Questions You May Want To Consider Asking Your Doctor Include:
- What type of prostate problem do I have?
- Is more testing needed and what will it tell me?
- If I decide on watchful waiting, what changes in my symptoms should I look for and how often should I be tested?
- What type of treatment do you recommend for my prostate problem?
- For men like me, has this treatment worked?
- How soon would I need to start treatment and how long would it last?
- Do I need medicine and how long would I need to take it before seeing improvement in my symptoms?
- What are the side effects of the medicine?
- Are there other medicines that could interfere with this medication?
- If I need surgery, what are the benefits and risks?
- Would I have any side effects from surgery that could affect my quality of life?
- Are these side effects temporary or permanent?
- How long is recovery time after surgery?
- Will I be able to fully return to normal?
- How will this affect my sex life?
- How often should I visit the doctor to monitor my condition?
Neoplasm Of Breast Prostate Colon Skin
Learn all about neoplasm of breast, prostate, colon and skin. A tumor is an abnormal growth of cells that serves no purpose. A benign tumor is not a malignant tumor, which is cancer. It does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body the way cancer can. In most cases, the outlook with benign tumors is very good. But benign tumors can be serious if they press on vital structures such as blood vessels or nerves.
Tumors are of two types, benign or malignant. A benign tumor is not considered cancer. It is slow growing, does not spread or invade surrounding tissue, and once it is removed, doesnt usually recur. A malignant tumor, on the other hand, is cancer. It invades surrounding tissue and spreads to other parts of the body. If the cancer cells have spread to the surrounding tissues, even after the malignant tumor is removed, it generally recurs.
An abnormal tissue that grows by cellular proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease is called a neoplasm. Neoplasms show partial or complete lack of structural organization and functional coordination with the normal tissue, and usually form a distinct mass of tissue that may be either benign or malignant .
Screening For Prostate Cancer
There are no tests available with sufficient accuracy to screen populations of men for early signs of prostate cancer.;However, early detection and treatment can significantly improve prostate cancer survival.
The test most commonly used to aid early detection of prostate cancer is the prostate specific antigen blood test. This is not a diagnostic test as it can only indicate changes in the prostate. If you are concerned about prostate cancer you should talk to your doctor and make an informed choice about whether to have one of the tests designed to find early signs of prostate cancer, in view of the potential risks and benefits.
There are no proven measures to prevent prostate cancer.
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What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
If you have prostate cancer, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:
- Why did I get prostate cancer?
- What is my Gleason score? What is my Grade Group? What do these numbers mean for me?
- Has the cancer spread outside of the prostate gland?
- What is the best treatment for the stage of prostate cancer I have?
- If I choose active surveillance, what can I expect? What signs of cancer should I look out for?
- What are the treatment risks and side effects?
- Is my family at risk for developing prostate cancer? If so, should we get genetic tests?
- Am I at risk for other types of cancer?
- What type of follow-up care do I need after treatment?
- Should I look out for signs of complications?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Prostate cancer is a common cancer that affects males. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and remain in the prostate gland. For a small number, the disease can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body. Men with slow-growing prostate cancers may choose active surveillance. With this approach, you can postpone, and sometimes completely forego, treatments. Your healthcare provider can discuss the best treatment option for you based on your Gleason score and Group Grade.
What Is A Neoplasm Or Tumor
The millions of cells within our bodies go through a life cycle. They reproduce and replenish themselves as old ones die or become defective, usually without issue.;
But sometimes things dont go perfectly. Instead of eliminating old cells or cells that have sustained damage to their genes , these flawed cells may start dividing rapidly and pass along abnormal copies of themselves, over and over again. Eventually this forms a mass or tumor that can be benign or malignant. ;
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How Prostate Cancer Spreads
Cancer cells sometimes break away from the original tumor and go to a blood or lymph vessel. Once there, they move through your body. The cells stop in capillaries — tiny blood vessels — at some distant location.
The cells then break through the wall of the blood vessel and attach to whatever tissue they find. They multiply and grow new blood vessels to bring nutrients to the new tumor. Prostate cancer prefers to grow in specific areas, such as lymph nodes or in the ribs, pelvic bones, and spine.
Most break-away cancer cells form new tumors. Many others don’t survive in the bloodstream. Some die at the site of the new tissue. Others may lie inactive for years or never become active.
How Is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treated
Treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia may include
- lifestyle changes
- minimally invasive procedures
A health care provider treats benign prostatic hyperplasia based on the severity of symptoms, how much the symptoms affect a mans daily life, and a mans preferences.
