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How Is Prostate Cancer Causes

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Treatments For Prostate Cancer

What Causes Prostate Cancer? – The Nebraska Medical Center

There are a number of treatments available for Prostate cancer depending upon the depth of the issue you are suffering from. Thus, you should consult a doctor before going under any of them. However, some of the common treatments for Prostrate cancer are as follows-

  • Observation or Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer.
  • Radiation therapy
  • Who Are At The Risk Of Prostate Cancer

    There are some of the characteristics which may make prostate cancer more vulnerable in your body. The factors are as follows-

  • Age- Men with age are at more risk of prostate cancer thus men above 50 years are at the most risk of prostate cancer.
  • Race- Although, there is no scientific reason determined to it yet. But the people who are Black are at a higher risk of Prostate cancer. As it is a very common problem among black people.
  • Obesity- If you are overweight you are at much more risk of prostate cancer than people who have a normal weight. Also, the cancer is also at a risk to come back into your body after the initial treatment.
  • Family history- The people whose blood relatives such as siblings or parents have a history of prostate cancer are at high risk. Also, the people in which the problem of breast cancer is propellant can be at a higher risk of prostate cancer.
  • Prostate Cancer Causes Symptoms And Treatments

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    What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

    Prostate cancer usually doesnt cause symptoms in its early stages. In fact, most men dont know they have prostate cancer until it is found during a regular medical exam. When unusual symptoms are noticed, theyre most often problems with urinating. But these same symptoms can also be caused by an enlarged prostate, so its important to talk with your doctor.

    Typically, noticeable symptoms of prostate cancer dont occur until the cancer has begun to spread beyond the prostate, or its metastasized to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body. At this point, prostate cancer signs and symptoms can include:

    • Not being able to urinate at all
    • Having a hard time starting or stopping the flow of urine
    • Having to urinate often, especially at night
    • Having pain or burning during urination
    • You have difficulty having an erection
    • You have blood in your urine or semen
    • You have deep and frequent pain in your lower back, belly, hip or pelvis

    Anytime you experience unusual symptoms especially any of the symptoms mentioned above make an appointment with your family doctor or urologist. They can talk with you about your symptoms, do a physical exam if necessary and work with you to create a treatment plan, if necessary.

    What Causes Prostate Cancer

    Prostate Conditions: What You Need to Be Aware Of

    Researchers do not know exactly what causes prostate cancer. But they have found some risk factors and are trying to learn just how these factors might cause prostate cells to become cancer cells.

    On a basic level, prostate cancer is caused by changes in the DNA of a normal prostate cell. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes, which control how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we look.

    Some genes control when our cells grow, divide into new cells, and die:

    • Certain genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes.
    • Genes that normally keep cell growth under control, repair mistakes in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.

    Cancer can be caused by DNA mutations that keep oncogenes turned on, or that turn off tumor suppressor genes. These types of gene changes can lead to cells growing out of control.

    DNA changes can either be inherited from a parent or can be acquired during a persons lifetime.

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    Ask Your Doctor About Solutions

    Patients should not be shy about discussing intimacy issues with their doctor. He or she may be able to prescribe medications to help. Certain medicationssuch as sildenafil , tadalafil or vardenafil are typically tried first. But these drugs may not help men achieve an erection if the nerves responsible are not healthy. In fact, the medications only work for a small percentage of men in the first few months after surgery, according to a 2017 study published in the International Journal of Sexual Health.

    Besides oral medications for erectile dysfunction, there are other options available to men with ED after prostate cancer treatment, says Dr. Shelfo. These include penile injection therapy, which involves injecting a small amount of medication directly into the base of the penis. That has helped many men achieve erections. Another option is an intraurethral suppository of medication, an external vacuum erection device, or surgery may be performed to implant a penile prosthesis.

    While regaining erectile function is not possible for all men treated for prostate cancer, it is important to remember that an erection is just one aspect of a satisfying sex life. Intimacy is another major component, one that may become more important as sexual relationships become more difficult after cancer treatment.

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    How Common Is Prostate Cancer

    About one in nine men will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis during his lifetime. Prostate cancer is second only to skin cancer as the most common cancer affecting males. Close to 200,000 American men receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer every year. There are many successful treatments and some men dont need treatment at all. Still, approximately 33,000 men die from the disease every year.

