Body Weight Physical Activity And Diet
The effects of body weight, physical activity, and diet on prostate cancer risk arenât completely clear, but there are things you can do that might lower your risk.
Some studies have found that men who are overweight or obese have a higher risk of developing advanced prostate cancer or prostate cancer that is more likely to be fatal.
Although not all studies agree, several have found a higher risk of prostate cancer in men whose diets are high in dairy products and calcium.
For now, the best advice about diet and activity to possibly reduce the risk of prostate cancer is to:
- Get to and stay at a healthy weight.
- Keep physically active.
- Follow a healthy eating pattern, which includes a variety of colorful fruits and vegetables and whole grains, and avoids or limits red and processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and highly processed foods.
It may also be sensible to limit calcium supplements and to not get too much calcium in the diet.
How Common Is Prostate Cancer
About one in nine men will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis during his lifetime. Prostate cancer is second only to skin cancer as the most common cancer affecting males. Close to 200,000 American men receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer every year. There are many successful treatments and some men dont need treatment at all. Still, approximately 33,000 men die from the disease every year.
What Is Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is common among American men. Your chance of getting prostate cancer may be affected by your:
- Age. Men age 50 and older run a greater risk.
- Race. Prostate cancer is most common among African-American men.
- Family history. If your father or brother has had prostate cancer, you are more likely to have it, too.
- Diet. Eating high-fat food with few fruits and vegetables may raise your risk.
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Eat Tomatoes And Other Red Foods
Tomatoes, watermelon, and other red foods owe their bright color to a powerful antioxidant called lycopene. Some recent studies show that men who consume this fruit and tomato-based products have a lower risk of prostate cancer than those who dont. However, the American Institute for Cancer Research cautions that studies linking tomatoes to prostate cancer prevention are limited and ongoing.
A 2018 study from Spain suggest that cooking tomatoes makes it easier for your body to absorb lycopene. The redder the tomato, the better because lycopene accumulates during ripening. That means that pale, store-bought tomatoes that are picked too early have less lycopene than vine-ripened tomatoes.
- Drinking four to five cups of coffee every day can lower your chances of fatal and high-grade prostate cancer, according to a 2014 review of clinical studies.
- Regardless of how many cups you drink overall, every three cups of coffee you drink can reduce your risk of fatal prostate cancer about 11 percent.
This describes a dose-response relationship between prostate cancer and coffee. That means the effect on prostate cancer goes up or down with the amount of coffee you drink. These effects may not extend to someone who only grabs an occasional cup.
However, high doses of caffeine can cause major health issues, such as irregular heartbeat and seizures. The Mayo Clinic cautions against ingesting more than 400 milligrams of caffeine a day, the equivalent of four cups of brewed coffee.
Increase Your Vitamin D
Most people dont get enough vitamin D. It can help protect against prostate cancer and many other conditions. Vitamin D-rich foods include cod liver oil, wild salmon and dried shitake mushrooms. Since the sun is a better, more readily available source of vitamin D, many experts recommend getting 10 minutes of sun exposure every day. Doctors often recommend vitamin D supplements. However, you should talk to your doctor before taking any vitamin or supplement.
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What Is A Healthy Weight
A quick way to check if youre a healthy weight is to measure your waist. Wrap a tape measure around your body, half-way between the top of your hips and the bottom of your ribs. For a man, if your waist size is 94cm or more, youre likely to be overweight. This means you have a higher risk of health problems, possibly including aggressive or advanced prostate cancer.
A healthy weight can also improve your general wellbeing and help to prevent other health problems, such as type-2 diabetes, heart disease and some other cancers.
Visit the NHS website to read about other ways of checking whether youre a healthy weight.
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Another type of prostate issue is chronic prostatitis, or chronic pelvic pain syndrome. This condition causes pain in the lower back and groin area, and may cause urinary retention. Symptoms include leaking and discomfort. In severe cases, a catheter may be required to relieve the symptoms. If the problem is unresponsive to other treatments, your doctor may suggest a surgical procedure. If these do not work, your symptoms could progress and become chronic.
An acute bacterial infection can cause a burning sensation. Inflammation of the prostate can affect the bladder and result in discomfort and other symptoms. This is the most common urinary tract problem in men under 50, and the third most common in men over 65. The symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis are similar to those of CPPS. Patients may experience a fever or chills as a result of the infection.
A bacterial infection can also lead to prostate issues. Acute bacterial infections can be hard to treat. Some men with a bacterial infection may need to take antibiotics to prevent or treat symptoms. Symptoms of the disease include fever and chills, pain in the lower back and the tip of the penis. Some men may have blood in the urine, frequent urination, and blood in the urine. If you suffer from acute bacterial prostatitis, a medical professional should be able to prescribe you the appropriate treatments to prevent the disease.