Men may not need treatment for a mildly enlarged prostate unless their symptoms are bothersome and affecting their quality of life. In these cases, instead of treatment, a urologist may recommend regular checkups. If benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms become bothersome or present a health risk, a urologist most often recommends treatment.
Neoplasm Of Uncertain Behavior Of Skin
Neoplasm of uncertain behavior is a term used by Dr. Chris Rouse when he is not sure what the spot is on the skin but is concerned it could be skin cancer. Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer. Dr. Rouse is looking for pimples that will not go away, especially after 3 months. Another common type of skin cancer is Squamous Cell Carcinoma. For this type of skin cancer, Dr. Rouse is also looking for pink or red warts, especially in adults.
Neoplasm of uncertain behavior and these types of skin cancers are much less likely than melanoma to go inside the body and hurt you, but they can still grow very large and can cause internal spread if left alone too long.; To learn about more skin cancer services offered at Northland Dermatology be sure to visit our pages about Pre-cancers and Mole Removal.
What Is Neoplasm Definition
The term neoplasm is derived from a combination of the Greek words neo meaning new and plasma meaning formation. The term neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of tissue caused by the rapid division of cells that have undergone some form of mutation. Neoplasia refers to various types of growths including non-cancerous or benign tumors, precancerous growths, carcinoma in situ and malignant or cancerous tumors.
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What Are Prostate Cancer Treatment Side Effects
Some prostate cancer treatments can affect the bladder, erectile nerves and sphincter muscle, which controls urination. Potential problems include:
- Incontinence: Some men experience urinary incontinence. You may leak urine when you cough or laugh, or you may feel an urgent need to use the bathroom even when your bladder isnt full. This problem can improve over the first six to 12 months without treatment.
- Erectile dysfunction : Surgery, radiation and other treatments can damage the erectile nerves and affect your ability to get or maintain an erection. Some men regain erectile function within a year or two . In the meantime, medications like sildenafil or tadalafil can help by increasing blood flow to the penis.
- Infertility: Treatments can affect your ability to produce or ejaculate sperm, resulting in male infertility. If you think you might want children in the future, you can preserve sperm in a sperm bank before you start treatments. After treatments, you may undergo sperm extraction. This procedure involves removing sperm directly from testicular tissue and implanting it into a womans uterus.
Chapter 111neoplasms Of The Prostate
William K. Oh, MD, Mark Hurwitz, MD, Anthony V. D’Amico, MD, Jerome P. Richie, MD, and Philip W. Kantoff, MD.
Cancer of the prostate is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in men in the United States, after skin cancer. Many controversies exist regarding the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer, especially in the areas of screening and the choice of therapy once a diagnosis is made. The extraordinary biologic heterogeneity that characterizes this disease presents issues unique to the management of prostate cancer. Thus, one patient may have a low-grade cancer diagnosed late in life and unlikely to have any impact on the quality or length of his life, whereas a younger man with a high-grade lesion may present with advanced disease and die of progressive disease within 5 years. Distinguishing between such patients remains a high priority for continued research. In addition, new insights into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer are actively being sought, which may ultimately lead to better therapies and perhaps even strategies for prevention.
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What Is My Outlook
Many men will want to know how successful their treatment is likely to be. This is sometimes called your outlook or prognosis. No one can tell you exactly what will happen, as it will depend on many things, such as the stage of your prostate cancer and how quickly it might grow, your age, and any other health problems. Speak to your doctor about your own situation.
Most localised prostate cancer is slow-growing and may not need treatment or shorten a mans life. For many men who have treatment for localised prostate cancer, the treatment will get rid of the cancer. For some men, treatment may be less successful and the cancer may come back. If this happens, you might need further treatment.
For more information about the outlook for men with prostate cancer, visit;Cancer Research UK. The figures they provide are a general guide and they cannot tell you exactly what will happen to you. Speak to your doctor or nurse about your own situation.
Malignant And Benign Neoplasm
A malignant, or cancerous, tumor, on the other hand, is innately dangerous because its cells can divide uncontrollably and produce virtually immortal daughter cells. Malignant tumor cells can penetrate and destroy adjacent tissue, and can metastasize, or travel through the circulation to distant parts of the body and form new tumors. If the cells are not cancerous, the tumor is benign. It wont invade nearby tissues or spread to other areas of the body . A benign tumor is less worrisome unless it is pressing on nearby tissues, nerves, or blood vessels and causing damage. Fibroids in the uterus or lipomas are examples of benign tumors.