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    Functional Outcomes And Quality Of Life After Treatment For Localized Prostate Cancer

    At 15 years after treatment of localized prostate cancer diagnosed in 1994-1995, declines in urinary, sexual, and bowel function were common. These functional declines in quality of life occur to a significantly greater extent among those that undergo treatment for prostate cancer as compared to a normative aging population without a diagnosis of prostate cancer, and symptom distress is more common among men with prostate cancer that are treated compared to those not treated. In a contemporary study of quality of life after treatment for localized prostate cancer, the authors reported that a substantial proportion of men did not return to baseline function in the domains of bowel, sexual, and urinary function that changes in quality of life domains were treatment specific and that patient and partner outcome satisfaction were closely associated with changes in quality of life after treatment. Thus, treatment for prostate cancer commonly results in quality of life changes that affect both the patient and his partner.

    What Are The Early Warning Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

    What Causes Prostate Cancer?

    Most men with prostate cancer have no symptoms.

    One should go to the nearest hospital emergency department without delay if any of the following symptoms occur:

    • Urinary tract infection : Burning pain on urination, urgency, or frequent urination, especially with fever.
    • Bladder obstruction: Not urinating or urinating very little despite drinking enough fluid producing little urine despite straining pain due to a full bladder.
    • Acute kidney failure: Not urinating or urinating little, with little discomfort, despite drinking enough fluid.
    • Deep bone pain, especially in the back, hips, or thighs, or bone fracture: Possible sign of advanced prostate cancer that has spread to the bone.
    • Spinal cord compression: This occurs when the cancer has spread to vertebrae of the spine and tailbone region. The weakened vertebrae can collapse on the spinal cord. Typical symptoms that might signal acute spinal cord compression include weakness in the legs and difficulty walking, increased difficulty urinating, difficulty controlling the bladder or bowels, and decreased sensation, numbness, or tingling in the groin or legs. These are often preceded by a persistent new central pain in the back lasting a few days or weeks. This condition is a true emergency and requires immediate evaluation in the nearest hospital emergency department. Failure to be treated immediately can result in permanent spinal cord damage with paralysis.

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    Treatments To Help Manage Symptoms

    Advanced prostate cancer can cause symptoms, such as bone pain. Speak to your doctor or nurse if you have symptoms there are treatments available to help manage them. The treatments above may help to delay or relieve some symptoms. There are also specific treatments to help manage symptoms you may hear these called palliative treatments. They include:

    This is the team of health professionals involved in your care. It is likely to include:

    • a specialist nurse
    • a radiologist
    • other health professionals, such as a dietitian or physiotherapist.

    Your MDT will meet to discuss your diagnosis and treatment options. You might not meet all the health professionals straight away.

    Your main point of contact might be called your key worker. This is usually your clinical nurse specialist , but might be someone else. The key worker will co-ordinate your care and help you get information and support. You may also have close contact with your GP and the practice nurses at your GP surgery.

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    Pain In The Back Or Hips

    Many times, prostate cancer pain occurs around the lower spinal cord and hips. This a result of the prostate being in close proximity to these regions.

    Cancer in the hips will cause bones to become brittle and weak. The result is consistent soreness, especially when bending over or exercising.

    Prostate cancer can also put pressure on the spine. The compression of the nerves causes a dull pain that can become stabbing as the cancer grows.

    If youve been experiencing severe pain in the back or hips even without engaging in rigorous activities during the day, its best if you get yourself checked. Aside from being one of the most common signs of prostate cancer, severe pain in the back and hips can take a toll on your daily activities, and prevent you from becoming productive during the day. Pain in the back and hips can also adversely affect your mobility, making it very challenging for you to move.

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    What Can You Do To Prevent Prostate Cancer

    The high lifetime risks of prostate cancer development, the morbidities associated with treatment of established prostate cancer, and the inability to eradicate life-threatening metastatic prostate cancer offer compelling reasons for prostate cancer prevention.

    However, because the cause of prostate cancer is uncertain, preventing prostate cancer may not be possible. Certain risk factors, such as age, race, sex, and family history, cannot be changed. Nevertheless, because diet and other lifestyle factors have been implicated as a potential cause, living a healthy lifestyle may afford some protection.

    • Proper nutrition, such as limiting intake of foods high in animal fats and increasing the amount of fruits, vegetables, and grains, may help reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
    • The following supplements should NOT be used to prevent prostate cancer:
    • Vitamin E

    5-alpha reductase Inhibitors :

    How Is Advanced Prostate Cancer Treated

    Symptoms of Prostate Cancer in Men Should Not Be Ignored ...

