that only affect men. BPH is not a type of cancer like prostate cancer. Both, however, are diseases of the prostate gland that is part of the male reproductive system. The former is frequent and non-fatal, whereas prostate cancer, when advanced, can be dangerous.
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What Can You Do About Fatigue
The first step in helping to manage fatigue is recognizing and controlling any symptoms that make it worse, like pain, nausea, neuropathy, or constipation. Another step is to try to prevent more fatigue by carefully balancing rest and activity. If you feel tired, stop and rest. Your health care team and your caregivers can help you find ways to manage the things that can make you feel more fatigued. Tell them how you feel, and try different things to see if they help you feel less tired.
Some medicines can make you feel tired, too. They may be needed, but you may want to talk with your health care team to find out if switching to new ones or taking them at different times may help. You might even be able to stop taking certain medicines that arent helping or arent needed any more.
Keep safe when youre active. If youre unsteady on your feet, make sure you have help when walking. You may feel safer if you have a walker or wheelchair. Your doctor or hospice team can help you get the equipment you need to be comfortable and safe. If youre shaky, dont use sharp utensils or other things that might cause injury. If youre able to drive, be careful to not drive when you are feeling fatigue.
Plan activities around the times you feel the best and have the most energy. Sit outside, listen to music, go for a ride in the car, spend time watching a meal being prepared distractions and stimulation of your senses may help ease fatigue.
You can learn more in Cancer-related Fatigue.