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What Are My Treatment Options
Most localised prostate cancer often grows slowly and might not need treatment. You may be able to have your cancer monitored with regular check-ups instead. If you decide to have treatment, it will usually aim to get rid of the cancer.
The two ways of monitoring localised prostate cancer are:
Your doctor or nurse will talk you through your treatment options and help you choose the right type of monitoring or treatment for you. You might not be able to have all of the treatments listed. Theres no overall best treatment for localised prostate cancer, and each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. Read more about;choosing a treatment.
What Is Unique About Yale Medicines Approach To Evaluating And Treating Tumors
At Yale Medicine, our radiologists and pathologists specialize in cancer types so that you have the most experienced, highly skilled eye looking at your diagnostic imaging or biopsy.;;
If a neoplasm is determined to be cancerous, Yale Medicine doctors hold weekly meetings called tumor boards where 30 specialists review active cases and determine the most effective treatment option for each patient. In many cases, tumors are evaluated for the specific gene mutations that can make them unique and this allows for targeted therapies that are adjusted according to the best chance of response. This is the principle of precision medicine that is commonly applied at Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital.
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Personal And Family Medical History
Taking a personal and family medical history is one of the first things a health care provider may do to help diagnose benign prostatic hyperplasia. A health care provider may ask a man
- what symptoms are present
- when the symptoms began and how often they occur
- whether he has a history of recurrent UTIs
- what medications he takes, both prescription and over the counter
- how much liquid he typically drinks each day
- whether he consumes caffeine and alcohol
- about his general medical history, including any significant illnesses or surgeries
Pathology: Examining Tissue For Signs Of Cancer
When a polyp or other area of suspicious tissue is seen during a cancer screening test, the doctor may take a tissue sample called a biopsy right away, depending on the bodily location being examined, or at a later date, if doing so requires a second procedure. A pathologist then examines the tissue under a microscope to look for cancerous cells.
To better visualize the various parts of the tissue, the pathologist often stains it, sometimes with multiple dyes.
The pathologist looks for abnormalities in the shape and size of cells, shape and size of cell nuclei, and distribution of the cells in the tissue, indicating cancer.
Once the pathologist has confirmed that a biopsy shows cancer, other lab tests may be done to help classify the cancer, which can in turn help to guide treatment.
While much of the work of examining tissue samples is still done by individuals looking through microscopes, advances in automated detection and classification of cancer cells promise faster diagnosis and treatment.
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What Is Screening For Prostate Cancer
Some men get a PSA test to screen for prostate cancer. Talk to your doctor, learn what is involved, and decide if a PSA test is right for you.
Cancer screeningexternal icon means looking for cancer before it causes symptoms. The goal of screening for prostate cancer is to find cancers that may be at high risk for spreading if not treated, and to find them early before they spread.
There is no standard test to screen for prostate cancer. Two tests that are commonly used to screen for prostate cancer are described below.
What Is Prostate Cancer
Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer cells, and can then spread to other areas of the body. To learn more about cancer and how it starts and spreads, see What Is Cancer?
Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland start to grow out of control. The prostate is a gland found only in males. It makes some of the fluid that is part of semen.
The prostate is below the bladder and in front of the rectum . Just behind the prostate are glands called seminal vesicles that make most of the fluid for semen. The urethra, which is the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body through the penis, goes through the center of the prostate.
The size of the prostate can change as a man;ages. In younger men, it is about the size of a walnut, but it can be much larger in older men.
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How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed
Screenings are the most effective way to catch prostate cancer early. If you are at average cancer risk, youll probably have your first prostate screening at age 55. Your healthcare provider may start testing earlier if you have a family history of the disease or are Black. Screening is generally stopped after age 70, but may be continued in certain circumstances.
Screening tests for prostate cancer include:
- Digital rectal exam: Your provider inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the prostate gland, which sits in front of the rectum. Bumps or hard areas could indicate cancer.
- Prostate-specific antigen blood test: The prostate gland makes a protein called protein-specific antigen . Elevated PSA levels may indicate cancer. Levels also rise if you have BPH or prostatitis.
- Biopsy: A needle biopsy to sample tissue for cancer cells is the only sure way to diagnose prostate cancer. During an MRI-guided prostate biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging technology provides detailed images of the prostate.