    The primary treatment of prostate cancer is prostatectomy, which is a surgery to remove a part of the prostate gland or the entire prostate gland in younger patients.

    Androgen deprivation therapy is usually the choice of treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Also known as hormone therapy, it is also used for treating patients who are unfit or unwilling to undergo surgery or/and radiation therapy.

    Examples of hormone therapies for advanced prostate cancer include

    • Abiraterone

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    History Of Prostate Cancer In The Era Of Prostate

    based screening for prostate cancer led to earlier detection of prostate cancer , and thus altered the course of the disease in the absence of treatment . Identifying the incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer increased with widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, as did the length of time that men live with their disease, as compared to the pre prostate-specific antigen era. The stage migration that occurred, with application of curative intervention at an earlier stage, undoubtedly led to a reduction inprostate cancer mortality. However, the extent to which this reduction was due to prostate-specific antigen based screening is debatable. Further, because prostate cancer progresses slowly and is found most often in older men with competing risks of mortality, the extent to which these changes in natural history have resulted in benefit and harm are also debatable.

    Prostate Cancer Risk Groups

    In addition to stage, doctors may use other prognostic factors to help plan the best treatment and predict how successful treatment will be. Examples of these include the National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group categories and the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment risk score from University of California, San Francisco.

    Information about the cancers stage and other prognostic factors will help the doctor recommend a specific treatment plan. The next section in this guide is Types of Treatment. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.

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    Gleason Score For Grading Prostate Cancer

    Prostate cancer is also given a grade called a Gleason score. This score is based on how much the cancer looks like healthy tissue when viewed under a microscope. Less aggressive tumors generally look more like healthy tissue. Tumors that are more aggressive are likely to grow and spread to other parts of the body. They look less like healthy tissue.

    The Gleason scoring system is the most common prostate cancer grading system used. The pathologist looks at how the cancer cells are arranged in the prostate and assigns a score on a scale of 3 to 5 from 2 different locations. Cancer cells that look similar to healthy cells receive a low score. Cancer cells that look less like healthy cells or look more aggressive receive a higher score. To assign the numbers, the pathologist determines the main pattern of cell growth, which is the area where the cancer is most obvious, and then looks for another area of growth. The doctor then gives each area a score from 3 to 5. The scores are added together to come up with an overall score between 6 and 10.

    Gleason scores of 5 or lower are not used. The lowest Gleason score is 6, which is a low-grade cancer. A Gleason score of 7 is a medium-grade cancer, and a score of 8, 9, or 10 is a high-grade cancer. A lower-grade cancer grows more slowly and is less likely to spread than a high-grade cancer.

    Prostate Cancer: Its Causes Symptoms And Prevention

    What are the Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer? | Cancer Research UK

    Cancer that occurs in the Prostate area of man is called prostate cancer. The prostate is a small area that looks like a walnut. If the problem is detected well in time, that is in the early stages then there are a lot of chances that it will be cured well and easily within time. It is also one of the most usual kinds of cancer which is seen in men. If the cancer is just limited to the prostrate and doesnt grow out of it then it is not a serious problem. These types of cancers generally need no, or very minimal treatment. While another type of cancer can grow very quickly in the body and needs attention immediately.

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    Lung Cancer Causes More Deaths Than Colon Prostate Ovarian And Breast Cancers Put Together

    Dr Viswesvaran Balasubramanian

    Dr Viswesvaran Balasubramanian, Consultant Interventional Pulmonology, and Sleep Medicine, Yashoda Hospitals Hyderabad.

    Lung cancer originates in the lungs. Smoking is considered as the possible reason for lung cancer. The nicotine and tar that are present in tobacco are considered to cause cancer. When one smoke, the nicotine and tar remain in the lungs as residue, over a period of time they trigger the formation of cancerous cells in the lungs. Lung cancer may occur even in people who have quit smoking.


    In the early stage of lung cancer, there are no symptoms. However, the symptoms of lung cancer turn to be visible only during the advanced stage. The symptoms of lung cancer include incessant cough which is also called as smokers cough, coughing blood, having shortness of breath and chest pain, wheezing and hoarseness and loss of weight, bone pain and headache.

    If any of these symptoms are seen, it is better to consult the doctor for expert advice and suggestions. The doctor poses questions about your smoking habit, duration and number of cigarettes per day. Also enquires about cough and other symptoms like chest pain, wheezing and loss of weight. From the information gathered, the doctor decides on the diagnosis and the course of medications for each patient.


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