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How Do Doctors Diagnose Prostate Cancer
Ok, by now, youve been screened. Your PSA score and/or your DRE have raised concerns. Whats next?
Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging . This useful imaging test produces different types of scans to give your doctor a fuller picture of your prostate. Your doctor can then target suspicious areas for biopsy and testing.
Transrectal ultrasound. Your doctor inserts a finger-sized probe into your rectum. The probe emits waves of sound that bounce off your prostate. Those waves create images, called sonograms, that help your doctor evaluate your prostate and spot abnormalities. This procedure is frequently done as part of a biopsy.
Biopsy. This procedure removes tissue from your prostate. Images from the multiparametric MRI are matched to images created by the ultrasound to pinpoint exact the spots that need to be tested.
Before your biopsy, your doctor will numb the area around your prostate so you dont feel pain. However, you may experience some discomfort or feel pressure during the procedure. Then, a thin, hollow needle is inserted into your prostate to remove small tissue samples. Its most often guided by an ultrasound probe thats inserted into your rectum. The whole thing takes about 20 to 30 minutes.
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Prostate Cancer Awareness Month Topics:
Sex is Fun!
A study by the National Institutes of Health in 2004 initially suggested that frequent sexual activity might reduce the incidence of prostate cancer.
The Health Professionals Follow-up Study, which followed 32,000 men for 18 years, also supports this. Men with frequent sexual activity showed a 20% lower risk of prostate cancer. Jennifer Rider, the studys lead author, suggests, Safe sexual activity could be good for prostate health. Studies also show that regular sexual activity reduces stress and improves mood.
How can exercise prevent prostate cancer?
Evidence is mounting that inflammation and oxidation both play key roles in the development of prostate cancers and other conditions. Fortunately, research from the prevention side suggests that regular exercise may be one of the best natural antioxidants.
A study published recently in the Journal of Clinical Oncology specifically evaluated the effects of exercise in prostate cancer patients. They studied men who exercised vigorously for at least 3 hours per week. 49% showed reduced overall mortality, and 61% reduced prostate cancer mortality, compared to men having less than 1 hour per week of vigorous activity.
And, dont forget that intense exercise can actually alter your DNA. A period of intense exercise can positively change your gene regulation.
Medications Proscar and Avodart
What about testosterone replacement therapy?
Will statins help or hinder?
How about Metformin?
What about taking aspirin?
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Can I Take Supplements To Lower My Risk
Some people take supplements to try to lower their risk of cancer, but studies suggest this isnt likely to work. In fact, some supplements may even be harmful.
The best way to get all the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients your body needs is to eat a healthy, balanced diet, including plenty of fruit and vegetables.
Speak to your doctor before taking any supplements and don’t take more than the recommended daily allowance.
Reduce Your Chances Of Getting Prostate Cancer
There is no clear answer to preventing prostate cancer. As with other cancers and other chronic diseases its important to make daily choices that will benefit your overall health. Its also important to talk to your health professional to see if you have any personal risk factors, and what you need to do to reduce them. The following may help you reduce risks of prostate cancer:
- Getting a yearly doc-chec.
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Can I Reduce My Risk
Even if your risk of prostate cancer is low at the moment, it’s still possible to develop prostate cancer. A man’s risk of prostate cancer increases with age. And if your father or brother is diagnosed with prostate cancer, this may increase your risk even more.
You cant do anything to change or prevent these risk factors and no-one knows how to prevent prostate cancer. But staying a healthy weight for example by having a healthy diet and taking regular exercise may be important.
Family History And Genetic Factors
Inherited factors explain around 59% of prostate cancers, it is estimated. A mix of genetic/biological factors and increased diagnostic activity in affected families may underpin the familial risk. Prostate cancer risk is not associated with prostate cancer in an adoptive parent , but it is higher sooner rather than later after diagnosis in a family member, , cohort studies have shown.
Prostate cancer risk is 2.1-2.4 times higher in men whose father has/had the disease, meta-analyses have shown. Prostate cancer risk is 2.9-3.3 times higher in men whose brother has/had the disease, meta-analyses have shown. Prostate cancer risk is 1.9 times higher in men with a second-degree relative who has/had the disease, a meta-analysis has shown.
Familial prostate cancer risk is higher in men aged under 65 compared with older men, and in men with more than one affected first-degree relative or with an affected relative diagnosed aged younger than 60.
Prostate cancer risk is 19-24% higher in men whose mother has/had breast cancer, cohort studies have shown. Prostate cancer risk is not associated with breast cancer in a sister.
BRCA1 and BRCA2
Prostate cancer risk is 2.1-4.9 times higher in men with Lynch syndrome, compared with the general population, a meta-analysis and cohort study have shown.
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Take These Steps To Help Protect Yourself From This Common Cancer In Men
Prostate cancer affects more than 50% of men by the time they’re 80. This year, over 248,000 men in the U.S. may be diagnosed with prostate cancer, according to the American Cancer Society . Making a few changes in your life may help you avoid being one of them.
The prostate is a small gland that is about as big as a walnut. Located between the penis and the bladder, it makes fluid that helps sperm cells swim. The gland also controls the flow of urine. One sign that you may have prostate cancer is that your bathroom habits have changedyou may find it harder to pee, have a weaker stream or get up often during the night to go to the bathroom. Since these things can also happen if you don’t have prostate cancer, it’s best to see a doctor.
Although it may not be possible to completely prevent prostate cancer, here are some things you can do to lower your risk of developing the disease:
Can A Healthy Lifestyle Reduce My Risk Of Prostate Cancer
No one knows how to prevent prostate cancer, but a healthy lifestyle may be important.
The latest research suggests that being overweight may increase your risk of being diagnosed with aggressive or advanced prostate cancer. Eating a healthy, balanced diet and keeping physically active can help you stay a healthy weight, and so might help to lower your risk.
You cant change your age, ethnicity or family history, but you can take control of your diet and weight.
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Prostate Cancer Prevention With Proper Nutrition
Did you know that, not counting some forms of skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men? In the United States, one in nine men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during the course of their life. There is no way to know for sure if you will get prostate cancer, and men have a greater risk of prostate cancer if they are 50 years old or older, are African-American, or have a father, brother or son who has had prostate cancer.
Can You Reduce the Risk?
While itâs recommended that men discuss the benefits and risks of prostate cancer screening with their doctors, thereâs also the question if thereâs a way to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer in the first place. Lycopene, vitamin E and selenium are marketed to men as tools to reduce the chance of developing the disease. But is supplementation beneficial? Can eating specific foods help?
Most experts agree that men should get the recommended amounts of selenium and lycopene from foods rather than supplements. A general, healthful eating pattern contains both selenium and lycopene which are naturally available in a variety of foods. Eating plentiful vegetables, fruits, beans, whole grains, nuts and seeds contributes to overall health, including reducing risk of many types of cancer.
No Magic Bullet
Christopher R. Mohr, PhD, RD, is co-owner of Mohr Results, Inc. in Louisville, KY.
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Questions To Ask The Doctor
- What treatment do you think is best for me?
- Whats the goal of this treatment? Do you think it could cure the cancer?
- Will treatment include surgery? If so, who will do the surgery?
- What will the surgery be like?
- Will I need other types of treatment, too?
- Whats the goal of these treatments?
- What side effects could I have from these treatments?
- What can I do about side effects that I might have?
- Is there a clinical trial that might be right for me?
- What about special vitamins or diets that friends tell me about? How will I know if they are safe?
- How soon do I need to start treatment?
- What should I do to be ready for treatment?
- Is there anything I can do to help the treatment work better?
- Whats the next step?
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What You Can Do Now
Research supports incorporating turmeric and its extract, curcumin, into your treatment plan. The spice has been shown to reduce the spread of cancer, and even prevent precancerous cells from becoming tumorous. If you plan to add the spice to your regimen, remember the following:
- The recommended dose is 1/2 teaspoon per day.
- You may experience side effects if you consume turmeric in larger amounts.
- You shouldnt use the spice if you have certain conditions or take certain medications.
You should speak with your doctor about how often and how much turmeric to use. Although turmeric may have many benefits, no evidence suggests using the spice as a standalone treatment option.
The Grade Group And Psa Level Are Used To Stage Prostate Cancer
The stage of the cancer is based on the results of the staging and diagnostic tests, including the prostate-specific antigen test and the Grade Group. The tissue samples removed during the biopsy are used to find out the Gleason score. The Gleason score ranges from 2 to 10 and describes how different the cancer cells look from normal cells under a microscope and how likely it is that the tumor will spread. The lower the number, the more cancer cells look like normal cells and are likely to grow and spread slowly.
The Grade Group depends on the Gleason score. See the General Information section for more information about the Gleason score.
- Grade Group 1 is a Gleason score of 6 or less.
- Grade Group 2 or 3 is a Gleason score of 7.
- Grade Group 4 is a Gleason score 8.
- Grade Group 5 is a Gleason score of 9 or 10.
The PSA test measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a substance made by the prostate that may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men who have prostate cancer.
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How Can I Reduce The Risk Of Getting Prostate Cancer
You may help to reduce your risk and look after your health generally by:
Maintaining a healthy weight by combining a balanced, low fat diet with regular physical activity.
Doing regular exercise Try to do at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity five times or more a week. The more active you are, the more you can reduce the risk.